Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 99
Filtrar
1.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(2): 457-467.e21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with entecavir suppresses virus replication and reduces disease progression, but could require life-long therapy. To investigate clinical outcome events and safety associated with long-term treatment with entecavir, we followed up patients treated with entecavir or another standard-of-care HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue for up to 10 years. We assessed long-term outcomes and relationships with virologic response. METHODS: Patients with chronic HBV infection at 299 centers in Asia, Europe, and North and South America were assigned randomly to groups that received entecavir (n = 6216) or an investigator-selected nonentecavir HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue (n = 6162). Study participants were followed up for up to 10 years in hospital-based or community clinics. Key end points were time to adjudicated clinical outcome events and serious adverse events. In a substudy, we examined relationships between these events and virologic response. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in time to event assessments for primary end points including malignant neoplasms, liver-related HBV disease progression, and death. There were no differences between groups in the secondary end points of nonhepatocellular carcinoma malignant neoplasms and hepatocellular carcinoma. In a substudy of 5305 patients in China, virologic response, regardless of treatment group, was associated with a reduced risk of liver-related HBV disease progression (hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.038-0.221) and hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.009-0.113). Twelve patients given entecavir (0.2%) and 50 patients given nonentecavir drugs (0.8%) reported treatment-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic HBV infection, we associated entecavir therapy with a low rate of adverse events over 10 years of follow-up evaluation. Patients receiving entecavir vs another nucleos(t)ide analogue had comparable rates of liver- and non-liver-related clinical outcome events. Participants in a China cohort who maintained a virologic response, regardless of treatment group, had a reduced risk of HBV-related outcome events including hepatocellular carcinoma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no: NCT00388674.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2781, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849964

RESUMO

The immune system is rapidly activated after ischemic stroke. As immune cells migrate and infiltrate across the blood-brain barrier into the ischemic region, a cascade of cellular and molecular biological reactions occur, involving migrated immune cells, resident glial cells, and the vascular endothelium. These events regulate infarction evolution and thus influence the outcome of ischemic stroke. Most immune cells exert dual effects on cerebral ischemia, and some crucial cells may become central targets in ischemic stroke treatment and rehabilitation.

3.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 7(3): 213-220, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608212

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Ravidasvir (RDV) is a new generation pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor, with high barrier to baseline resistance-associated species. This is the first phase 2/3 study conducted in Mainland China confirming the efficacy and safety of RDV + ritonavir-boosted danoprevir + ribavirin for 12 weeks in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients with genotype 1 infection in a large population. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial (NCT03362814), we enrolled 424 treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic adult HCV genotype 1 patients. All patients were randomized at 3:1 ratio to receive a combination of RDV 200mg once daily plus ritonavir-boosted danoprevir 100mg/100mg twice daily and oral ribavirin 1000/1200mg/day (body weight <75/≥75 kg) (n = 318) or placebo (n = 106) for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was the rate of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment, and the safety was evaluated and compared between treatment and placebo groups. Results: The overall rate of sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment is 99% (306/309, 95%, CI: 97%-100%) under per protocol set analysis. All patients harboring baseline NS5A resistance-associated species in the treatment group (76/76, per protocol set) achieved sustained virological response at 12 weeks after treatment. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Laboratory abnormalities showed mild or moderate severity (grade 1 and grade 2) in liver function tests. Conclusions: In treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic HCV Chinese patients infected with HCV genotype 1, all-oral regimen of RDV + ritonavir-boosted danoprevir + ribavirin for 12 weeks was highly efficacious, safe, and well tolerated.

