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1.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268674

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding RNAs. Recent research has proven that miRNAs play an essential role in the occurrence and development of ischemic stroke. Our previous studies confirmed that 20(R)-ginsenosideRg3 [20(R)-Rg3] exerts beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI), but its molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of 20(R)-Rg3 preconditioning to ameliorate CIRI injury in rats and to reveal its potential neuroprotective molecular mechanism. The results show that 20(R)-Rg3 alleviated neurobehavioral dysfunction in MCAO/R-treated rats. Among these mRNAs, 953 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and 2602 mRNAs were downregulated in the model group versus the sham group, whereas 437 mRNAs were significantly upregulated and 35 mRNAs were downregulated in the 20(R)-Rg3 group in contrast with those in the model group. Meanwhile, the expression profile of the miRNAs showed that a total of 283 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 142 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 141 miRNAs were downregulated in the model group compared with the sham group, whereas 34 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the 20(R)-Rg3 treatment group compared with the model group, with 28 miRNAs being significantly upregulated and six miRNAs being significantly downregulated. Furthermore, 415 (391 upregulated and 24 downregulated) differentially expressed mRNAs and 22 (17 upregulated and 5 downregulated) differentially expressed miRNAs were identified to be related to 20(R)-Rg3's neuroprotective effect on stroke recovery. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) results showed that 20(R)-Rg3 could modulate multiple signaling pathways related to these differential miRNAs, such as the cGMP-PKG, cAMP and MAPK signaling pathways. This study provides new insights into the protective mechanism of 20(R)-Rg3 against CIRI, and the mechanism may be partly associated with the regulation of brain miRNA expression and its target signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 604245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613479

RESUMO

Given its excellent performance against the pathogens, UV disinfection has been applied broadly in different fields. However, only limited studies have comprehensively investigated the response of bacteria surviving UV irradiation to the environmental antibiotic stress. Here, we investigated the antibiotic susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa suffering from the UV irradiation. Our results revealed that UV exposure may decrease the susceptibility to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and polymyxin B in the survival P. aeruginosa. Mechanistically, UV exposure causes oxidative stress in P. aeruginosa and consequently induces dysregulation of genes contributed to the related antibiotic resistance genes. These results revealed that the insufficient ultraviolet radiation dose may result in the decreased antibiotic susceptibility in the pathogens, thus posing potential threats to the environment and human health.

4.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(5): 1543-1553, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323753

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) is a chronic bone disease that affects individuals worldwide. Osteoporosis is primarily asymptomatic, and patients with OP suffer from pain, inconvenience, economic pressure and osteoporotic fracture (OPF). Osteoking, a Traditional Chinese Medicine compound that originates from the Yi ethnic group, has been used for a number of years to treat fractures. In our previous study, osteoking exhibited therapeutic effects on rats with OPF by promoting calcium deposition. Based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology analyses of a component­target­disease database, heat shock protein HSP 90­ß (HSP90­ß), also known as HSP90­ß, was identified to be a key target of osteoking in OP. High HSP90­ß expression levels were observed in osteoporotic rats and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) following osteoking treatment. After 12 weeks of administration in vivo, there was increased bone mineral density (BMD) (P<0.05), increased bone alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), and improved bone microstructure in the osteoking group compared with those of the negative control group. In vitro, increased calcium deposition in rBMSCs was observed after 4 weeks of osteoking treatment. These results suggest that the mechanisms of osteoking are closely associated with HSP90­ß and activate the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway, primarily through BMP­2. Osteoking treatment improves OP in rats by enhancing HSP90­ß expression.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
ISME J ; 14(7): 1847-1856, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327733

