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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 16687-16691, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391304

RESUMO

Oxide materials are important candidates for the next generation of electronics due to a wide array of desired properties, which they can exhibit alone or when combined with other materials. While SrTiO3 (STO) is often considered a prototypical oxide, it, too, hosts a wide array of unusual properties, including a 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which can form at the surface when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Using layer-by-layer growth of high-quality STO films, we show that the 2DEG only forms with the SrO termination and not with the TiO2 termination, contrary to expectation. This dichotomy of the observed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra is similarly seen in BaTiO3 (BTO), in which the 2DEG is only observed for BaO-terminated films. These results will allow for a deeper understanding and better control of the electronic structure of titanate films, substrates, and heterostructures.

2.
Elife ; 82019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290744

RESUMO

B lymphocytes use B cell receptors (BCRs) to recognize antigens. It is still not clear how BCR transduces antigen-specific physical signals upon binding across cell membrane for the conversion to chemical signals, triggering downstream signaling cascades. It is hypothesized that through a series of conformational changes within BCR, antigen engagement in the extracellular domain of BCR is transduced to its intracellular domain. By combining site-specific labeling methodology and FRET-based assay, we monitored conformational changes in the extracellular domains within BCR upon antigen engagement. Conformational changes within heavy chain of membrane-bound immunoglobulin (mIg), as well as conformational changes in the spatial relationship between mIg and Igß were observed. These conformational changes were correlated with the strength of BCR activation and were distinct in IgM- and IgG-BCR. These findings provide molecular mechanisms to explain the fundamental aspects of BCR activation and a framework to investigate ligand-induced molecular events in immune receptors.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(29): 14511-14515, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266887

RESUMO

Quantum-relativistic materials often host electronic phenomena with exotic spatial distributions. In particular, quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulators feature topological boundary currents whose chirality is determined by the magnetization orientation. However, understanding the microscopic nature of edge vs. bulk currents has remained a challenge due to the emergence of multidomain states at the phase transitions. Here we use microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) to directly image chiral edge currents and phase transitions in a magnetic topological insulator. Our images reveal a dramatic change in the edge state structure and an unexpected microwave response at the topological phase transition between the Chern number [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] states, consistent with the emergence of an insulating [Formula: see text] state. The magnetic transition width is independent of film thickness, but the transition pattern is distinct in differently initiated field sweeps. This behavior suggests that the [Formula: see text] state has 2 surface states with Hall conductivities of [Formula: see text] but with opposite signs.

4.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5634-5639, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329449

RESUMO

We report the creation and manipulation of structural phase boundaries in the single-layer quantum spin Hall insulator 1T'-WSe2 by means of scanning tunneling microscope tip pulses. We observe the formation of one-dimensional interfaces between topologically nontrivial 1T' domains having different rotational orientations, as well as induced interfaces between topologically nontrivial 1T' and topologically trivial 1H phases. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements show that 1T'/1T' interface states are localized at domain boundaries, consistent with theoretically predicted unprotected interface modes that form dispersive bands in and around the energy gap of this quantum spin Hall insulator. We observe a qualitative difference in the experimental spectral line shape between topologically "unprotected" states at 1T'/1T' domain boundaries and protected states at 1T'/1H and 1T'/vacuum boundaries in single-layer WSe2.

5.
Immunity ; 50(4): 1043-1053.e5, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902636

RESUMO

Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to microbial infections and malignancy by sensing diphosphate-containing metabolites called phosphoantigens, which bind to the intracellular domain of butyrophilin 3A1, triggering extracellular interactions with the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (TCR). Here, we examined the molecular basis of this "inside-out" triggering mechanism. Crystal structures of intracellular butyrophilin 3A proteins alone or in complex with the potent microbial phosphoantigen HMBPP or a synthetic analog revealed key features of phosphoantigens and butyrophilins required for γδ T cell activation. Analyses with chemical probes and molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated that dimerized intracellular proteins cooperate in sensing HMBPP to enhance the efficiency of γδ T cell activation. HMBPP binding to butyrophilin doubled the binding force between a γδ T cell and a target cell during "outside" signaling, as measured by single-cell force microscopy. Our findings provide insight into the "inside-out" triggering of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation by phosphoantigen-bound butyrophilin, facilitating immunotherapeutic drug design.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(2): eaat8799, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783621

RESUMO

A two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator exhibits the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in which topologically protected conducting channels exist at the sample edges. Experimental signatures of the QSH effect have recently been reported in an atomically thin material, monolayer WTe2. Here, we directly image the local conductivity of monolayer WTe2 using microwave impedance microscopy, establishing beyond doubt that conduction is indeed strongly localized to the physical edges at temperatures up to 77 K and above. The edge conductivity shows no gap as a function of gate voltage, and is suppressed by magnetic field as expected. We observe additional conducting features which can be explained by edge states following boundaries between topologically trivial and nontrivial regions. These observations will be critical for interpreting and improving the properties of devices incorporating WTe2. Meanwhile, they reveal the robustness of the QSH channels and the potential to engineer them in the monolayer material platform.

7.
Sci Adv ; 5(2): eaau0073, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783622

RESUMO

Electron dynamics at interfaces is a subject of great scientific interest and technological importance. Detailed understanding of such dynamics requires access to the angstrom length scale defining interfaces and the femtosecond time scale characterizing interfacial motion of electrons. In this context, the most precise and general way to remotely measure charge dynamics is through the transient current flow and the associated electromagnetic radiation. Here, we present quantitative measurements of interfacial currents on the subnanometer length and femtosecond time scale by recording the emitted terahertz radiation following ultrafast laser excitation. We apply this method to interlayer charge transfer in heterostructures of two transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers less than 0.7 nm apart. We find that charge relaxation and separation occur in less than 100 fs. This approach allows us to unambiguously determine the direction of current flow, to demonstrate a charge transfer efficiency of order unity, and to characterize saturation effects.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(9): 3449-3453, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808739

RESUMO

Fermi surface (FS) topology is a fundamental property of metals and superconductors. In electron-doped cuprate Nd2-x Ce x CuO4 (NCCO), an unexpected FS reconstruction has been observed in optimal- and overdoped regime (x = 0.15-0.17) by quantum oscillation measurements (QOM). This is all the more puzzling because neutron scattering suggests that the antiferromagnetic (AFM) long-range order, which is believed to reconstruct the FS, vanishes before x = 0.14. To reconcile the conflict, a widely discussed external magnetic-field-induced AFM long-range order in QOM explains the FS reconstruction as an extrinsic property. Here, we report angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) evidence of FS reconstruction in optimal- and overdoped NCCO. The observed FSs are in quantitative agreement with QOM, suggesting an intrinsic FS reconstruction without field. This reconstructed FS, despite its importance as a basis to understand electron-doped cuprates, cannot be explained under the traditional scheme. Furthermore, the energy gap of the reconstruction decreases rapidly near x = 0.17 like an order parameter, echoing the quantum critical doping in transport. The totality of the data points to a mysterious order between x = 0.14 and 0.17, whose appearance favors the FS reconstruction and disappearance defines the quantum critical doping. A recent topological proposal provides an ansatz for its origin.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(8): 083601, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192607

RESUMO

We demonstrate cavity-enhanced Raman emission from a single atomic defect in a solid. Our platform is a single silicon-vacancy center in diamond coupled with a monolithic diamond photonic crystal cavity. The cavity enables an unprecedented frequency tuning range of the Raman emission (100 GHz) that significantly exceeds the spectral inhomogeneity of silicon-vacancy centers in diamond nanostructures. We also show that the cavity selectively suppresses the phonon-induced spontaneous emission that degrades the efficiency of Raman photon generation. Our results pave the way towards photon-mediated many-body interactions between solid-state quantum emitters in a nanophotonic platform.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(33): 8284-8289, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068609