4.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 7(3): 249-257, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608217

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Data are limited on the use of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a (peg-IFNα) in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB). We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of peg-IFNα in Chinese patients with hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative CHB in routine clinical practice. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, observational, non-interventional cohort study, patients were assessed for up to 1 year after peg-IFNα treatment cessation. Treating physicians established the dosing and treatment duration according to Chinese clinical practice. Effectiveness of peg-IFNα treatment was measured by the percentage of: patients with HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL and loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (commonly known as HBsAg); HBV DNA level at end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months and 1 year posttreatment; and time course change in quantitative HBV DNA and HBsAg. Results: At EOT, 6 months posttreatment, and 1 year posttreatment, the percentage of patients with HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL was 90.0%, 81.8%, and 82.2%, and that of patients with HBsAg loss was 6.5%, 9.4%, and 9.5%, respectively. The HBV DNA level decreased from 5.61 log IU/mL at baseline to 2.48 log IU/mL at EOT and 2.67 log IU/mL at 1 year posttreatment. The HBsAg level decreased from 3.08 log IU/mL at baseline to 2.24 log IU/mL at EOT and 2.10 log IU/mL at 1 year posttreatment. The incidence of adverse events was 52.0%. Conclusions: Peg-IFNα has the potential to provide functional cure (HBsAg loss) for CHB and is well tolerated in hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative CHB patients in routine clinical practice in China. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01730508).

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high case fatality rate of influenza A H7N9 infected patients has been a major clinical concern. METHODS: To identify the common causes of death due to H7N9 as well as identify risk factors associated with the high inpatient mortality, we retrospectively collected clinical treatment information from 350 hospitalized human cases of H7N9 virus in mainland China during 2013-2017, of which 109 (31.1%) had died, and systematically analysed the patient's clinical characteristics and risk factors for death. RESULTS: The median age of infection was 57 years, whereas the median age of mortality was 61 years, significantly older than those survived. In contrast to previous studies, we found nosocomial infections, comprising Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella most commonly associated with secondary bacterial infections, which was likely due to the high utilization of supportive therapies, including mechanical ventilation (52.6%), ECMO (14%), CRRT (19.1%), and artificial liver therapy (9.7%). Age, time from illness onset to antiviral therapy initiation and secondary bacterial infection were independent risk factors for death. Age >65, secondary bacterial infections, and initiation of neuraminidase inhibitors therapy after 5 days from symptom onset were associated with increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Fatality among H7N9 virus infected patients occurred rapidly after hospital admission, especially among older patients, and was followed by severe hypoxemia and multisystem organ failure. Our results show that early neuraminidase-inhibitor therapy and reduction of secondary bacterial infections can help reduce mortality.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 617, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major infectious diseases of hepatitis B has constituted an acute public health challenge in China. An effective and affordable HBV control model is urgently needed. A national project of Community-based Collaborative Innovation HBV (CCI-HBV) demonstration areas has optimized the existing community healthcare resources and obtained initial results in HBV control. METHODS: Based on the existing community healthcare network, CCI-HBV project combined the community health management and health contract signing service for long-staying residents in hepatitis B screening. Moreover, HBV field research strategy was popularized in CCI-HBV areas. After screening, patients with seropositive results were enrolled in corresponding cohorts and received treatment at an early stage. And the uninfected people received medical supports including health education through new media, behavior intervention and HBV vaccinations. In this process, a cloud-based National Information Platform (NIP) was established to collect and store residents' epidemiological data. In addition, a special quality control team was set up for CCI project. RESULTS: After two rounds of screening, HBsAg positive rate dropped from 5.05% (with 5,173,003 people screened) to 4.57% (with 3,819,675 people screened), while the rate of new HBV infections was 0.28 per 100 person-years in the fixed cohorts of 2,584,322 people. The quality control team completed PPS sampling simultaneously and established the serum sample database with 2,800,000 serum samples for unified testing. CONCLUSIONS: CCI-HBV project has established a large-scale field research to conduct whole-population screening and intervention. We analyzed the HBsAg prevalence and new infection rate of HBV in the fixed population for the epidemic trend and intervention effect. The purpose of CCI-HBV project is to establish and evaluate a practical model of grid management and field strategy, to realize the new goal to control hepatitis B in China. To provide policymakers with a feasible model, our results are directly applicable. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The project was funded by the Major Projects of Science Research for the 11th and 12th five-year plans of China, entitled "The prevention and control of AIDS, viral hepatitis and other major infectious diseases", Grant Nos. 2009ZX10004901, 2011ZX10004901, 2013ZX10004904, 2014ZX10004007 and 2014ZX10004008.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Computação em Nuvem , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4773-4783, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282874