RESUMO

Chlorine disinfection to drinking water plays an important role in preventing and controlling waterborne disease outbreaks globally. Nevertheless, little is known about why it enriches the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteria after chlorination. Here, ARGs released from killed antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and culturable chlorine-injured bacteria produced in the chlorination process as the recipient, were investigated to determine their contribution to the horizontal transfer of ARGs during disinfection treatment. We discovered Escherichia coli, Salmonella aberdeen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis showed diverse resistance to sodium hypochlorite, and transferable RP4 could be released from killed sensitive donor consistently. Meanwhile, the survival of chlorine-tolerant injured bacteria with enhanced cell membrane permeabilisation and a strong oxidative stress-response demonstrated that a physiologically competent cell could be transferred by RP4 with an improved transformation frequency of up to 550 times compared with the corresponding untreated bacteria. Furthermore, the water quality factors involving chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), ammonium nitrogen and metal ions (Ca2+ and K+) could significantly promote above transformation frequency of released RP4 into injured E. faecalis. Our findings demonstrated that the chlorination process promoted the horizontal transfer of plasmids by natural transformation, which resulted in the exchange of ARGs across bacterial genera and the emergence of new ARB, as well as the transfer of chlorine-injured opportunistic pathogen from non-ARB to ARB. Considering that the transfer elements were quite resistant to degradation through disinfection, this situation poses a potential risk to public health.


Assuntos
Cloro , Desinfecção , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Cloro/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos
8.
Oncol Rep ; 42(5): 1957-1971, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432186

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor and patients with this disease tend to have poor clinical outcome. MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of a number of key pathways implicated in tumor pathogenesis. Recently, the expression of miR­378 was shown to be dysregulated in several different types of cancer, including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and oral carcinoma. Additional studies have demonstrated that miR­378 may serve as a potential therapeutic target against human breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms and potential targets of miR­378a­3p involved in GBM remain unknown. The aim of the present of was to determine the effects of miR­378a­3p and its potential targets. Tetraspanin 17 (TSPAN17) is involved in the neoplastic events in GBM and is a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins. The tetraspanins are involved in the regulation of cell growth, migration and invasion of several different types of cancer cell lines, and may potentially act as an oncogene associated with GBM pathology. The results of the present study showed that high miR­378a­3p and low TSPAN17 expression levels were associated with improved survival in patients with GBM. Additionally, high levels of TSPAN17 were linked to the poor prognosis of patients with GBM aged 50­60, larger tumor sizes (≥5 cm) and an advanced World Health Organization stage. TSPAN17 was identified and confirmed as a direct target of miR­378a­3p using a luciferase reporter assay in human glioma cell lines. Overexpression of miR­378a­3p in either of U87MG or MT­330 cells decreased the expression of TSPAN17, promoted apoptosis and decreased proliferation, migration and invasion. Overexpression of TSPAN17 attenuated the aforementioned effects induced by miR­378a­3p overexpression. The present study indicated that miR­378a­3p suppresses the progression of GBM by reducing TSPAN17 expression, and may thus serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating patients with GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Tetraspaninas/genética , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(5): 324-333, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms underlying ozone-induced inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV1). METHODS: We used cell culture, long-overlapping RT-PCR, and spot hybridization assays to verify and accurately locate the sites of action of ozone that cause PV1 inactivation. We also employed recombinant viral genome RNA infection models to confirm our observations. RESULTS: Our results indicated that ozone inactivated PV1 primarily by disrupting the 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) of the PV1 genome. Further study revealed that ozone specifically damaged the 80-124 nucleotide (nt) region in the 5'-NCR. Recombinant viral genome RNA infection models confirmed that PV1 lacking this region was non-infectious. CONCLUSION: In this study, we not only elucidated the mechanisms by which ozone induces PV1 inactivation but also determined that the 80-124 nt region in the 5'-NCR is targeted by ozone to achieve this inactivation.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/farmacologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Poliovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Vero
10.
Water Res ; 156: 366-371, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928530

RESUMO

Adaption to adverse environments plays an important role in bacterial survival and is receiving increasing globe attention now. Here, cultivable chlorine-injured Pseudomonas aeruginosa, produced on the chlorination process, was investigated about their resistance to antibiotics. Then, global transcriptional analyses, quantitative PCR (qPCR) validation and antioxidant enzymes measurement were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that chlorine injury enhanced antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa and cultivable chlorine-injured P. aeruginosa exposed to 4 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (half of the lethal dose) improved antibiotic resistance against ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and ampicillin by 1.4-5.6 fold. This increase in antibiotic resistance was not hereditable and over expression of the MexEF-OprN efflux pump resulting from oxidative stress contributed to it. These results demonstrate temporal physiological persistence to antibiotics in cultivable chlorine-injured pathogens, suggesting their survival from adverse environments with antibiotic exposure and thereby posing lasting hazards to human health.


