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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126780, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358974

RESUMO

The microbial colonization profiles on microplastics (MPs) in marine environments have recently sparked global interest. However, many studies have characterized plastisphere microbiomes without considering the ecological processes that underly microbiome assembly. Here, we carried out a three-timepoint exposure experiment at 1-, 4-, and 8-week and investigated the colonization dynamics for polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene MP pellets in natural coastal water. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA, we found diversity and evenness were higher (p < 0.05) in the plastisphere communities than those in seawater, and microorganisms colonizing were co-influenced by environmental factors, polymer types, and exposure duration. Functional potential and co-occurrence network analysis revealed that MP exposure enriched the xenobiotic biodegradation potential and reduced the complexity of the MP microbial network. Simultaneously, null-model analyses indicated that stochastic processes contributed a bigger role than deterministic processes in shaping plastisphere microbial community structure with dispersal limitations contributing to a greater extent to microbial succession trajectories. These results implied the plastic surface had a more important role as a raft onto which microbes attach rather than selectively recruiting plastic-specific microbial colonizers. Our work strengthened the understanding of the ecological mechanisms by which microbial community patterns are controlled during colonization by plastic-associated microbes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar
2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 748925, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722530

RESUMO

Solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), and apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 2 (AIFM2) are the key regulators in ferroptosis. However, the expression patterns and prognostic roles of these genes in pan-cancer are still largely unclear. The expression patterns and prognostic roles of SLC7A11, GPX4, and AIFM2 and the relationships between the expression levels of these genes and immune infiltration levels in pan-cancer were analyzed by using TIMER, gene expression profiling interactive analysis (GEPIA), Oncomine, and Kaplan-Meier databases. Our results showed that both SLC7A11 and GPX4 were overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and SLC7A11 was overexpressed in lung cancer. High levels of SLC7A11 and AIFM2 were significantly linked with the shortened disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), respectively. And high expression of SLC7A11, GPX4, and AIFM2 were significantly correlated with the shortened OS of acute myeloid leukemia patients. In esophageal carcinoma (ESCA), GPX4 expression was significantly associated with the infiltration of macrophage and myeloid dendritic cell, and AIFM2 expression was significantly associated with the infiltration of CD4+ T cell. Importantly, GPX4 expression was positively correlated with the expression levels of monocyte markers (CD14 and CD115) and M2 macrophage markers (VSIG4 and MS4A4A) both in ESCA and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). In summary, SLC7A11, GPX4, and AIFM2 are dysregulated in many types of cancers, and are candidate prognostic biomarkers for many types of cancers, and can be used to evaluate the infiltration of immune cells in tumor tissues.

3.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 767-772, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728039

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the understanding of the head and face protection of the health care workers in operating room of Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the corona virus disease-19(COVID-19) pandemic.Methods The knowledge of head and face protection of health care workers in the operating room was evaluated based on the non-registered questionnaires for protection measures collected on-line.Results The survey was conducted in two phases.In the first phase(COVID-19 outbreak),153 questionnaires were collected.In the second phase(when Beijing lowered the emergency response to level 3 and normalized the epidemic prevention and control),101 questionnaires were collected.The results showed that 98% of health care workers had used any form of protective devices during the pandemic and anesthesiologists had the highest usage rate(93.0%)of ear-loop face mask with eye shield.During the pandemic,health care workers mainly used goggles(71.2%)for protection to diagnose and treat the patients with fever and ear-loop face mask with eye shield(56.2%)for protection to diagnose and treat the non-fever patients.In the first-and second-phase survey,43% and 68% of health care workers still used protection,and they mainly used face shield(50.0% and 56.5%)and ear-loop face mask with eye shield(56.1% and 68.1%).Conclusions During the pandemic,more than 90% of the health care workers in the operating room of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were aware of head and face protection.Different healthcare workers in the operating room had different choices of head and face protection,and more than 40% of them would still keep such protection during the normalized stage of pandemic prevention and control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769051