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Microbial infection is an important cause of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which is a syndrome that results in multiple organ dysfunction or failure and is accompanied by an increased short-term risk of mortality. Early detection and treatment of microbial infection can effectively reduce the mortality of patients with ACLF. However, antimicrobial resistance has recently increased due to the increased use of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is important to choose appropriate antibiotics and antifungal agents for early prevention or treatment of patients with microbial infection and ACLF to reduce the occurrence of drug resistance and to reduce patient mortality. This review summarizes the current status in the understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, early diagnosis, treatment, and strategies for prevention of microbial infection in patients with ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/microbiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas , Diagnóstico Precoce , Doença Hepática Terminal/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is no satisfactory way to identify patients who will maintain a response after discontinuation of nuleos(t)ide analogue therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated whether patients with negative results from tests for HBV DNA and HBV RNA (double negative) at the end of treatment maintain a long-term response to treatment. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from a 2-year multi-center randomized controlled trial, and its long-term extension trials, on 130 patients with chronic HBV infection who were positive for the HB e antigen (HBeAg-positive; mean age, 30.8 ± 6.9 years; 72.3% male) and received telbivudine with or without adefovir and stopped therapy after they had HBeAg seroconversion and levels of HBV DNA <300 copies/mL for at least 48 weeks (evaluation cohort). Clinical and laboratory assessments were made every 12 or 16 weeks until clinical relapse (defined as HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mL and level of alanine aminotransferase more than 2-fold the upper limit of normal) or until 4 years off treatment. We validated our findings in a cohort of 40 HBeAg-positive patients (36.5 ± 9.4 years old; 72.5% male) treated with entecavir or tenofovir, and followed after discontinuation for up to 5.5 years. Patients were considered to be negative for HBV DNA if it was not detected in the COBAS Taqman assay. Patients were considered to be negative for HBV RNA if it was not detected by quantitative real-time PCR with 2 different pairs of primers. RESULTS: After 4 years off treatment, in the evaluation cohort, 30.8% of patients had a clinical relapse, 54.7% had virologic relapse (HBV DNA >2000 IU/mL in 2 tests), and 16.8% had reappearance of HBeAg in 2 tests (reversion). A significantly lower proportion of double negative patients had a clinical relapse 4 years later (2/35; 8.0%) than of patients who tested positive for either HBV DNA or RNA (32/102; 31.4%; P = .018). In the validation cohort, after 5.5 years of follow up, a lower proportion of double negative patients had clinical relapse (2/13; 15.4%) than of patients who tested positive for either HBV DNA or RNA at the end of treatment (9/27; 33.3%; P = .286) CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2 independent cohorts, we associated negative results from tests for HBV DNA and RNA (double negative) at the end of treatment with continued response 4 or more years after discontinuation of therapy in HBeAg-positive patients. These results might be used to identify the best candidates for discontinuation of nuleos(t)ide analogue therapy.