Assuntos
Cloro , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Antibacterianos , Cloranfenicol , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos
11.
J Pathol ; 248(2): 155-163, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680725

RESUMO

The cellular mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication might mediate cytopathic effects are controversial and not entirely clear. In this study, we found that blood-borne HCV (bbHCV) infection could lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and mitochondria-related/caspase-dependent apoptosis at the early stages of infection based on use of the highly efficient bbHCV cell culture model established previously. Sections of bbHCV-infected human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs) revealed convolution and nonlinear ER, cell vacuolization, swelling of mitochondria, and numerous double membrane vesicles (DMVs). The percentage of apoptotic hFLSCs infected by bbHCV reached 29.8% at 16 h postinfection, and the amount of cytochrome c increased remarkably in the cytosolic protein fraction. However, over time, apoptosis was inhibited due to the activation of NF-κB. The expression of NF-κB-p65, Bcl-xL, XIAP, and c-FLIPL in hFLSCs was increased significantly 24 h after in infection by bbHCV. The accelerated cell death cycles involving apoptosis, regeneration and repair by bbHCV infection might give rise to the development of cirrhosis, and ultimately to hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células-Tronco Fetais/patologia , Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Replicação Viral , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Fetais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Fetais/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/virologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 283-303, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445533

RESUMO

Tibetan sheep are the most common and widespread domesticated animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and have played an essential role in the permanent human occupation of this high-altitude region. However, the precise timing, route, and process of sheep pastoralism in the QTP region remain poorly established, and little is known about the underlying genomic changes that occurred during the process. Here, we investigate the genomic variation in Tibetan sheep using whole-genome sequences, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal variants in 986 samples throughout their distribution range. We detect strong signatures of selection in genes involved in the hypoxia and ultraviolet signaling pathways (e.g., HIF-1 pathway and HBB and MITF genes) and in genes associated with morphological traits such as horn size and shape (e.g., RXFP2). We identify clear signals of argali (Ovis ammon) introgression into sympatric Tibetan sheep, covering 5.23-5.79% of their genomes. The introgressed genomic regions are enriched in genes related to oxygen transportation system, sensory perception, and morphological phenotypes, in particular the genes HBB and RXFP2 with strong signs of adaptive introgression. The spatial distribution of genomic diversity and demographic reconstruction of the history of Tibetan sheep show a stepwise pattern of colonization with their initial spread onto the QTP from its northeastern part ∼3,100 years ago, followed by further southwest expansion to the central QTP ∼1,300 years ago. Together with archeological evidence, the date and route reveal the history of human expansions on the QTP by the Tang-Bo Ancient Road during the late Holocene. Our findings contribute to a depth understanding of early pastoralism and the local adaptation of Tibetan sheep as well as the late-Holocene human occupation of the QTP.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genoma , Migração Humana , Hibridização Genética , Ovinos/genética , Altitude , Animais , Ecótipo , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Tibet
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 365: 340-345, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448547

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have gained global attention due to their public health threat. Extracelluar ARGs (eARGs) can result in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance via free-living ARGs in natural environments, where they promote ARB transmission in drinking water distribution systems. However, eARG pollution in tap water has not been well researched. In this study, concentrations of eARGs and intracellular ARGs (iARGs) in tap water, sampled at Tianjin, China, were investigated for one year. Fourteen eARG types were found at the highest concentration of 1.3 × 105 gene copies (GC)/L. TetC was detected in 66.7% of samples, followed by sul1, sul2, and qnrA with the same detection frequency of 41.7%. Fifteen iARGs (including tetA, tetB, tetM, tetQ, tetX, sul1, sul2, sul3, ermB, blaTEM, and qnrA) were continuously detected in all collected tap water samples with sul1 and sul2 the most abundant. Additionally, both eARG and iARG concentrations in tap water presented a seasonal pattern with most abundant prevalence in summer. The concentration of observed intracellular sulfonamide resistance genes showed a significantly positive correlation with total nitrogen concentrations. This study suggested that eARG and iARG pollution of drinking water systems pose a potential risk to human public health.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiologia da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 31(5): 403-406, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866224

