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1.
Technol Health Care ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is usually difficult and risky. With limited sources of cadaveric skulls, traditional methods of using virtual images to study the surgery are difficult for neurosurgeons and students because the surgery requires spatial imagination and good understanding of the patient's conditions as well as practical experience. The three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has played an important role in clinical medicine due to its advantages of low cost, high-efficiency and customization. OBJECTIVE: CT images are used as the source data of 3D printing. The image obtained directly from the CT machine has a limited accuracy, which cannot be printed without processing. Some commercial platforms can help build an accurate model but the cost and customization are not satisfactory. In this case, a tactile, precise and low-cost 3D model is highly desirable. METHODS: Five kinds of computer software are used in the manufacturing of medical 3D models and the processing procedure is easily understood and operated. RESULTS: This study proposes a practical and cost-effective method to obtain the corrected digital model and produce the 3D printed skull with complete structures of nasal cavity, sellar region and different levels of pituitary tumors. The model is used for the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery preparation. CONCLUSION: The printed medical model can directly help neurosurgeons and medical students to practice their surgery skills on both general and special cases with customized structures and different levels of tumor.

2.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126833, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387724

RESUMO

Understanding the transformation pattern of nitrogen (N) pollutants and its pathways in the prechlorinated raw water distribution system (PRWDS) is vital for controlling the stablitiy and safety of raw water qulity. This study investigated the N transformation, N functional genes and their correlations to find the N transformation pathways along the PRWDS. Results suggested that simultaneous nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification (SNAD) contribute to the N transformationin the PRWDS. Along the pipeline, anammox 16S rRNA (9.18 × 107-8.41 × 108 copies/g), limited by prechlorination, was the most abundant N functional genes and anammox process was the main pathway of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N). The decreasing NH4+-N was connected with Planctomycetes, Nitrospira and abundance of nxrA attributing to the joint effort of anammox and declined nitrification. The concentration of nitrate (NO3--N) increasing at first and then decreasing, was correlated positively with Sphingomonas. because of the declined nitritication and increased denitrification. Besides, the NO3--N→NO2--N process was considered to be primary NO3--N transformation pathways. Increases in the concentration of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and nitrite (NO2--N) observed in the PRWDS had positive correlation with relative abundance of Pseudomonas. We believe that prechlorination shaped the particular bacterialcharacteristics in biofilms and influenced the N transformation pathways indirectly, resulting in the varying N transformation rules in PRWDSs. Moreover, systematic and extended research is particularly vital for determining the effects of changes in source water quality and environmental conditions on bacterial community structure and N conversion along PRWDSs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394704

RESUMO

The abnormal angiogenesis and insufficient oxygen supply in solid tumors lead to intratumoral hypoxia, which severely limits the efficacy of traditional photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, a multifunctional nanoplatform (ZDZP@PP) based on a zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) core as a hydrogen peroxide catalyst, a zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) shell with a pH-responsive property, and a polydopamine-poly(ethylene glycol) (PDA-PEG) layer for improving the biocompatibility is fabricated for not only relieving tumor hypoxia but also enhancing the efficacy of combination chemo-photodynamic therapy. The chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) and photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) are encapsulated in different layers independently; thus, a unique two-stage stepwise release becomes possible. Moreover, the nanoplatform can effectively decompose hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen and thus relieve tumor hypoxia, which further facilitates the production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PpIX under laser irradiation. Both in vitro and in vivo experimental results confirm that the combination chemo-photodynamic therapy with the ZDZP@PP nanoplatform can provide more effective cancer treatment than chemotherapy or PDT alone. Consequently, the oxygen self-sufficient multifunctional nanoplatform holds promising potential to overcome hypoxia and treat solid tumors in the future.