RESUMO

Nucleation is a core scientific concept that describes the formation of new phases and materials. While classical nucleation theory is applied across wide-ranging fields, nucleation energy landscapes have never been directly measured at the atomic level, and experiments suggest that nucleation rates often greatly exceed the predictions of classical nucleation theory. Multistep nucleation via metastable states could explain unexpectedly rapid nucleation in many contexts, yet experimental energy landscapes supporting such mechanisms are scarce, particularly at nanoscale dimensions. In this work, we measured the nucleation energy landscape of diamond during chemical vapor deposition, using a series of diamondoid molecules as atomically defined protonuclei. We find that 26-carbon atom clusters, which do not contain a single bulk atom, are postcritical nuclei and measure the nucleation barrier to be more than four orders of magnitude smaller than prior bulk estimations. These data support both classical and nonclassical concepts for multistep nucleation and growth during the gas-phase synthesis of diamond and other semiconductors. More broadly, these measurements provide experimental evidence that agrees with recent conceptual proposals of multistep nucleation pathways with metastable molecular precursors in diverse processes, ranging from cloud formation to protein crystallization, and nanoparticle synthesis.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3401, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143617

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenide materials are unique in the wide variety of structural and electronic phases they exhibit in the two-dimensional limit. Here we show how such polymorphic flexibility can be used to achieve topological states at highly ordered phase boundaries in a new quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), 1T'-WSe2. We observe edge states at the crystallographically aligned interface between a quantum spin Hall insulating domain of 1T'-WSe2 and a semiconducting domain of 1H-WSe2 in contiguous single layers. The QSHI nature of single-layer 1T'-WSe2 is verified using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to determine band inversion around a 120 meV energy gap, as well as scanning tunneling spectroscopy to directly image edge-state formation. Using this edge-state geometry we confirm the predicted penetration depth of one-dimensional interface states into the two-dimensional bulk of a QSHI for a well-specified crystallographic direction. These interfaces create opportunities for testing predictions of the microscopic behavior of topologically protected boundary states.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(4): 043703, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716321

RESUMO

Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (MIM) measurement of photoconductivity with 50 nm resolution is demonstrated using a modulated optical source. The use of a modulated source allows for the measurement of photoconductivity in a single scan without a reference region on the sample, as well as removing most topographical artifacts and enhancing signal to noise as compared with unmodulated measurement. A broadband light source with a tunable monochrometer is then used to measure energy resolved photoconductivity with the same methodology. Finally, a pulsed optical source is used to measure local photo-carrier lifetimes via MIM, using the same 50 nm resolution tip.

14.
Nature ; 554(7693): 505-510, 2018 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469090

RESUMO

Mechanical stimuli can modify the energy landscape of chemical reactions and enable reaction pathways, offering a synthetic strategy that complements conventional chemistry. These mechanochemical mechanisms have been studied extensively in one-dimensional polymers under tensile stress using ring-opening and reorganization, polymer unzipping and disulfide reduction as model reactions. In these systems, the pulling force stretches chemical bonds, initiating the reaction. Additionally, it has been shown that forces orthogonal to the chemical bonds can alter the rate of bond dissociation. However, these bond activation mechanisms have not been possible under isotropic, compressive stress (that is, hydrostatic pressure). Here we show that mechanochemistry through isotropic compression is possible by molecularly engineering structures that can translate macroscopic isotropic stress into molecular-level anisotropic strain. We engineer molecules with mechanically heterogeneous components-a compressible ('soft') mechanophore and incompressible ('hard') ligands. In these 'molecular anvils', isotropic stress leads to relative motions of the rigid ligands, anisotropically deforming the compressible mechanophore and activating bonds. Conversely, rigid ligands in steric contact impede relative motion, blocking reactivity. We combine experiments and computations to demonstrate hydrostatic-pressure-driven redox reactions in metal-organic chalcogenides that incorporate molecular elements that have heterogeneous compressibility, in which bending of bond angles or shearing of adjacent chains activates the metal-chalcogen bonds, leading to the formation of the elemental metal. These results reveal an unexplored reaction mechanism and suggest possible strategies for high-specificity mechanosynthesis.

15.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 1360-1365, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377701

RESUMO

Quantum emitters are an integral component for a broad range of quantum technologies, including quantum communication, quantum repeaters, and linear optical quantum computation. Solid-state color centers are promising candidates for scalable quantum optics due to their long coherence time and small inhomogeneous broadening. However, once excited, color centers often decay through phonon-assisted processes, limiting the efficiency of single-photon generation and photon-mediated entanglement generation. Herein, we demonstrate strong enhancement of spontaneous emission rate of a single silicon-vacancy center in diamond embedded within a monolithic optical cavity, reaching a regime in which the excited-state lifetime is dominated by spontaneous emission into the cavity mode. We observe 10-fold lifetime reduction and 42-fold enhancement in emission intensity when the cavity is tuned into resonance with the optical transition of a single silicon-vacancy center, corresponding to 90% of the excited-state energy decay occurring through spontaneous emission into the cavity mode. We also demonstrate the largest coupling strength (g/2π = 4.9 ± 0.3 GHz) and cooperativity (C = 1.4) to date for color-center-based cavity quantum electrodynamics systems, bringing the system closer to the strong coupling regime.

16.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 689-694, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300484

RESUMO

We present the electronic characterization of single-layer 1H-TaSe2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that 3 × 3 charge-density-wave (CDW) order persists despite distinct changes in the low energy electronic structure highlighted by the reduction in the number of bands crossing the Fermi energy and the corresponding modification of Fermi surface topology. Enhanced spin-orbit coupling and lattice distortion in the single-layer play a crucial role in the formation of CDW order. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the nature of CDW order in the two-dimensional limit.

17.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 1099-1103, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286670

RESUMO

The monochromatic photoemission from diamondoid monolayers provides a new strategy to create electron sources with low energy dispersion and enables compact electron guns with high brightness and low beam emittance for aberration-free imaging, lithography, and accelerators. However, these potential applications are hindered by degradation of diamondoid monolayers under photon irradiation and electron bombardment. Here, we report a graphene-protected diamondoid monolayer photocathode with 4-fold enhancement of stability compared to the bare diamondoid counterpart. The single-layer graphene overcoating preserves the monochromaticity of the photoelectrons, showing 12.5 meV ful width at half-maximum distribution of kinetic energy. Importantly, the graphene coating effectively suppresses desorption of the diamondoid monolayer, enhancing its thermal stability by at least 100 K. Furthermore, by comparing the decay rate at different photon energies, we identify electron bombardment as the principle decay pathway for diamondoids under graphene protection. This provides a generic approach for stabilizing volatile species on photocathode surfaces, which could greatly improve performance of electron emitters.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(50): 18358-18364, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169239

RESUMO

A sodium-ion battery (SIB) solution is attractive for grid-scale electrical energy storage. Low-cost hexacyanometalate is a promising electrode material for SIBs because of its easy synthesis and open framework. Most hexacyanometalate-based SIBs work with aqueous electrolyte, and interstitial water in the material has been found to strongly affect the electrochemical profile, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here we provide a comparative study of the transition-metal redox in hexacyanometalate electrodes with and without interstitial water based on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. We found distinct transition-metal redox sequences in hydrated and anhydrated NaxMnFe(CN)6·zH2O. The Fe and Mn redox in hydrated electrodes are separated and are at different potentials, leading to two voltage plateaus. On the contrary, mixed Fe and Mn redox in the same potential range is found in the anhydrated system. This work reveals for the first time how transition-metal redox in batteries is strongly affected by interstitial molecules that are seemingly spectators. The results suggest a fundamental mechanism based on three competing factors that determine the transition-metal redox potentials. Because most hexacyanometalate electrodes contain water, this work directly reveals the mechanism of how interstitial molecules could define the electrochemical profile, especially for electrodes based on transition-metal redox with well-defined spin states.

19.
Nature ; 549(7673): 464-465, 2017 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959972

Assuntos
Elétrons , Física
20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(7): 073903, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764533

RESUMO

We developed a minimum gradient based method to track ridge features in a 2D image plot, which is a typical data representation in many momentum resolved spectroscopy experiments. Through both analytic formulation and numerical simulation, we compare this new method with existing DC (distribution curve) based and higher order derivative based analyses. We find that the new method has good noise resilience and enhanced contrast especially for weak intensity features and meanwhile preserves the quantitative local maxima information from the raw image. An algorithm is proposed to extract 1D ridge dispersion from the 2D image plot, whose quantitative application to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on high temperature superconductors is demonstrated.

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