RESUMO

Seasonal outbreaks of airsacculitis in China's poultry cause great economic losses annually. This study tried to unveil the potential role of Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and Chlamydia psittaci (CPS) in avian airsacculitis. A serological investigation of 673 breeder chickens and a case-controlled study of 430 birds were undertaken. Results showed that infection with AMPV, ORT, and CPS was highly associated with the disease. The correlation between AMPV and CPS were positively robust in both layers and broilers. Finally, we determined the co-infection with AMPV, ORT, and CPS was prevalent in the sampled poultry farms suffering from respiratory diseases and the outbreak of airsacculitis was closely related to simultaneous exposure to all three agents.


Assuntos
Sacos Aéreos/microbiologia , Galinhas , Chlamydia , Metapneumovirus , Ornithobacterium , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Sacos Aéreos/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Coinfecção , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/patologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Humanos , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Front Genet ; 9: 118, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692799

RESUMO

Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

16.
Water Res ; 136: 131-136, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501757

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has posed a major threat to both human health and environmental ecosystem. Although the disinfection has been proved to be efficient to control the occurrence of pathogens, little effort is dedicated to revealing potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), particularly for free-living ARGs in final disinfected effluent of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP). Here, we investigated the effects of chlorine disinfection on the occurrence and concentration of both extracellular ARGs (eARGs) and intracellular ARGs (iARGs) in a full-scale UWWTP over a year. We reported that the concentrations of both eARGs and iARGs would be increased by the disinfection with chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Specifically, chlorination preferentially increased the abundances of eARGs against macrolide (ermB), tetracycline (tetA, tetB and tetC), sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 and sul3), ß-lactam (ampC), aminoglycosides (aph(2')-Id), rifampicin (katG) and vancomycin (vanA) up to 3.8 folds. Similarly, the abundances of iARGs were also increased up to 7.8 folds after chlorination. In terms of correlation analyses, the abundance of Escherichia coli before chlorination showed a strong positive correlation with the total eARG concentration, while lower temperature and higher ammonium concentration were assumed to be associated with the concentration of iARGs. This study suggests the chlorine disinfection could increase the abundances of both iARGs and eARGs, thereby posing risk of the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in environments.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cloro/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Halogenação , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água
17.
J Microbiol Methods ; 139: 143-149, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577899

RESUMO

Bacteriophages are widely used to the treatment of drug-resistant bacteria and the improvement of food safety through bacterial lysis. However, the limited investigations on bacteriophage restrict their further application. In this study, a novel and highly efficient method was developed for isolating bacteriophage from water based on the electropositive silica gel particles (ESPs) method. To optimize the ESPs method, we evaluated the eluent type, flow rate, pH, temperature, and inoculation concentration of bacteriophage using bacteriophage f2. The quantitative detection reported that the recovery of the ESPs method reached over 90%. The qualitative detection demonstrated that the ESPs method effectively isolated 70% of extremely low-concentration bacteriophage (100 PFU/100L). Based on the host bacteria composed of 33 standard strains and 10 isolated strains, the bacteriophages in 18 water samples collected from the three sites in the Tianjin Haihe River Basin were isolated by the ESPs and traditional methods. Results showed that the ESPs method was significantly superior to the traditional method. The ESPs method isolated 32 strains of bacteriophage, whereas the traditional method isolated 15 strains. The sample isolation efficiency and bacteriophage isolation efficiency of the ESPs method were 3.28 and 2.13 times higher than those of the traditional method. The developed ESPs method was characterized by high isolation efficiency, efficient handling of large water sample size and low requirement on water quality.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Sílica Gel , Virologia/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Adsorção , Bactérias/virologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Filtração/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rios/virologia , Temperatura , Qualidade da Água
18.
Hepatology ; 66(4): 1045-1057, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407288