4.
Chemistry ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372418

RESUMO

A series of donor/acceptor chromophores 1d-3d containing two types of photoresponsive motifs, namely an electron-deficient BF2-chelated ketone fused with an electron-rich thiophene have been synthesized and their photochromic performance are investigated. The results reveal that simple variation of R substituents on the diaryl moiety allows one to control the intramolecular photocyclization mechanism with high photochemical selectivity, e.g., under ambient light, methyl-substituted 1d and 2d undergo 6π photocyclization, whereas ethyl-substituted 3d exclusively undergoes Norrish-Yang photocyclization. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of Norrish-Yang cyclization products reveals the formation of four pairs of conformational enantiomers differing in the dihedral angle between benzothiophene and the BF2 core. The UV-vis absorption spectra of 1d-3d cover a broad visible light region (380-572 nm), while theoretical calculations reveal that absorption in this region is dominated by the charge transfer (CT) transition from the thiophene-centered HOMO to the LUMO of the electron-deficient π-conjugated BF2-chelated unit. The spatial separation of the HOMO and LUMO of these dyes promotes triplet state generation and self-photosensitizes intramolecular photocyclization in the visible light region. Three-dimensional time-resolved and steady-state emission spectra of 3d show that the Norrish-Yang photocyclization takes place within milliseconds with excellent conversion efficiency (96%).

5.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354302

RESUMO

Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) can cause severe invasive infections in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. However, there is still lack of a consensus definition of hvKp. In this study, we solely focused on the clinical isolates cultured from subcutaneous drainage of community-acquired liver abscess cases, and an hvKp strain was defined on the basis of co-harboring virulence gene regulator of mucoid phenotype A (rmpA)/rmpA2, iucA, iroB, and peg-344. A total of 47 nonrepetitive hvKp isolates were collected from January 2015 to December 2017 in a tertiary teaching hospital in Shanghai, China. All isolates were susceptible to the commonly used antibiotics. Only one strain (RJ-Kp24) had the positive detection of blaCTX-M-14 and was resistant to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefepime. S1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and southern hybridization confirmed the presence of a roughly 90 kb blaCTX-M-14-carrying plasmid and a roughly 240 kb virulence plasmid. Further analysis revealed that ST23 (n = 17) sequence type and K1 (n = 20) and K2 (n = 9) serotypes were dominant in hvKp, while only 31.9% (15/47) and 46.8% (22/47) of hvKp isolates displayed hypermucoviscosity and resistance to serum killing, respectively. For further evaluation of the pathogenicity of hvKp, six representative strains were randomly selected. Three strains, RJ-Kp10, RJ-Kp28, and RJ-Kp31, displayed a remarkable resistance to serum killing and neutrophil phagocytosis. Mouse lethality assay revealed that these strains had the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 102-103 cell forming unit (CFU), while others had the LD50 of 104-105 CFU. These results demonstrated that strain virulence differed significantly within these defined hvKp. The convergence of multidrug resistance and enhanced virulence in K. pneumoniae has presented a major infection control challenge.

6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 84, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252770

RESUMO

Phytases are widely utilized in feed industry to increase the utilization of phosphorus, minerals, and amino acids for improvement of animal and human nutrition. At present, all known ß-propeller phytases (BPP) have been generated from bacteria, particularly Bacillus. In this work we report for the first time a new fungal-derived BPP phytase. We identified a phytase highly differentially expressed only in the parasitic stage of a nematophagous fungus, Arhtrobotrys oliogospora, during the development of the 3D traps. We found that this phytase was homologous to the known bacterial BPP phytase, thus we referred the new phytase to Aophytase. The heterologous expression of codon-optimized Aophytase gene in Pichia pastoris was successfully investigated to yield recombinant Aophytase (r-Aophytase) with high specific enzyme activity of 74.71 U/mg, much higher than those of recombinant BPP phytases derived bacteria. The kinetic parameters of the r-Aophytase, the optimum pH and temperature, as well as the effects of surfactant, EDTA and different ions on its enzyme activity were further investigated. The potential utilization of r-Aophytase in feed processing was finally explored. We found that the optimal pH value was about 7.5, and the optimal temperature was 50 °C.; r-Aophytase significantly increased the release of inorganic phosphorus from soybean meal, and improved the release of soluble minerals from the durum wheat flour and finger millet flour. The findings indicate its potential utilization in the feed processing to ameliorate nutritional value of cereals and animal feed in the future.

