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1.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the CT quantification of COVID-19 pneumonia and its impacts on the assessment of disease severity and the prediction of clinical outcomes in the management of COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS METHODS: Ninety-nine COVID-19 patients who were confirmed by positive nucleic acid test (NAT) of RT-PCR and hospitalized from January 19, 2020 to February 19, 2020 were collected for this retrospective study. All patients underwent arterial blood gas test, routine blood test, chest CT examination, and physical examination on admission. In addition, follow-up clinical data including the disease severity, clinical treatment, and clinical outcomes were collected for each patient. Lung volume, lesion volume, nonlesion lung volume (NLLV) (lung volume - lesion volume), and fraction of nonlesion lung volume (%NLLV) (nonlesion lung volume / lung volume) were quantified in CT images by using two U-Net models trained for segmentation of lung and COVID-19 lesions in CT images. Furthermore, we calculated 20 histogram textures for lesions volume and NLLV, respectively. To investigate the validity of CT quantification in the management of COVID-19, we built random forest (RF) models for the purpose of classification and regression to assess the disease severity (Moderate, Severe, and Critical) and to predict the need and length of ICU stay, the duration of oxygen inhalation, hospitalization, sputum NAT-positive, and patient prognosis. The performance of RF classifiers was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and that of RF regressors using the root-mean-square error. RESULTS: Patients were classified into three groups of disease severity: moderate (n = 25), severe (n = 47) and critical (n = 27), according to the clinical staging. Of which, a total of 32 patients, 1 (1/25) moderate, 6 (6/47) severe, and 25 critical (25/27), respectively, were admitted to ICU. The median values of ICU stay were 0, 0, and 12 days, the duration of oxygen inhalation 10, 15, and 28 days, the hospitalization 12, 16, and 28 days, and the sputum NAT-positive 8, 9, and 13 days, in three severity groups, respectively. The clinical outcomes were complete recovery (n = 3), partial recovery with residual pulmonary damage (n = 80), prolonged recovery (n = 15), and death (n = 1). The %NLLV in three severity groups were 92.18 ± 9.89%, 82.94 ± 16.49%, and 66.19 ± 24.15% with p value <0.05 among each two groups. The AUCs of RF classifiers using hybrid models were 0.927 and 0.929 in classification of moderate vs (severe + critical), and severe vs critical, respectively, which were significantly higher than either radiomics models or clinical models (p < 0.05). The root-mean-square errors of RF regressors were 0.88 weeks for prediction of duration of hospitalization (mean: 2.60 ± 1.01 weeks), 0.92 weeks for duration of oxygen inhalation (mean: 2.44 ± 1.08 weeks), 0.90 weeks for duration of sputum NAT-positive (mean: 1.59 ± 0.98 weeks), and 0.69 weeks for stay of ICU (mean: 1.32 ± 0.67 weeks), respectively. The AUCs for prediction of ICU treatment and prognosis (partial recovery vs prolonged recovery) were 0.945 and 0.960, respectively. CONCLUSION: CT quantification and machine-learning models show great potentials for assisting decision-making in the management of COVID-19 patients by assessing disease severity and predicting clinical outcomes.

2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 177-180, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068630

RESUMO

To clarify the effect of different respiratory sample types on SARS-CoV-2 detection, we collected throat swabs, nasal swabs and hock-a-loogie saliva or sputum, and compared their detection rates and viral loads. The detection rates of sputum (95.65%, 22/23) and hock-a-loogie saliva (88.09%, 37/42) were significantly higher than those in throat swabs (41.54%, 27/65) and nasal swabs (72.31%, 47/65) (P < 0.001). The Ct Values of sputum, hock-a-loogie saliva and nasal swabs were significantly higher than that in throat swabs, whereas no significant difference was observed between sputum and saliva samples. Hock-a-loogie saliva are reliable sample types that can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2, and worthy of clinical promotion.