RESUMO

The development of pathogenic mechanisms, specific antiviral treatments and preventive vaccines for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been limited due to lack of cell culture models that can naturally imitate the entire HCV life cycle. Here, we established an HCV cell culture model based on human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs) that supports the entire blood-borne hepatitis C virus (bbHCV) life cycle. More than 90% of cells remained infected by various genotypes. bbHCV was efficiently propagated, and progeny virus were infectious to hFLSCs. The virus could be passed efficiently between cells. The viral infectivity was partially blocked by specific antibodies or small interfering RNA against HCV entry factors, whereas HCV replication was inhibited by antiviral drugs. We observed viral particles of approximately 55 nm in diameter in both cell culture media and infected cells after bbHCV infection. CONCLUSION: Our data show that the entire bbHCV life cycle could be naturally imitated in hFLSCs. This model is expected to provide a powerful tool for exploring the process and the mechanism of bbHCV infection at the cellular level and for evaluating the treatment and preventive strategies of bbHCV infection. (Hepatology 2017;66:1045-1057).


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Fetais , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Fígado/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Replicação Viral , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Liberação de Vírus
19.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 19(5): 720-726, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28406501

RESUMO

Underestimation of Escherichia coli in drinking water, an indicator microorganism of sanitary risk, may result in potential risks of waterborne diseases. However, the detection of disinfectant-injured or genetically modified (GM) E. coli has been largely overlooked so far. To evaluate the accuracy of culture-dependent enumeration with regard to disinfectant-injured and GM E. coli, chlorine- or ozone-injured wild-type (WT) and GM E. coli were prepared and characterized. Then, water samples contaminated with these E. coli strains were assayed by four widely used methods, including lactose tryptose broth-based multiple-tube fermentation (MTF), m-endo-based membrane filtration method (MFM), an enzyme substrate test (EST) known as Colilert, and Petrifilm-based testing slip method (TSM). It was found that MTF was the most effective method to detect disinfectant-injured WT E. coli (with 76.9% trials detecting all these bacteria), while this method could not effectively detect GM E. coli (with uninjured bacteria undetectable and a maximal detection rate of 21.5% for the injured). The EST was the only method which enabled considerable enumeration of uninjured GM E. coli, with a detection rate of over 93%. However, the detection rate declined to lower than 45.4% once the GM E. coli was injured by disinfectants. The MFM was invalid for both disinfectant-injured and GM E. coli. This is the first study to report the failure of these commonly used enumeration methods to simultaneously detect disinfectant-injured and GM E. coli. Thus, it highlights the urgent requirement for the development of a more accurate and versatile enumeration method which allows the detection of disinfectant-injured and GM E. coli on the assessment of microbial quality of drinking water.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Água Potável/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Cloro/toxicidade , Água Potável/normas , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Filtração , Ozônio/toxicidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Qualidade da Água
20.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 110(4): 585-592, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058577

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen causing infections in pigs and humans. Bacterial surface-related proteins are often explored as potential vaccine candidates and diagnostic antigens. In the present study, glutamate dehydrogenase, a highly conserved immunogenic extracellular protein, was used to establish a dot horseradish peroxidase enzyme-linked staphylococcal protein A immunosorbent assay (Dot-PPA-ELISA) for diagnosis of S. suis infection. The antigen-antibody reaction was optimised through checkerboard titration involving serial dilutions, followed by selective blocking tests and evaluations of cross-reaction, repeatability, and stability. Comparative analysis by using a conventional plate ELISA kit showed that the specificity and sensitivity of the Dot-PPA-ELISA were 97.5 and 96.6%, respectively. Furthermore, dynamic changes in the levels of antibody in rabbits immunised with a propolis inactivated vaccine were monitored by Dot-PPA-ELISA. A total seroprevalence of 73.1% in 305 pig serum samples indicated the method's applicability to detect S. suis infection. Cumulatively, the results suggested that Dot-PAA-ELISA is a convenient, rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic method suitable for studying large numbers of samples obtained from clinical and epidemiological studies, thereby helping reduce important economic losses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Glutamato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus suis/imunologia , Animais , Coelhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia
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