10.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 65, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b is recommended for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to investigate the sustainability of off-treatment responses among Chinese HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN alfa-2b from a randomized trial. METHODS: Eligible Chinese patients (n = 322) were followed up by one visit after a median of 6 years (LTFU) following their participation in a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of three PEG-IFN alfa-2b dosing regimens (1.0 or 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 24 weeks or 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 48 weeks). Primary endpoints at the LTFU were sustained SR and CR (SR/CR at the end of original study [EOS] and at the LTFU). SR was defined as HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe and CR as HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe and HBV-DNA < 2000 IU/mL. RESULTS: The proportions of patients achieving sustained SR among patients who had SR at EOS were high in three treatment groups (61.9, 65.5, 76.5%, respectively, p = 0.46); treatment with PEG-IFN alfa-2b 1.5 µg/kg/wk. 48 weeks had the highest proportion of a sustained CR among patients who had CR at EOS (75.0%, p = 0.05). A considerable number of patients achieved sustained SR (18.2-29.9%) and sustained CR (14.8-18.3%) after EOS despite no further NA treatment. At the LTFU, rates of SR and CR were less than 70.0 and 50.0%, respectively, among all enrolled patients regardless of additional nucleos(t)ide analogs before the LTFU. CONCLUSIONS: PEG IFN alfa-2b therapy had considerable off-treatment sustainability in Chinese HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients with serological and complete responses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Interferon alfa-2/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hepatol Int ; 13(3): 260-269, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Long-term treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has demonstrated suppression of viral replication outside of China. This study aims to assess efficacy, resistance and safety of TDF for up to 240 weeks in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: Patients (HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative) who were randomised to receive TDF 300 mg or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) 10 mg once daily in the 48-week double-blind phase (N = 498) were eligible to enter the open-label TDF phase (TDF-TDF and ADV-TDF groups) for additional 192 weeks. RESULTS: Overall, 457/512 (89.3%) randomised patients completed 240 weeks of treatment. Virological suppression was achieved in 84.5% and 87.9% in HBeAg-positive patients and 89.6% and 89.5% in HBeAg-negative patients in TDF-TDF and ADV-TDF groups, respectively, at week 240. The majority of patients from both groups had normalized alanine transaminase levels. More patients had HBeAg loss (41.7% vs. 36.4%) and HBeAg seroconversion (32.0% vs. 28.3%) in TDF-TDF than in ADV-TDF group, respectively. Only one HBeAg-positive patient in TDF-TDF group had HBsAg loss at week 240. No evidence of resistance to TDF was observed. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups (TDF-TDF, 56.4% vs. ADV-TDF, 51.6%). One patient had serum creatinine elevation ≥ 0.5 mg/dL above baseline, and three patients had confirmed grade 3/4 phosphorus abnormalities (< 2 mg/dL). CONCLUSION: In Chinese patients with chronic HBV, long-term treatment with TDF showed sustained viral suppression without development of resistance up to 240 weeks. No new safety concerns were found with TDF in this patient population. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT01300234; GSK Clinical Study Register 114648.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cell Transplant ; 28(8): 1033-1038, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922067

RESUMO

To determine whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are connected, and assess the role played by NAFLD in ICH development. A retrospective study evaluated inpatients treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. We divided the patients into Group A (ICH with NAFLD) and Group B (ICH alone). Moreover, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. A total of 128 patients were included: 34 ICH with NAFLD (group A) and 94 ICH (group B). Sixteen patients exhibited an unfavorable outcome. There was no significant difference among the two groups on the underlying diseases hypertension and heart disease. Group A had more diabetes mellitus cases (35.29% vs 12.76%, p = 0.004). Levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride were higher in group A than in group B (all p < 0.05), while differences in other blood biochemistry tests were statistically insignificant (all p > 0.05). There was a similarity in bleeding sites except for brainstem hemorrhage, which was higher in group B patients (p = 0.036). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low-density lipoprotein (OR, 0.278; 95% CI (0.107-0.702), p = 0.008) was a protective factor for ICH patients with NAFLD. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at discharge (OR, 3.152; 95% CI (1.532-6.486), p = 0.002) was independent of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. Serum levels of LDL was a protective factor. NAFLD did not increase the unfavorable outcome of ICH patients in our study.