3.
Antivir Ther ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, the optimal management of individuals living with chronic HBV infection remains an unmet need. The EVOLVE was a 5-year prospective, longitudinal, observational study that compared the clinical outcomes in treatment-naïve CHB patients receiving entecavir (ETV) or lamivudine (LAM)-based therapies. METHODS: Males or females aged ≥18 years, diagnosed with CHB regardless of cirrhosis or HBeAg status were enrolled from Tier 2 city hospitals (between 2012-2014). The choice of initial therapy and subsequent treatment modifications was at the discretion of treating physicians. Key outcomes included treatment modifications, virologic response (HBV DNA <300copies/mL), and HBV disease progression. RESULTS: Of the 3408 patients enrolled, 1807 and 628 received ETV and LAM-based therapy, respectively. The mean age was 39.5 years, 74% were male, and 22.9% had cirrhosis. The rate of treatment modification was higher in the LAM-based vs ETV group (25.9% vs 13.7%); viral breakthrough was the most common reason in LAM-based group vs financial reasons in ETV group. At week 240, the virologic response rate was 73% in both treatment groups. Compared with LAM-based therapy, ETV was associated with a significantly lower incidence of viral breakthrough (12.6% vs 2.1%) and genotypic resistance (10.1% vs 1.2%; p<0.0001 for both); significantly lower risk of HBV disease progression (14.0% vs 10.7%; p=0.0113); and lower rates of progression to decompensated cirrhosis (9.6% vs 6.4%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (1.9% vs 0.8%). CONCLUSIONS: This real-world, longitudinal study demonstrated a significantly lower risk of HBV-related disease progression, viral breakthrough, and resistance with ETV vs LAM-based therapy.

4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986226

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In December, 2019, an outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was caused by a novel coronavirus, started in Wuhan, China. So far, there is limited clinical evidence on the effect of corticosteroid therapy for this disease. This study aims to investigate the association between corticosteroid therapy and the duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance among patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with mild COVID-19 were enrolled from two medical centers in China between January 13, 2020 and February 29, 2020. Baseline characteristics and durations of RNA clearance were compared between the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid therapy groups. The independent effects of corticosteroid therapy on the duration of RNA clearance were estimated by generalized linear models. RESULTS: Of 82 patients with a mild infection, 40 patients were male (48.8%), with a median age of 49 years (interquartile range, IQR 36-61). Among those patients, 36 patients (43.9%) received corticosteroid therapy. The adjusted multivariate models showed that the effects of corticosteroids were non-significant on the durations of onset to first RNA clearance [ß 2.48, 95% CI (95% confidence interval) - 0.42 to 5.38, P = 0.0926] and to persistent RNA clearance (ß 1.54, 95% CI - 1.41 to 4.48, P = 0.3016), and durations of therapy to first RNA clearance (ß 2.16, 95% CI - 0.56 to 4.89, P = 0.1184) and to persistent RNA clearance (ß 1.22, 95% CI - 1.52 to 3.95, P = 0.3787). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid therapy in patients with mild COVID-19 was not associated with the duration of SARS-CoV-2 clearance, suggesting that the use of corticosteroids may not be beneficial for patients with mild COVID-19 and should be prudently recommended in clinical practice. However, further studies are needed to verify the findings.

5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(9): 755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893534

RESUMO

Erratum to: J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol) 2020 21(5):408-410. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000117. The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. For Fig. 1a in p.409, the citation of a reference, as well as the permission to reprint this picture, was missing. The correct version and the corresponding reference are given below: (a) Chest computed tomography (CT) image of Patient 1 on admission presents multiple ground-glass opacities distributed in the periphery of inferior lobe of both lungs. Reprinted from Zhang et al. (2020), with kind permission from Springer Nature.

6.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(8): 628-636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no drugs that have been proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Because of its broad antiviral activity, interferon (IFN) should be evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially while COVID-19-specific therapies are still under development. METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China, from January 19 to February 19, 2020 were enrolled in a retrospective study. The patients were separated into an IFN group and a control group according to whether they received initial IFN-α2b inhalation treatment after admission. Propensity-score matching was used to balance the confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 104 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 68 in the IFN group and 36 in the control group, were enrolled. Less hypertension (27.9% vs. 55.6%, P=0.006), dyspnea (8.8% vs. 25.0%, P=0.025), or diarrhea (4.4% vs. 19.4%, P=0.030) was observed in the IFN group. Lower levels of albumin and C-reactive protein and higher level of sodium were observed in the IFN group. Glucocorticoid dosage was lower in the IFN group (median, 40 vs. 80 mg/d, P=0.025). Compared to the control group, fewer patients in the IFN group were ventilated (13.2% vs. 33.3%, P=0.015) and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (16.2% vs. 44.4%, P=0.002). There were also fewer critical patients in the IFN group (7.4% vs. 25.0%, P=0.017) upon admission. Although complications during admission process were comparable between groups, the discharge rate (85.3% vs. 66.7%, P=0.027) was higher and the hospitalization time (16 vs. 21 d, P=0.015) was shorter in the IFN group. When other confounding factors were not considered, virus shedding time (10 vs. 13 d, P=0.014) was also shorter in the IFN group. However, when the influence of other factors was eliminated using propensity score matching, virus shedding time was not significantly shorter than that of the control group (12 vs. 15 d, P=0.206). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b spray inhalation did not shorten virus shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Albuminas/análise , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio/sangue
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32837744

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to develop a quantitative method for clinicians to predict the probability of improved prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data on 104 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection from 10 January 2020 to 26 February 2020 were collected. Clinical information and laboratory findings were collected and compared between the outcomes of improved patients and non-improved patients. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistics regression model and two-way stepwise strategy in the multivariate logistics regression model were used to select prognostic factors for predicting clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The concordance index (C-index) was used to assess the discrimination of the model, and internal validation was performed through bootstrap resampling. A novel predictive nomogram was constructed by incorporating these features. Of the 104 patients included in the study (median age 55 years), 75 (72.1%) had improved short-term outcomes, while 29 (27.9%) showed no signs of improvement. There were numerous differences in clinical characteristics and laboratory findings between patients with improved outcomes and patients without improved outcomes. After a multi-step screening process, prognostic factors were selected and incorporated into the nomogram construction, including immunoglobulin A (IgA), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase (CK), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), and interaction between CK and APACHE II. The C-index of our model was 0.962 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.931-0.993) and still reached a high value of 0.948 through bootstrapping validation. A predictive nomogram we further established showed close performance compared with the ideal model on the calibration plot and was clinically practical according to the decision curve and clinical impact curve. The nomogram we constructed is useful for clinicians to predict improved clinical outcome probability for each COVID-19 patient, which may facilitate personalized counselling and treatment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32837749

RESUMO

The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of viral RNA from sputum or nasopharyngeal swab had a relatively low positive rate in the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Meanwhile, the manifestations of COVID-19 as seen through computed tomography (CT) imaging show individual characteristics that differ from those of other types of viral pneumonia such as Influenza-A viral pneumonia (IAVP). This study aimed to establish an early screening model to distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from IAVP and healthy cases through pulmonary CT images using deep learning techniques. A total of 618 CT samples were collected: 219 samples from 110 patients with COVID-19 (mean age 50 years; 63 (57.3%) male patients); 224 samples from 224 patients with IAVP (mean age 61 years; 156 (69.6%) male patients); and 175 samples from 175 healthy cases (mean age 39 years; 97 (55.4%) male patients). All CT samples were contributed from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. First, the candidate infection regions were segmented out from the pulmonary CT image set using a 3D deep learning model. These separated images were then categorized into the COVID-19, IAVP, and irrelevant to infection (ITI) groups, together with the corresponding confidence scores, using a location-attention classification model. Finally, the infection type and overall confidence score for each CT case were calculated using the Noisy-or Bayesian function. The experimental result of the benchmark dataset showed that the overall accuracy rate was 86.7% in terms of all the CT cases taken together. The deep learning models established in this study were effective for the early screening of COVID-19 patients and were demonstrated to be a promising supplementary diagnostic method for frontline clinical doctors.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 337-340, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection was first reported in Wuhan city, central China, which has spread rapidly. The common clinical features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection included fever, fatigue, and damage to the respiratory or digestive system. However, it is still unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) inducing psychiatric symptoms. CASE REPORT: Herein, we present the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection with manic-like symptoms and describe the diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of the case, focusing on the identifications of SARS-CoV-2 in the specimen of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient developed manic-like symptoms when his vital signs recovered on illness day 17. After manic-like attack, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibody in CSF was positive, while the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on CSF for the SARS-CoV-2 was negative. The patient received Olanzapine for treatment and his mood problems concurrently improved as indicated by scores of Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS). LIMITATION: This is a single case report only, and the RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in CSF was not performed simultaneously when SARS-CoV-2 was positive in samples of sputum and stool. CONCLUSION: This first case of COVID-19 patient with manic-like symptoms highlights the importance of evaluation of mental health status and may contribute to our understanding of potential risk of CNS impairments by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Anticorpos Antivirais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Transtorno Bipolar/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor no Peito , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Cobicistat/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Dispneia , Febre , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Faringite , Pneumonia Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1075-1083, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Elevated liver enzyme levels are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, these features have not been characterized. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 17 to February 12, 2020, were enrolled. Liver enzyme level elevation was defined as alanine aminotransferase level >35 U/L for men and 25 U/L for women at admission. Patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels were included in the control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and patients symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2 infection were defined as patients with COVID-19. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and compared. RESULTS: Of 788 patients with COVID-19, 222 (28.2%) patients had elevated liver enzyme levels (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 47.0 [35.0-55.0] years; 40.5% women). Being male, overweight, and smoking increased the risk of liver enzyme level elevation. The liver enzyme level elevation group had lesser pharyngalgia and more diarrhea than the control group. The median time from illness onset to admission was 3 days for liver enzyme level elevation groups (IQR, 2-6), whereas the median hospitalization time for 86 (38.7%) discharged patients was 13 days (IQR, 11-16). No differences in disease severity and clinical outcomes were noted between the groups. DISCUSSION: We found that 28.2% of patients with COVID-19 presented with elevated liver enzyme levels on admission, which could partially be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male patients had a higher risk of liver enzyme level elevation. With early medical intervention, liver enzyme level elevation did not worsen the outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hepatite Viral Humana/enzimologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/enzimologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 85, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now becoming an enormous threat to public health. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is extensive, of which critical cases are with rapid disease progression and high mortality. The aim of our study is to summarize the characteristics of different subtypes and explore risk factors of illness severity for early identification and prompt treatment. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we collected data of patients confirmed COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province from 17 January to 12 February 2020. According to the definition of clinical classification, we divided confirmed cases into four types, and summarize epidemiological and clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiograph findings, treatments, and outcomes, respectively. Moreover, we used univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models to explore risk factors for the severity of illness in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 788 patients were enrolled in our study, of whom 52 cases (6.6%) were mild type, 658 cases (83.5%) were common type, 61 cases (7.2%) were severe type, and 17 cases (2.2%) were critical type. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression demonstrated increasing odds of the severity of illness in patients with COVID-19 associated with male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.6 P = 0.008), fever (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1-6.3, P <  0.001), cough (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.9, P = 0.041), hemoptysis (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-10.3, P = 0.032), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5, P = 0.047), hypertension (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.6, P = 0.013). With the increase of age-grading, risk for the severity of illness was gradually higher (≤ 18 years [OR = 1.0], 19-40 years [OR = 12.7, 95% CI: 4.5-36.0, P < 0.001], 41-65 years [OR = 14.8, 95% CI: 5.2-42.1, P <  0.001], ≥ 66 years [OR = 56.5, 95% CI: 17.1-186.5, P < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should pay close attention to these features in patients with COVID-19 including older age, male, fever, cough, hemoptysis, gastrointestinal symptoms and hypertension to identify the severity of illness as early as possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(14): 13849-13859, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730223

RESUMO

This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the correlation of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with critical illness in older patients with COVID-19, and evaluate the prognostic power of the NLR at admission. We enrolled 232 patients with COVID-19, aged ≥60 y, in Zhejiang province from January 17 to March 3, 2020. Primary outcomes were evaluated until April 13. Cox regression was performed for prognostic factors. Twenty-nine (12.5%) patients progressed to critical illness. Age, shortness of breath, comorbidities including hypertension, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher NLR, lower albumin levels, and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity were associated with progression. In the multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.121, confidence interval [CI] 1.070-1.174, P<0.001), heart disease (HR 2.587, CI 1.156-5.787, P=0.021), higher NLR (HR 1.136, CI 1.094-1.180, P < 0.001), and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity (HR 4.518, CI 1.906-10.712, P<0.001) remained critical illness predictors. The NLR was independently associated with progression to critical illness; the relationship was significant and graded (HR: 1.16 per unit; 95% CI: 1.10-1.22; P for trend < 0.001). Therefore, NLR can be adopted as a prognostic tool to assist healthcare providers predict the clinical outcomes of older patients suffering from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Estado Terminal , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Infect Dis ; 222(6): 910-918, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the ongoing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), knowledge about factors affecting prolonged viral excretion is limited. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively collected data from 99 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between 19 January and 17 February 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China. We classified them into 2 groups based on whether the virus test results eventually became negative. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 61 patients had SARS-CoV-2 clearance (virus-negative group), but 38 patients had sustained positive results (virus-positive group). The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 excretion was 15 (interquartile range, 12-19) days among the virus-negative patients. The shedding time was significantly increased if the fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA test result was positive. Male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .35-.98]), immunoglobulin use (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, .24-.76]), APACHE II score (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, .84-.96]), and lymphocyte count (HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.05-3.1]) were independent factors associated with a prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Antiviral therapy and corticosteroid treatment were not independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time was associated with sex, disease severity, and lymphocyte function. The current antiviral protocol and low-to-moderate dosage of corticosteroid had little effect on the duration of viral excretion.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Elevated liver enzyme levels are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, these features have not been characterized. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 17 to February 12, 2020, were enrolled. Liver enzyme level elevation was defined as alanine aminotransferase level >35 U/L for men and 25 U/L for women at admission. Patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels were included in the control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and patients symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2 infection were defined as patients with COVID-19. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and compared. RESULTS: Of 788 patients with COVID-19, 222 (28.2%) patients had elevated liver enzyme levels (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 47.0 [35.0-55.0] years; 40.5% women). Being male, overweight, and smoking increased the risk of liver enzyme level elevation. The liver enzyme level elevation group had lesser pharyngalgia and more diarrhea than the control group. The median time from illness onset to admission was 3 days for liver enzyme level elevation groups (IQR, 2-6), whereas the median hospitalization time for 86 (38.7%) discharged patients was 13 days (IQR, 11-16). No differences in disease severity and clinical outcomes were noted between the groups. DISCUSSION: We found that 28.2% of patients with COVID-19 presented with elevated liver enzyme levels on admission, which could partially be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male patients had a higher risk of liver enzyme level elevation. With early medical intervention, liver enzyme level elevation did not worsen the outcomes of patients with COVID-19.

16.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436918

RESUMO

The viral RNA shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 has not been well characterized. Clinical data were collected and compared between patients with short and long viral RNA shedding (in the first and last quarter). The probability of recurrent positive RT-PCR results decreased sharply to 4.8% after three consecutive negatives. At least three consecutive negatives were suitable for the criteria of end of viral RNA shedding. The viral RNA shedding from respiratory tract in patients with normal B cell count was significantly shorter than patients with decreased B cell on admission (median [IQR], 11[9-13] vs 16[12-20] days, P=0.001).

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-74, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599992

RESUMO

The mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 virus genome during the spread of COVID-19 have been unclear. In 788 COVID-19 patients from Zhejiang province, we observed decreased rate of severe/critical cases, increased liver/kidney damage, and prolonged period of nuclear acid positivity, compared with patients in Wuhan, China. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we isolated one strain of SARS-CoV-2 (ZJ01) from a mild COVID-19 patient. Thirty-five specific gene mutations were identified by gene alignment. Further phylogenetic analysis and relative synonymous codon usage heat map results suggested that ZJ01 may be a potential evolutionary branch of SARS-CoV-2. We classified 54 virus strains collected globally based on the base (C or T) at positions 8824 and 28247. ZJ01 has T at both sites and is currently the only known TT type. The prediction of the Furin cleavage site (FCS) and sequence alignment of the virus family indicated that the FCS may be an important site of coronavirus evolution. ZJ01 mutations identified near the FCS (F1-2) caused changes in the structure and electrostatic distribution of the S surface protein, further affecting the binding capacity of Furin. Single-cell sequencing and ACE2-Furin co-expression results confirmed that the Furin expression was higher in the whole body, especially in glands, liver, kidneys, and colon. Thus, FCS may help SARS-CoV-2 infect these organs. The evolutionary pattern of SARS-CoV-2 towards FCS formation may result in its clinical symptom becoming closer to HKU-1 and OC43 (the source of FCS sequence-PRRA) caused mild flu-like symptoms, further showing potential in differentiating into mild COVID-19 subtypes.

18.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. Here, we stratified COVID-19 patients based on their comorbidities to assess their risk of serious adverse outcomes. METHODS: We collected 856 hospitalized cases diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 17 to February 7, 2020, in Zhejiang Province, and analyzed their comorbidities and composite endpoint (including admission to intensive care unit owing to disease progression, shock, invasive ventilation, and death) to determine the relationship between comorbidities and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 46 (36-56) years; 439 (51.3%) were men, 242 (28.3%) had comorbidities, and 152 (17.8%) had two or more comorbidities. The most common comorbidity was hypertension (142 [16.6%]), followed by diabetes (64 [7.5%]). Of the 856 patients, there are 154 (18.0%) severe cases.32(3.7%) reached composite endpoints, of which 22 (9.1%) were from the comorbidity group and 10 (1.6%) from the non-comorbidity group (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and gender status, the risk of reaching the composite endpoint was higher in the group with comorbidity than in that without comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40-6.60). HR values for patients with one, two, and three or more comorbidities were 1.61 (95% CI: 0.44-5.91), 3.44 (95% CI: 1.31-9.08), and 6.90 (95% CI: 2.69-17.69), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with comorbidities had worse clinical outcomes as compared to those without any comorbidity. The higher the number of comorbidities, the greater was the risk of serious adverse outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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