RESUMO

As a class of difurancoumarin compounds with similar structures, aflatoxins (AF) are commonly found in the environment, soil, and food crops. AF pose a serious threat to the health of humans, poultry, and livestock. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and detailed mechanism of aloin on hepatic injury induced by subchronic AFB1 in rats. The result showed that aloin could significantly inhibit the decrease in food intake, body weight growth, immune organ index, and serum albumin content caused by long-term AFB1 exposure. Meanwhile, aloin reduced the level of serum liver function and improved renal swelling and pathological changes of liver tissue. Aloin could also inhibit liver lipid peroxidation and improve liver antioxidant capacity. Further investigation revealed that aloin inhibited the activity and expression of hepatic CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 and down-regulated IL-1ß expression in subchronic AFB1-induced liver injury rats. The above study demonstrated that aloin played an important role in blocking or delaying the development process of subchronic AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, aloin is considered to have a potential role as a protective agent against AFB1.

5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1308, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799674

RESUMO

Recent single-cell multimodal data reveal multi-scale characteristics of single cells, such as transcriptomics, morphology, and electrophysiology. However, integrating and analyzing such multimodal data to deeper understand functional genomics and gene regulation in various cellular characteristics remains elusive. To address this, we applied and benchmarked multiple machine learning methods to align gene expression and electrophysiological data of single neuronal cells in the mouse brain from the Brain Initiative. We found that nonlinear manifold learning outperforms other methods. After manifold alignment, the cells form clusters highly corresponding to transcriptomic and morphological cell types, suggesting a strong nonlinear relationship between gene expression and electrophysiology at the cell-type level. Also, the electrophysiological features are highly predictable by gene expression on the latent space from manifold alignment. The aligned cells further show continuous changes of electrophysiological features, implying cross-cluster gene expression transitions. Functional enrichment and gene regulatory network analyses for those cell clusters revealed potential genome functions and molecular mechanisms from gene expression to neuronal electrophysiology.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791515

RESUMO

Mupirocin, a polyketide antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, is used as a topical antimicrobial treatment to cure various skin infections. Quorum sensing system plays an important role in regulation of mupirocin biosynthesis in P. fluorescens NCIMB 10586. In Pseudomonas, the RpeA/RpeB two-component signal transduction (TCST) system regulates quorum sensing system. However, the influences of the RpeA/RpeB TCST system on mupirocin production or other cell activities have not been studied. In this work, the homologous genes of rpeA and rpeB in P. fluorescens NCIMB 10586 were identified and inactivated in the chromosome, respectively. The deletion of rpeA reduced the mupirocin production from 160 in the wild-type to 21.3 mg/L along with slightly decreased cell growth, while no significant effected on mupirocin production in the rpeB mutant. Next, it was found that the RpeA/RpeB TCST system regulated the biosynthesis of mupirocin by modulating the quorum sensing system. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomics analysis was employed to detect the influences of RpeA on other cell activities modulated by quorum sensing system. Combined with quantitative real-time PCR, the results demonstrated that RpeA also regulated other cell activities including central carbon, amino acids, fatty acids, and purine metabolism. Overall, this study expands the current understanding of the RpeA/RpeB TCST system and provides several targets for increasing yields of mupirocin. KEY POINTS: • In P. fluorescens, the RpeA/RpeB TCST system regulates the biosynthesis of mupirocin. • RpeA modulates the cell activities through effecting the central carbon metabolism.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794133

RESUMO

Polyurethane foams (PUFs) are found everywhere in our daily life, but they suffer from poor fire resistance. In this study, expansible graphite (EG) as flame retardant was incorporated into PUFs to improve material fire resistance. With the presence of EGs in the PU matrix, bubble size in PUF became smaller as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mass density of PUFs is directly proportional to the content of EG additive. The compression strengths of EG0/PUF and EG30/PUF decrease from 0.51 MPa to 0.29 MPa. The FTIR analysis of RPUFs showed that the addition of EGs did not change the functional group structures of RPUFs. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) testing results showed that the carbon residue weight of EG30/PUF is higher than other PU composite foams. The combination of TGA and FTIR indicated that the EG addition did not change the thermal decomposition products of EG0/PUF, but effectively inhibited its thermal decomposition rate. Cone calorimeter combustion tests indicated that the peak of the heat release rate (PHRR) of EG30/PUF significantly decreased to 100.5 kW/m2 compared to 390.6 kW/m2 for EG0/PUF. The ignition time of EG/PUF composites also increased from 2 s to 11 s with incorporation of 30wt% EGs. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 standard tests show that the LOI of EG30/PUF can reach 55 vol%, and go through V-0 level. This study showed that adding EG into PU foams could significantly improve the thermal stability and flame retardancy properties of EG/PUF composites without significantly sacrificing material compression strength. The research results provide useful guidelines on industrial production and applications of PUFs.

8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(5): 748-755, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations of hyperlipidemia and its subtypes with blood lead levels in community older adults. METHODS: From June to September, 2016, a rural and an urban community in Lu'an City, Anhui Province were randomly selected. Older adults aged 60 years old or over in two communities were recruited to participate, receiving a questionnaire interview(including gender, age, region, education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, and chronic medical history, etc. ), physical examinations(height, weight, and blood pressure) and laboratory tests(blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood lead levels). A total of 1080 older adults volunteered to participate, of which 1008 had completedata. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of blood lead. The interquartile range was used to divide the distribution of lead in blood. Logistic regression model was used to examine associations of hyperlipidemia and its subtypes with blood lead levels. Restrictive cubic splineswere used to further determine potential dose-response relationships. RESULTS: Of 1008 older adults, the mean age was(71.9±6.5) years old, 459(45.5%)were male, and 557(55.3%) were from the rural community. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.2%(n=516). The detection rate and geometric mean of blood lead were 100% and 28.08 µg/L(ranged from 7.89 to 278.33 µg/L), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that older adults in the highest quartile group of blood lead(≥75%) had higher odds of hyperlipidemia(OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.00-2.02) and two subtypes(high total serum cholesterol(OR=1.83, 95%CI 1.25-2.68)and mixed hyperlipidemia(OR=1.49, 95%CI 0.83-2.67)) compared to counterparties in the lowest quartile group(≤25%). After adjustment for gender, age, region, education, occupation, marital status, smoking, drinking, exercise conditions, diet, high blood pressure, diabetes, and body mass index, the ORs for hyperlipidemia and mixed hyperlipidemia in the highest quartile group of blood lead were 1.55(95%CI 1.02-2.36) and 2.87(95%CI 1.44-5.70). The restricted cubic spline curves showed approximate linear relationships between blood lead levels and ORs of hyperlipidemia and mixed hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSION: Linear associations of blood lead levels with hyperlipidemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were found in community older adults.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Chumbo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(40): 8907-8911, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601877

RESUMO

A combined anion photoelectron spectroscopic and quantum chemical investigation was performed to explore the structures and bonding properties of ternary [O, Ta, 2C]- anions. The atomic bonding connectivity of the ternary anion was found to be (O-Ta-C2)- rather than (Ta-O-C2)-. The photoelectron spectrum using 266 nm photons was measured, and the theoretical simulated spectrum was calculated, with good agreement between experimental and theoretical results being found. Computations obtained electronic energies and low-energy structures and enabled chemical bonding analyses. The experimental vertical detachment energies of OTaC2- were measured to be 2.85 ± 0.08 eV. OTaC2- exhibits π aromaticity with two delocalized π electrons and σ antiaromaticity.

10.
Insects ; 12(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680660

RESUMO

Species of the family Scoliidae are larval parasitoids of scarabaeoid beetles and pollinators of various plants. Despite their great importance in pest biological control and plant pollination, the taxonomy and systematics of these parasitoids are far from clear. Some species of the family are extremely morphologically similar and difficult to identify, especially in males. In this study, an integrative taxonomic approach, combining morphology and molecular data, was used to discriminate the species of Scoliidae from southern China. In total, 52 COI sequences belonging to 22 morphospecies of 9 genera in two tribes were obtained. The COI sequences worked well for the identification of all the studied species, with intraspecific genetic distances generally less than 2%, while interspecific distances ranged between 5.3% and 20.8%. The delimitations of the problematic species and subspecies of Scolia and Megacampsomeris are well solved by COI sequences, suggesting that DNA barcoding could be a useful identification tool for Scoliidae. Based on both morphological and molecular evidence, we discovered one undescribed cryptic species of the polytypic species Solia (Discolia) superciliaris Saussure, 1864, five newly recorded species, i.e., Scolia (Discolia) sikkimensis Bingham, 1896, Sericocampsomeris flavomaculata Gupta and Jonathan, 1989, Megacampsomeris asiatica (Saussure, 1858), Megacampsomeris pulchrivestita (Cameron, 1902) and Megacampsomeris shillongensis (Betrem, 1928) and one pending subspecies of Scolia (Discolia) watanabei (Matsumura, 1912) from China. Our study indicates that such an integrative approach, combing both molecular and morphological evidence, is a potent tool to tackle the taxonomic challenges in the family Scoliidae, or even, in other diverse groups of Aculeata, of which sexual dimorphism and cryptic species are common.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 192: 883-894, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656542

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a serious food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease with global distribution, causing serious harm to public health and food safety. Molting is prerequisite for intestinal larval development in the life cycle of T. spiralis. Metalloproteinases play an important role in the molting process of T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL). In this study, the metalloproteinase Tsdpy31 was cloned, expressed and characterized. The results revealed that the Tsdpy31 was expressed at various T. spiralis stages and it was principally located in cuticle, hypodermis and embryos of the nematode. Recombinant Tsdpy31 (rTsdpy31) had the catalytic activity of natural metalloproteinase. Silencing of Tsdpy31 increased the permeability of larval new cuticle. When the mice were orally challenged with dsRNA treated- muscle larvae, the burden of intestinal adult and muscle larvae in Tsdpy31 dsRNA treatment group was significantly reduced, compared with the control green fluorescent protein (GFP) dsRNA and PBS groups (P < 0.05). Tsdpy31 may play a major role in the new cuticle synthesis and old cuticle shedding. Tsdpy31 also participates in T. spiralis embryonic development. We conclude that Tsdpy31 could be a candidate vaccine target molecule against intestinal T. spiralis ecdysis and development.

12.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10795-10805, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610077

RESUMO

Curcumin has received considerable interest in functional food areas due to its variety of biological effects. However, its utilization is often limited by its insolubility and instability in aqueous solutions. Herein, curcumin was encapsulated in γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) to achieve immediate release and rapid dissolution in water just by gentle stirring due to the dissociation of CD-MOFs. The released curcumin exhibited remarkably enhanced stability compared to its free form in aqueous solutions due to the inclusion effects of cyclodextrins. Besides, the impacts of temperature, light and gastrointestinal pH on the chemical stability of curcumin released from basic and neutral CD-MOFs were compared. The molar ratios of curcumin : γ-CD in basic CD-MOFs and neutral CD-MOFs were 1 : 1.7 and 1 : 9.8, respectively. Neutral CD-MOFs were more effective in retarding thermal and gastrointestinal degradation of curcumin because all curcumin molecules can form inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin. Basic CD-MOFs were more conducive to prolonging the half-life time of curcumin during photodegradation since its alkalinity darkened the color of curcumin solution causing lower light transmittance. Moreover, CD-MOFs exhibited higher loading and stability of curcumin due to their unique host-guest structure, than their pure cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Curcumin-loaded CD-MOFs having a fast-dissolving ability accompanied by the improved amorphous form stability of curcumin hold great potential as functional additives in instant food.

13.
Org Lett ; 23(19): 7503-7507, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528439

RESUMO

The first example of copper-catalyzed ring-opening, enantioselective arylation of cyclic ketoxime esters to access ω,ω-diaryl alkyl nitriles has been developed in high yield (up to 92% yield) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 91% ee). Side-arm bis(oxazoline) ligand plays a significant role in this asymmetric catalytic transformation, which provides an efficient route to construct diverse chiral ω,ω-diaryl alkyl nitriles. Synthetic utility has also been demonstrated in the further derivatization of the ω,ω-diaryl alkyl nitrile to the corresponding amide.

14.
Oncol Lett ; 22(5): 768, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589147

RESUMO

The incidence of colon cancer continues to increase annually, and it is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Altering cell metabolism and inducing autophagic cell death have recently emerged as novel strategies in preventing tumor growth. Autophagy plays an essential role in energy production by degrading damaged cellular components and is also associated with tumor proliferation suppression. Itraconazole is an FDA-approved drug used as an antifungal medication and has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in breast cancer. However, the effects of itraconazole on cell metabolism and induction of apoptosis in colon cancer remain unclear. The present study analyzed extensive data from patients diagnosed with colon cancer using itraconazole between January 2011 and December 2015, from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. The underlying molecular mechanisms of itraconazole in autophagy-induced cell death were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with colon cancer who received itraconazole treatment. In addition, itraconazole decreased the viability and cell colony formation, and induced cleaved caspase-3 expression and G1 cell cycle arrest of COLO 205 and HCT 116 cells. Notably, itraconazole induced autophagy by enhancing LC3B and p62 expression. Following LC3 knockdown, the viability of itraconazole-treated COLO 205 and HCT 116 cells notably improved. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that itraconazole may have a beneficial effect on patients with colon cancer, and its underlying molecular mechanisms may be associated with the induction of autophagic cell death.

15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112829, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between single toxic metals, such as arsenic and cadmium, and kidney function in adults with diabetes. However, studies with regards to other metals and metal mixtures are still limited. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the associations between urinary concentrations of 5 selected metals and metal mixtures and kidney function using a sample of older adults with diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities. METHODS: In a sample of older adults (n = 5186), 592 eligible subjects were included in this study. Urinary concentrations of 5 metals, i.e., arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and thallium (Tl), were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated and dichotomized into indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Logistic analysis and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were used to explore the associations between single metals and metal mixtures and CKD, respectively. RESULTS: Urinary levels of As and V were positively correlated with CKD (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.31-4.30 for As; OR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.25-4.03 for V), when compared the 4th quartile with the 1st quartile. After adjustment for potential confounders, the significant association between As and CKD still existed (OR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.23-6.07). BKMR analyses showed strong linear positive associations between As and V and CKD. Higher urinary levels of the mixture were significantly associated with higher odds of CKD in a dose-response pattern. As and V showed the highest posterior inclusion probabilities. CONCLUSION: Urine As and V were positively associated with CKD in older adults with diabetes mellitus, separately and in a mixture. The metals mixture showed a linear dose-response association with the odds of CKD. The analyses of mixtures, rather than of single metals, may provide a real-world perspective on the relationship between metals and kidney function.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Rim , Metais/urina , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , China , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Humanos
16.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(8): 667-677, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis for patient survival using the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system may be imperfect, as it based only on biological factors and does not include the socioeconomic factors (SEFs). We integrated the SEFs into the TNM system (TNMSEF), and evaluated whether the novel TNM-SEF staging system showed better prediction capacity and improved clinical guidance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We selected data of 12 514 cases with HCC between 2010 and 2015 from the SEER database. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to analyze cancer-specific survival (CSS) among the TNM-SEF stages. RESULTS: Multivariate Cox analyses showed that insurance status, marital status, year of diagnosis, and income were prominent prognostic SEFs (all P < .05). When compared with the SEF0 stage, the SEF1 stage was significantly associated with a 36.1% increased risk of cancer-specific mortality in HCC overall, a 22.2% increased risk of metastatic HCC, and a 41.8% increased risk of non-metastatic HCC (all P < .001). The concordance index of the TNM-SEF stage (0.768) was better than that of the TNM stage (0.764). Furthermore, patients with SEF0 stage showed higher 5-year CSS than those with SEF1 stage (I: 48.7% vs. 28.1%; II: 41.0% vs. 25.1%; IIIA: 12.8% vs. 5.0%; IIIB: 7.8% vs. 6.0%; IIIC: 6.4% vs. 6.7%; IVA: 8.4% vs. 2.5%; IVB: 2.1% vs. 0.8%; all P < .05). CONCLUSION: We have proved that the SEF stage is an independent predictor for HCC. The combined SEF stage with TNM staging warrants more clinical attention, for improved prognostic prediction and clinical guidance.

17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 980-989, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583133

RESUMO

Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) play important roles in plant environmental stress responses. However, the biological functions of the CBL-CIPK signaling pathway in the tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) to drought stress remain elusive. Here, we characterized the GmCIPK2 gene in soybean, and its expression was induced by drought stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The overexpression of GmCIPK2 enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots, whereas downregulation of GmCIPK2 expression in soybean hairy roots by RNA interference resulted in increased drought sensitivity. Further analysis showed that GmCIPK2 was involved in ABA-mediated stomatal closure in plants under drought stress conditions. GmCIPK2 increased the expression of ABA- and drought-responsive genes during drought stress. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that a positive regulator of drought stress, GmCBL1, physically interacted with GmCIPK2 on the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results demonstrated that GmCIPK2 positively regulates drought tolerance and ABA signaling in plants, providing new insights into the underlying mechanisms of how the CBL-CIPK signaling pathway contributes to drought tolerance in soybean.


Assuntos
Secas , Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas de Soja , Soja , Ácido Abscísico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 557433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566947

RESUMO

The occurrence of allergic diseases induced by aeroallergens has increased in the past decades. Among inhalant allergens, mites remain the important causal agent of allergic diseases. Storage mites- Tyrophagus putrescentiae are found in stored products or domestic environments. Major allergen Tyr-p3 plays a significant role in triggering IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. However, its effects on pulmonary inflammation, internalization, and activation in human epithelium remain elusive. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are activated upon cleavage by proteases. A549 cells were used as an epithelial model to examine the PAR activation by Tyr-p3 and therapeutic potential of PAR-2 antagonist (GB88) in allergic responses. Enzymatic properties and allergen localization of Tyr-p3 were performed. The release of inflammatory mediators, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell junction disruptions were evaluated after Tyr-p3 challenge. Enzymatic properties determined by substrate digestion and protease inhibitors indicated that Tyr-p3 processes a trypsin-like serine protease activity. The PAR-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased by nTyr-p3 but inhibited by protease inhibitors or GB88. Protease allergen of nTyr-p3 significantly increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokine (IL-8), and IL-1ß in epithelial cells. nTyr-p3 markedly increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and MAP kinase. When cells were pretreated with GB88 then added nTyr-p3, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 did not inhibit by GB88. GB88 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human epithelium cells. GB88 is able to block PAR-2-mediated calcium signaling which inhibits the nTyr-p3-induced Ca2+ release. Among the pharmacologic inhibitors, the most effective inhibitor of the nTyr-p3 in the induction of IL-8 or IL-1ß levels was GB88 followed by SBTI, MAPK/ERK, ERK, and p38 inhibitors. Levels of inflammatory mediators, including GM-CSF, VEGF, COX-2, TSLP, and IL-33 were reduced by treatment of GB88 or SBTI. Further, GB88 treatment down-regulated the nTyr-p3-induced PAR-2 expression in allergic patients with asthma or rhinitis. Tight junction and adherens junction were disrupted in epithelial cells by nTyr-p3 exposure; however, this effect was avoided by GB88. Immunostaining with frozen sections of the mite body showed the presence of Tyr-p3 throughout the intestinal digestive system, especially in the hindgut around the excretion site. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tyr-p3 from domestic mites leads to disruption of the airway epithelial barrier after inhalation. Proteolytic activity of Tyr-p3 causes the PAR-2 mRNA expression, thus leading to the release of numerous inflammatory mediators. Antagonism of PAR2 activity suggests GB88 as the therapeutic potential for anti-inflammation medicine, especially in allergy development triggered by protease allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Receptor PAR-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Acaridae/imunologia , Alérgenos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptor PAR-2/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia
19.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thrombosis of the main and intrahepatic branches of the portal vein (TMIP) is potentially lethal and deemed a common complication following laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection (LSD) in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH). The predictors of TMIP after LSD remain unclear. The aim of this prospective study was to explore the predictive and risk factors for TMIP after LSD in cirrhotic patients with PH caused only by hepatitis B virus. METHODS: From September 2014 to March 2017, we enrolled 115 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and PH who successfully underwent LSD. Patients were subdivided into a TMIP group and a non-TMIP group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted on 24 items of demographic and preoperative data, to explore the risk factors of TMIP. RESULTS: Twenty-nine (25.22%) patients developed TMIP on postoperative day (POD) 7 and 26 (22.81%) patients developed TMIP on POD 30. From POD 7 to POD 30, 12 patients who did not have TMIP at POD 7 were newly diagnosed with TMIP, with portal vein diameter 15.05 ± 2.58 mm. Another 14 patients in whom TMIP had resolved had portal vein diameter 14.02 ± 1.76 mm. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression revealed that portal vein diameter ≥ 13 mm [relative risk (RR) 5.533, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.222-25.042; P = 0.026] and portal vein diameter ≥ 15 mm (RR 3.636, 95% CI 1.466-9.021; P = 0.005) were significant independent risk factors for TMIP on POD 7 and 30, respectively. CONCLUSION: Portal vein diameter ≥ 13 mm and ≥ 15 mm were significant independent predictors for TMIP after LSD in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and PH on POD 7 and POD 30, respectively. TRIAL REGISTRATION: We registered our research at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ . The name of research registered is "Warfarin Prevents Portal Vein Thrombosis in Patients After Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Azygoportal Disconnection." The trial registration identifier at clinicaltrials.gov is NCT02247414.

20.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126258, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492995

RESUMO

Ball milling (BM) as a solvent-free technology has been widely used to tailor the biochar-based adsorbents with high porosity and well dispersion for enhancing their environmental applications. In this study, the ball-milled layered double hydroxides (LDHs) biochar composite (B-LDHs-BC) was successfully fabricated with BM method for Cd(II) adsorption and the BM effects on the LDHs-BC structure-performance relationships were investigated. The solid-state characterization demonstrated the LDHs were successfully exfoliated by BM on the B-LDHs-BC surface which was identified by the enlarged basal spacing and reduced crystallite size of the LDHs. Although the BET surface area of B-LDHs-BC (226 m2/g) was slightly lower than the ball-milled BC, the B-LDHs-BC had more O-containing functional groups and higher adsorption capacity (119 mg/g). The kinetics experiments indicated that the Cd(II) removal by B-LDHs-BC was through both the physical and chemical adsorption processes, and the liquid membrane diffusion was the rate-controlling step. The positive BM effects mainly induced more abundant acidic functional groups and active adsorption sites, and thus enhanced Cd(II) performance of B-LDHs-BC. This work demonstrated a facile solvent-free method for production of the exfoliated LDHs modified BC composite, and also well illustrated the BM effects which can extend their practical use in environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Hidróxidos , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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