13.
Liver Int ; 39(7): 1207-1216, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HB-ACLF) may have an increased circulating microbial burden. This study aimed to assess circulating microbial load and composition and to explore the association between the circulating microbiome and both systemic inflammation (SI) and clinical outcome in HB-ACLF. METHODS: Plasma from 50 HB-ACLF patients, 23 healthy controls and 25 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis (C-LC) was analysed for chemokines/cytokines and bacterial DNA and further analysed by 16S rDNApyrosequencing. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) and inferred metagenomics analyses were performed. RESULTS: The circulating bacterial DNA was significantly increased in HB-ACLF patients compared to that in the control groups. The overall microbial diversity was significantly decreased in HB-ACLF patients. HB-ACLF patients were enriched with Moraxellaceae, Sulfurovum, Comamonas and Burkholderiaceae but were depleted in Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Alphaproteobacteria, Xanthomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae compared to controls. Network analysis revealed a direct positive correlation between Burkholderiaceae and chemokine IP-10 in HB-ACLF patients. The relative abundance of Prevotellaceae independently predicted 28-day mortality. Inferred functional metagenomics predicted an enrichment of bacteria with genes related to methane, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, pyrimidine, purine and energy metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: HB-ACLF patients display increased circulating microbial burden, altered microbiome composition and a shift in microbiome functionality. The alteration in circulating microbiota is associated with SI and clinical outcome in HB-ACLF.

14.
Infection ; 47(3): 497-500, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A woman infected by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is reported in this study. CASE REPORT: Tigecycline and meropenem combination was used, and indeed, in vitro checkerboard synergy test confirmed the antagonism between the two antibiotics. Thus, meropenem was ceased and single high-dose tigecycline was successful against the infection. Subsequent experiments showed that the isolates of the KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 clone caused the infection. CONCLUSION: Therefore, tigecycline and meropenem combination should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Meropeném/antagonistas & inibidores , Tigeciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adulto , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(4): 2324-2332, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734486

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance is the most prominent symptom in depressive patients and was formerly regarded as a main secondary manifestation of depression. However, many longitudinal studies have identified insomnia as an independent risk factor for the development of emerging or recurrent depression among young, middle-aged and older adults. This bidirectional association between sleep disturbance and depression has created a new perspective that sleep problems are no longer an epiphenomenon of depression but a predictive prodromal symptom. In this review, we highlight the treatment of sleep disturbance before, during and after depression, which probably plays an important role in improving outcomes and preventing the recurrence of depression. In clinical practice, pharmacological therapies, including hypnotics and antidepressants, and non-pharmacological therapies are typically applied. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms between sleep disturbance and depression can help psychiatrists better manage this comorbidity.

16.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(3): 263-269, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGH) is a life-threatening complication in patients with cirrhosis; however, data regarding the role of UGH in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited. METHODS: A prospective, observational cohort study was performed from February 2014 to Mach 2015. RESULTS: UGH was identified in 170 of 492 cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation (AD) at the time of admission. Logistic regression analysis showed that fecal occult blood test positivity was an independent risk factor for UGH in patients with or without ACLF [OR(95%CI): 8.31(4.89-14.10), p < 0.001; and 6.29 (1.48-26.76), p = 0.031]. Other independent risk factors were a history of gastrointestinal bleeding [OR(95% CI): 13.43 (7.17-25.15), p < 0.001], older age [OR(95% CI): 0.98(0.96-0.99), p = 0.003], greater INR level [OR(95% CI): 0.48(0.28-0.81), p = 0.007] in patients without ACLF. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis indicated that UGH did not increase mortality at different times in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. CONCLUSIONS: UGH is a frequent complication in cirrhotic patients with AD, even those with ACLF. Positive fecal occult blood tests and previous GI bleeding were shown to be associated with the risk of UGH. UGH did not significantly increase the risk of mortality in cirrhotic patients with AD or ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 81: 46-51, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to conduct a multicentre evaluation of the performance of the biochip assay in the rapid identification of mycobacteria in smear-positive sputum specimens. METHODS: A total of 1751 sputum specimens were obtained from 7 cities in Zhejiang, China. All of the specimens were used for the discrimination of Mycobacterium species using the biochip assay, and the results were compared to the golden standard method of culture, hsp65, 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis. RESULTS: In the 1751 sputum specimens, 1685 samples were cultured successfully; among these samples, 1361 were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 323 were NTM and 1 was Nocadia farcinica. Of the 323 NTM, most of them were Mycobacterium intracellulare(52.5%) followed by Mycobacterium abscessus (20.7%), Mycobacterium avium (11.7%), Mycobacterium kansasii (9.6%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum (1.9%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the biochip assay to differentiate TB and NTM from AFB positive specimens were 99.8%, 99.7%, 99.9%, 99.1%, 98.8%, 1, 1, and 99.7%, respectively. The concordance between the biochip assay and mycobacterial culture for the identification of NTM species was 95.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The biochip assay is a reliable tool for the rapid identification of most mycobacteria in clinical sputum specimens. This assay can be helpful for physicians in the early diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterium infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Escarro/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hepatol Res ; 49(1): 42-50, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246902