7.
J Dig Dis ; 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patients with malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) benefit from balloon dilation before the placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) for palliative biliary drainage. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with SEMS placement for palliative management of MBO were retrospectively included. Comparative analyses of serum bilirubin levels, post-procedural adverse events, stent patency time, stent dysfunction, and patient survival were performed between the dilation and non-dilation groups. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients underwent palliative endoscopic SEMS implantation for MBO from January 2014 to June 2018. Dilation significantly improved the percentage of serum bilirubin improvement (37.0% vs 14.3%, P = 0.001), with a decreasing trend in the incidence of post-procedural cholangitis (2.5% vs 7.8%, P = 0.075), while the rates of other complications such as pancreatitis and bleeding were not increased. The patency time of SEMS and patient survival did not significantly differ between patients with and without dilation. Patients had endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) but not dilation showed similar short-term outcomes as patients underwent dilation but without ENBD. CONCLUSIONS: Dilation with a small-caliber balloon catheter before the placement of SEMS is a safe and effective approach for MBO. Balloon dilation may improve the short-term efficacy of SEMS placement, while long-term outcomes are not obviously affected. The short-term effect of stricture dilation may be achieved by ENBD. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 221(Supplement_2): S215-S219, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176796

RESUMO

Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from the same patient can lose carbapenem susceptibility during antimicrobial therapy, but little attention has been given to how this conversion takes place. In the current study, we retrospectively analyzed microbiological and clinical data from patients with enterobacterial infections at a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. After screening 4795 patients and 7120 Enterobacteriaceae isolates over the 3-year study period, we found the change from carbapenem susceptible to carbapenem resistant in 41 pairs of isolates, of which 35 pairs (85.4%) were K. pneumoniae and 25 (61.0%) were from the same anatomic sites. Thirty-six isolate pairs showed different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns between the carbapenem-susceptible and the corresponding resistant strain, and 5 pairs displayed identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Thirty-three (91.7%) of the 36 pairs of Enterobacteriaceae isolates were carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae with blaKPC-2, and 28 pairs (90.3%) of K. pneumoniae isolates had different sequence types (STs), with ST11 the most common ST found in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. Forty of the 41 patients had received antimicrobial therapy such as carbapenems, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones, before the isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. These results demonstrated that strain replacement is the main cause of emerging carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae during hospitalization. The loss of carbapenem susceptibility was not mainly due to in vivo development of carbapenem resistance.

9.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(6): e259-e269, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are frequent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have important prognostic and therapeutic implications. FLT3 aberrations have been detected in a smaller fraction of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and their prognostic value is not well established. We therefore assessed the FLT3 mutation in Chinese adolescent and adult ALL patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have examined a cohort of 117 Chinese de novo adolescent and adult ALL patients enrolled between June 2016 and June 2017 from the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Prognostic factors for the ALL patient population were estimated by the Cox regression method. FLT3 mutation was detected by PCR, and its clinical effect was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves. Differences in FLT3 mutation rate between subgroups were tested by chi-square test. RESULTS: FLT3 mutations accounted for 6.8% (8/117) in our cohort, including 3 internal tandem duplications (2.6%) and 5 tyrosine kinase domains (4.3%, 3 D835Y mutations, 1 M664I mutation, and 1 I867S mutation), which had no clinical significance on either overall survival (OS) or event-free survival. Alterations in FLT3 occurred more often in early thymic precursor (ETP)-ALL compared to non-ETP T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P = .028). However, the age at onset (P = .004), initial platelet counts (P = .018), and transplantation status (P = .007) were independent prognostic factors of OS for ALL in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The FLT3 mutation was not common in Chinese ALL patients. Age at onset, platelet counts, and transplantation status rather than the presence of the FLT3 mutation were independent prognostic variables for ALL on OS in our cohort. Despite our small sample size, ETP-ALL may indicate a comparable higher FLT3-mutant rate. Because ETP-ALL has been identified as high-risk subgroup, these data warrant clinical studies with the implementation of FLT3 inhibitors in addition to early allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for FLT3-mutant ETP-ALL.

10.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(5): 855-861, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) during the perioperative period. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients with epithelial ovarian cancer treated in our hospital, between January 2017 and July 2019, and a comprehensive review of the medical documentation was performed to collect relevant data. We then analyzed the related factors of the thrombosis in the EOC patients, using univariate and multivariate analysis to identify significant risk factors for VTE, and bootstrap resampling method was used to verify the multivariate analysis results. The ROC curve methods were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value for the prediction of VTE. RESULTS: We analyzed 233 cases of patients with EOC, of whom the incidence of VTE was 11.16%. According to multivariate and 5000 bootstrap samples analysis, preoperative D-dimer levels (>4.215 µg/ml, p = 0.041 and p = 0.032) and comorbid of cerebral infarction (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) had statistical significance in predicting VTE events; bootstrap analysis also found the Alb, CA125, OCCC had statistical significance. While According to multivariate and 5000 bootstrap samples analysis, age (>50.5 years old, p = 0.019 and p = 0.002) and nonoptimal debulking surgery (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002) showed significance in predicting VTE after surgery; bootstrap analysis also found the D-dimer levels (>4.215 µg/ml) and tuberculosis had statistical significance. CONCLUSION: More effective thromboprophylaxis and pre-test assessment is necessary for EOC patients. For prediction VTE events, D-dimer levels (>4.215 µg/ml) were the independent predictors before operation. Age and debulking surgery were the independent predictors post operation.

11.
Mar Genomics ; : 100752, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014385

RESUMO

To clarify evolutionary characteristics, phylogenetic relationships as well as species identification of C. okamurae, we determined the cpDNA sequence of Caulerpa okamurae using de novo sequencing in the present study. The cpDNA of C. okamurae was 148,274 bp in length, and it lacked the inverted repeat commonly found in vascular green plants. The cpDNA of C. okamurae was highly compact with a gene density of 71.7%. Moreover, it was an AT-rich genome (65.5%) consisting 76 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 27 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 32 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and six introns. Additionally, the six introns were annotated in six genes as follows: psbA, rpoB, ftsH, psbD, atpF and cysA. The overall base composition of its cpDNA was 65.46% for AT. A total of 56 genes were encoded on the light strand, while all the other 50 chloroplast genes were encoded on the heavy strand. All of the PCGs had ATG as their start codon and employed TAA, TGA or TAG as their termination codon. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the complete cpDNA sequence of C. okamurae fell in the Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae, Bryopsidales, and Caulerpaceae and more resembled the cpDNAs of C. racemosa, C. cliftonii voucher and Tydemania expeditionis. Taken together, our data offered useful information for the studies of C.okamurae on evolutionary characteristics, phylogenetic relationships as well as species identification.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045988

RESUMO

The reaction between organic matter and disinfectants leads to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. With the improvement of detection technology and in-depth research, more than 1000 kinds of DBPs have been detected in drinking water. Nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) are more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the regulated DBPs. The main methods are enhanced coagulation, pretreatment, and depth technologies which based are on conventional technology. Amino acids (AAs) are widely found in surface waters and play an important role by providing precursors from which toxic nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) are generated in chlorinated drinking water. The formation of N-DBPs, including dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), was investigated by analyzing chlorinated water using ozone (OZ), permanganate (PM), and ferrate (Fe(VI)) pre-oxidation processes. This paper has considered the control of pre-oxidation over N-DBPs formation of AAs, OZ, PM, and Fe(VI) pre-oxidation reduced the haloacetonitrile formation in the downstream chlorination. PM pre-oxidation decreased the TCNM formation during the subsequent chlorination, while Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had no significant influence on the TCNM formation, and OZ pre-oxidation increased the formation. OZ pre-oxidation formed the lowest degree of bromine substitution during subsequent chlorination of aspartic acid in the presence of bromide. Among the three oxidants, PM pre-oxidation was expected to be the best choice for reducing the estimated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the sum of the measured haloacetonitriles (HANs) and TCNM without bromide. Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had the best performance in the presence of bromide.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019305

RESUMO

The heterogeneous Fenton-like process is regarded as a promising approach to produce reactive oxygen species for water purification and environmental remediation. Here, we report a simple and rational strategy for the design of an efficient catalyst by reducing the dimensionality instead of changing the composition or structure. Based on theoretical and experimental evidence, considerable active sites were exposed on the low-dimensional Ti3C2Tx monolayer surface and showed outstanding reactivity toward peroxymonosulfate activation, which was mainly because of the superior compatibility between the highest occupied molecular orbital of catalysts and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of Oxone. Stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy innovatively provided visual insights into the spatiotemporal heterogeneous activation process and revealed that the unilaminar Ti3C2Tx nanosheet exhibited preferable reaction dynamics relative to its inert bulk counterpart, with an aqueous 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation rate ∼376 times higher than that when using bulk Ti3C2Tx as the activator.

14.
Org Lett ; 22(3): 944-949, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971809

RESUMO

We have presented a unique example of dehydrogenative acylation of enamides with aldehydes enabled by an earth-abundant iron catalyst. The protocol provides the straightforward access to valuable ß-ketoenamides with ample substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance. Notably, distinct C-H acylation of enamide rather than at N-H moiety site occurs with absolute Z-selectivity was observed. Late-stage modifications of complex molecules and versatile synthetic utility of ß-ketoenamides further highlight the practicability of this transformation.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1484-1492, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927953

RESUMO

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a unique challenge in prechlorinated raw water distribution systems (PRWDSs) because of its contribution to the formation of harmful nitrogen-disinfection byproducts, influence upon biogeochemical processes, and unclear molecular characteristics. Here, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in combination with high-throughput sequencing was applied to elucidate the molecular changes of DON and biofilm microbial communities in a PRWDS in Yixing, China. Our study revealed that dynamic characteristics of DON are significantly correlated with the biofilm. The accumulation of refractory lignin-like compounds and CnHmOpN1 contributes to the higher recalcitrance molecular characteristics of DON in the effluent associated with Alphaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes. Additionally, with the help of prechlorination, the biofilm may change the DON characteristics and lead to higher oxygenation, higher m/z, and lower saturation during transportation. Despite the promotion of CnHmOpN1 and CnHmOpN3 at the early stage, we suggest that appropriate concentration of chlorine can add to the front end of raw water distribution pipes. Prechlorination may control the nitrification process and stabilize the rapid growth of diversity and concentration of low molecular weight DON, especially the refractory CnHmOpN1 in the effluent, which may help to improve treatment efficiency of drinking water treatment plants.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , China , Nitrogênio , Água
16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(2): 334-342, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy with an unclear etiology. Various liver disorders are associated with an altered microbiome. However, gut microbiome in BA remains unknown. Here, we performed a case-control study to investigate the gut microbiota in BA. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was first conducted for 34 BA patients and 34 healthy controls. Then we investigated the shift in gut microbiota 2 weeks after the Kasai procedure in 16 BA patients. Gut microbiome was initially analyzed using 16S ribosome RNA gene sequencing and further validated by metagenomic sequencing. Fecal bile acids were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, BA showed lower diversity and significant structural segregation in the microbiome. At phylum level, Proteobacteria numbers increased, whereas those of Bacteroidetes decreased in BA. At genus level, several potential pathogens such as Streptococcus and Klebsiella thrived in BA, while numbers for Bifidobacterium and several butyrate-producing bacteria declined. The microbiome was also disturbed after the Kasai procedure. Operational taxonomic units responding to BA showed significant correlation with liver function. Furthermore, the abundance ratio of Streptococcus/Bacteroides showed great promise in distinguishing BA from healthy controls. Intestinal bile acids were dramatically decreased in BA, and Clostridium XIVa positively correlated with the ratio of primary/secondary bile acids. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbial dysbiosis, may be caused by decreased bile acids, was associated with liver function and had a good diagnostic potential for BA. Therefore, further exploration of gut microbiota may provide important insights into their potential diagnostic and therapeutic benefits.

17.
Oncogene ; 39(4): 905-921, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576015

RESUMO

The molecular basis underlying the aggressive nature and excessive proliferation of cervical squamous cancer cell remains unclear. ΔNp63α is the predominant isotype of p63 expressed in the epithelia and regulates epithelial cell differentiation. The pro-/anti-tumor role of ΔNp63α in different kinds of solid tumors remains controversial and the precise molecular mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, we uncovered the molecular functions of ΔNp63α in cervical squamous cell carcinoma to clarify its roles as a tumor suppressor. We demonstrated that ΔNp63α suppressed cell migration, invasiveness, and tumor growth in SiHa and ME-180 cells with both in vivo and in vitro assays. Mechanistic investigation via RNA-sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed that ΔNp63α exerted its antitumor capacity via regulating the expression of a cohort of cell junction genes. Further, we showed that ZNF385B and CLDN1 were two direct ΔNp63α targets with significant relevance to cervical squamous cell carcinoma examined in cell cultures, tumor xenografts, and clinic tumors. We also demonstrated that ΔNp63α downregulated NFATC1 to reduce cisplatin resistance. These findings shed new lights on functions of ΔNp63α in tumors and providing novel insights in targeted therapy of cervical cancers.

18.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 29(1): 127-144, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757309

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the leading cancers in the world. OSCC patients are managed with surgery and/or chemoradiation. Prognoses and survival rates are dismal, however, and have not improved for more than 20 years. Recently, the concept of precision medicine was introduced, and the introduction of targeted therapeutics demonstrated promising outcomes. This article reviews the current understanding of initiation, progression, and metastasis of OSCC from both genetic and epigenetic perspectives. In addition, the applications and integration of omics technologies in biomarker discovery and drug development for treating OSCC are reviewed.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121064, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499370

RESUMO

The development of non-cobalt-based heterogeneous catalysts with efficient catalytic activity, good stability and nontoxicity is very important for the application of peroxymonosulfate-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in water treatment. In this work, with two dimensional MXene as the catalyst substrate, a novel α-Fe2O3/MXene (FM) nanocomposite was fabricated through a facile solvothermal method. Systematic characterization demonstrated that the MXene substrate could facilitate the size reduction and good dispersion of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The FM nanocomposite achieved high efficiency and stability towards activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce free radicals for the degradation of salicylic acid (SA) in aqueous solution. The operating parameters, including catalyst dosage, PMS dosage, SA concentration and initial pH value, were evaluated and analysed. The co-existence of sulfate radicals (SO4-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and radical scavenger tests, while SO4-was identified as the main reactive species in the FM/PMS catalytic system. The possible mechanisms for the electron transfer and radical generation during the process of PMS activation by the FM nanocomposite are further investigated using XPS and in situ Raman analysis. The results provide an avenue for rationally constructing and developing alternative catalysts for the treatment of organics in wastewater.

20.
Commun Biol ; 2: 442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815197

RESUMO

Real-time monitoring of newly acidified organelles during autophagy in living cells is highly desirable for a better understanding of intracellular degradative processes. Herein, we describe a reaction-based boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye containing strongly electron-withdrawing diethyl 2-cyanoacrylate groups at the α-positions. The probe exhibits intense red fluorescence in acidic organelles or the acidified cytosol while exhibiting negligible fluorescence in other regions of the cell. The underlying mechanism is a nucleophilic reaction at the central meso-carbon of the indacene core, resulting in the loss of π-conjugation entailed by dramatic spectroscopic changes of more than 200 nm between its colorless, non-fluorescent leuco-BODIPY form and its red and brightly emitting form. The reversible transformation between red fluorescent BODIPY and leuco-BODIPY along with negligible cytotoxicity qualifies such dyes for rapid and direct intracellular lysosome imaging and cytosolic acidosis detection simultaneously without any washing step, enabling the real-time monitoring of newly acidified organelles during autophagy.

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