RESUMO

AIM: Flare-ups of chronic hepatitis B can sometimes be severe and even progress to acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), with high short-term mortality. A timely estimation of the risk of death should be initiated early. The aim of the present study was to determine whether novel biomarkers add prognostic information beyond current clinical scoring systems. METHODS: Patients with hepatitis B-associated ACLF were prospectively enrolled from five hospitals in China between August 2017 and March 2018. Their plasma was screened for soluble CD163 (sCD163), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and copeptin. The association between these biomarkers and mortality was analyzed. The performance of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver-ACLF Research Consortium score, and the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium ACLF score, with or without biomarkers, were compared. RESULTS: One hundred fifty one patients were enrolled. Advanced ACLF patients had significantly higher levels than early ACLF individuals of plasma biomarkers sCD163 (P = 0.001), NGAL (P = 0.006), and copeptin (P = 0.049). Thirty-four deaths occurred during the 28-day follow-up period (22.5%). Both sCD163 and NGAL showed a strong independent association with 28-day mortality, whereas copeptin did not. Scoring systems incorporating sCD163 and NGAL had better discrimination and calibration, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, the Akaike information criteria, integrated discrimination improvement, and net reclassification improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble CD163 and NGAL are independently associated with short-term mortality in hepatitis B-associated ACLF. Use of a combination of sCD163 and NGAL improves prognostication.

19.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 12(11): 1167-1174, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of bacterial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in cirrhotic patients and their impact on mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study of cirrhotic patients with culture-confirmed bacterial infections was performed between 2011 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 635 episodes in 563 patients with cirrhosis were included. Bacterial infections caused by MDR isolates accounted for 44.1% (280/635) of the episodes, nearly half of which were hospital acquired (48.4%). The most common MDR isolation site was the respiratory tract (36.4%, 102 episodes), followed by the abdominal cavity (35.4%, 99 episodes). Of the MDR isolates, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) (91 episodes) were the most common. Patients infected with MDR bacteria had significantly higher mortality than those not infected (25.1% vs 17.4%, p = 0.025). However, this increased mortality could be largely attributed to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After adjustment for age, sex, and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, only MRSA infection was an independent risk factor for 28-day mortality in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis (HR, 2.964, 95% CI (1.175-7.478), p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: MDR bacterial infections, especially CRE, have become frequent in patients with cirrhosis in recent years, with MRSA infections significantly increasing short-term mortality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 30(7): 741-746, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664746

RESUMO

In the past few years, a growing body of clinical evidence has highlighted the risk of vitamin D deficiency in patients with chronic hepatitis C and that vitamin D levels are associated with the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, adverse effects, and treatment response to peginterferon/ribavirin. Recently, studies have found that vitamin D status is related to drug resistance and increased risk of infection in patients with liver cirrhosis. Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms have been found to explain the interactions between vitamin D deficiency and HCV infection, offering a new perspective toward understanding the current problems such as the development of insulin resistance and racial differences in sustained virological response. Studies have been conducted to determine whether vitamin D supplementation as an adjuvant yields a better result compared with traditional HCV treatment. Here, we provide a brief review of the past and present knowledge of vitamin D in HCV infection.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Farmacorresistência Viral , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA