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1.
J Biomech ; 122: 110444, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933864

RESUMO

Probing the mechanical properties of cells is critical for understanding their deformation behaviors and biological functions. Although some methods have been proposed to characterize the elastic properties of cells, it is still difficult to measure their time-dependent properties. This paper investigates the use of atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine the reduced relaxation modulus of cells. In principle, AFM is hard to perform an indentation relaxation test that requires a constant indenter displacement during load relaxation, whereas the real AFM indenter displacement usually varies with time during relaxation due to the relatively small bending stiffness of its cantilever. We investigate this issue through a combined theoretical, computational, and experimental effort. A protocol relying on the choice of appropriate cantilever bending stiffness is proposed to perform an AFM-based indentation relaxation test of cells, which enables the measurement of reduced relaxation modulus with high accuracy. This protocol is first validated by performing nanoindentation relaxation tests on a soft material and by comparing the results with those from independent measurements. Then indentation tests of cartilage cells are conducted to demonstrate this method in determining time-dependent properties of living cells. Finally, the change in the viscoelasticity of MCF-7 cells under hyperthermia is investigated.

2.
Phytomedicine ; : 153560, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dried fruits of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr (BJ) is being widely investigated, both in lab and in clinic, to explore its potential anticancer activity and molecular mechanism involved. PURPOSE: We appraised the available literature and suggested the future research directions to improve the medicinal value of BJ. METHOD: In this review, we have summarized the scientific findings from experimental and clinical studies regarding the anticancer activity and mechanisms. RESULTS: Numerous studies have reported that BJ exerts anticancer effect on various types of cancer lines through inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, inhibiting migration/invasion, inducing autophagy and restraining angiogenesis. Brucea javanica triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of cytochrome C, activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and regulation of a series of signal pathways and proteins related to cancer. The molecular mechanism involved are inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF-κB and Nrf2-Notch1 pathways; up or down modulating the levels of p53, p62, p21, Bax, and Bcl-2 respectively, and inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Brucea javanica's efficacy in treating cancer patients either as a main or supportive treatment is also discussed in this review. CONCLUSION: This review will serve as a comprehensive resource of BJ's potential as anticancer agent and its molecular pathways. The analysis of the literature suggests that BJ can serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7287, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790369

RESUMO

Exercise prevents depression through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-mediated activation of a particular branch of the kynurenine pathway. From kynurenine (KYN), two independent metabolic pathways produce neurofunctionally different metabolites, mainly in somatic organs: neurotoxic intermediate metabolites via main pathway and neuroprotective end product, kynurenic acid (KYNA) via the branch. Elevated levels of KYN have been found in patients with depression. Herein, we investigated whether and how caffeine prevents depression, focusing on the kynurenine pathway. Mice exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) exhibited depressive-like behaviours with an increase and decrease in plasma levels of pro-neurotoxic KYN and neuroprotective KYNA, respectively. However, caffeine rescued CMS-exposed mice from depressive-like behaviours and restored the plasma levels of KYN and KYNA. Concomitantly, caffeine induced a key enzyme converting KYN into KYNA, namely kynurenine aminotransferase-1 (KAT1), in murine skeletal muscle. Upon caffeine stimulation murine myotubes exhibited KAT1 induction and its upstream PGC-1α sustainment. Furthermore, a proteasome inhibitor, but not translational inhibitor, impeded caffeine sustainment of PGC-1α, suggesting that caffeine induced KAT1 by inhibiting proteasomal degradation of PGC-1α. Thus, caffeine protection against CMS-induced depression may be associated with sustainment of PGC-1α levels and the resultant KAT1 induction in skeletal muscle, and thereby consumption of pro-neurotoxic KYN.

4.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 164-169, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explore the effect of downregulating the expression of CyPA gene on the proliferation and invasion of SCC-25 cells. METHODS: A total of 77 cases of patients with OSCC were selected. The expression levels of CyPA proteins in OSCC and adjacent normal tissues were evaluated. SCC-25 cells were cultured and divided into the CyPA interference sequence group, negative control group, and blank group. The expression levels of CyPA mRNA and protein in cells were detected by using real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Cell proliferation was detected by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and plate colony formation assays. Cell invasion was detected by using Transwell assay. RESULTS: The positive expression rate of CyPA protein in OSCC tissues was 76.62%, which was higher than that in adjacent tissues (P<0.05). The positive expression rate of CyPA protein in TNM stage T3+T4, clinical stage Ⅲ+Ⅳ, moderately or poorly differentiated lymph node metastasis was increased (P<0.05). Compared with the negative control and blank groups, the CyPA interference sequence group had decreased relative expression levels of CyPA mRNA and protein (P<0.05); optical density va-lues of cells at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h (P<0.05); and number of cell colonies and invasive cells (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The CyPA protein is highly expressed in OSCC tissues, and the downregulation of CyPA gene expression in SCC-25 cells can reduce cell proliferation and inhibit cell invasion.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ciclofilina A/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114117, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848612

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herba Siegesbeckiae, mainly includes Sigesbeckia orientalis L, Sigesbeckiae pubescens Makino and Sigesbeckiae glabrescens Makino. Herba Siegesbeckiae, also known as 'Xi-Xian Cao' (Chinese: ), has been regarded as an important traditional Chinese medicine since Tang dynasty. The dried aerial parts of Herba Siegesbeckiae are also being used as a herbal medicine in many countries such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam. In China, Herba Siegesbeckiae has been used for the treatment of rheumatic arthralgia with aching and weakness of loins and knees, as well as numbness of limbs. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: The aim of this review was to provide critical analysis on the scientific evidence to support the traditional uses of Herba Siegesbeckiae. The information available on its in botanical characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical studies, toxicity and quality control was summarized to understand the current research and provided the leas for future study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search terms "Herba Siegesbeckiae", "Sigesbeckia orientalis", "Sigesbeckia pubscens" and "Sigesbeckia glabrescens" were used to obtain the information from electronic databases such as Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, Google Scholar and SciFinder Scholar and other web search instruments (Springer, Yahoo search). The information provided in this review was based on peer-reviewed papers in English and Chinese. Besides, information was also collected from ancient documents. RESULT: The studies showed that Herba Siegesbeckiae contains sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, flavonoids and organic acids, etc. Due to these constituents, it displayed numerous pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic, antioxidant, antithrombotic and antibacterial activities. In addition, it showed effects in protecting myocardial and cerebral ischemia injury. CONCLUSIONS: According to its traditional uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinic studies, Herba Siegesbeckiae is regarded as a promising medical plant with various chemical compounds and numerous pharmacological activities. However, fewer experimental studies were focused on toxicity and quantitative study of 3 species. It suggested that further in-depth study of toxicity and quality control were critical for future evaluation of drug efficacy and safety.

6.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871589

RESUMO

Zinc is one of the most important trace elements as it plays a vital role in many biological processes. As well, aberrant zinc metabolism has been implicated in lipid-related metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that zinc antagonizes iron to regulate sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SREBP-SCD) pathway in lipid metabolism in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study we present the identification of another cation diffusion facilitator, CDF-1, which regulates lipid metabolism along with SUR-7 in response to zinc. Inactivation of SBP-1, the only homolog of SREBPs, leads to an increased zinc level but decreased lipid accumulation. However, either the cdf-1(n2527) or sur-7(tm6523) mutation could successfully restore the altered fatty acid profile, fat content, and zinc level of the sbp-1(ep79) mutant. Furthermore, we found that CDF-1/SUR-7 may functionally bypass SBP-1 to directly affect the conversion activity of SCD in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and lipid accumulation. Collectively, these results consistently support the link between zinc homeostasis and lipid metabolism via the SREBP-SCD axis by the cation diffusion facilitators CDF-1 and SUR-7.

7.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891787

RESUMO

Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, also known as ciwujia) belongs to the Araliaceae family, which contains more than 1,500 species in 41 genera with diverse chromosome numbers and genome sizes. General consensus posits that ancient whole-genome duplication events and rapid evolutionary radiation are the driving forces for this variation in genome properties. In an attempt to generate more genomic information for the Araliaceae family, we report here a 1.30 Gb high-quality draft genome assembly (contig N50 = 309.43 kb) of E. senticosus via PacBio long reads and Hi-C chromatin interaction maps. We find that transposable elements account for 72.82 % of the genome and a total of 36,372 protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative analyses of the E. senticosus,Panax notoginseng and Daucus carota genomes reveal a burst expansion of Tekay chromoviral elements in Araliaceae after its divergence with Apiaceae. We also find that E. senticosus underwent a lineage-specific whole-genome duplication event Es-α and a whole-genome duplication event Araliaceae-ß that was likely shared by all Araliaceae species. Even though the rediploidization of the E. senticosus genome is evident, pathway analyses show that these two whole-genome duplication events may have contributed to the adaptation of E. senticosus to cold environment. Taken together, the high-quality genome assembly of E. senticosus provides a valuable genomic resource for future research on the evolution of Araliaceae.

8.
Phytochemistry ; 186: 112739, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773412

RESUMO

Five alkaloids, including two previously undescribed alkaloids, named forsyshiyanines A and B, attributable to the rare skeletons 4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octahydrobenzo[f]quinoline and (6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[c]pyridin-7-yl)methyl, respectively, along with three known ones (3-5), were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. The chemical structures including absolute configurations of two undescribed compounds were established using integrated spectroscopic techniques, electronic circular dichroism calculations, and single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro, five alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activities, with the inhibition rates of the release of ß-glucuronidase from polymorphonuclear leukocytes of rats being in the range 47.9%-56.0% at a concentration of 10 µM. Moreover, five compounds exhibited anti-viral activities against influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus, with IC50 values in the range of 7.3-32.5 µM and EC50 values in the range 3.7-14.1 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Forsythia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Esqueleto
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107464, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677256

RESUMO

Consuming green tea has many health benefits, including regulating bone metabolism and ameliorating osteoporosis, mainly in older and postmenopausal women. This osteoprotective effect has been attributed to the biologically active polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Although EGCG inhibits osteoclastogenesis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Interaction between receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL) and RANK plays critical roles in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and is therefore considered a therapeutic target for osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. In the present study, we found that EGCG can bind directly to RANK and RANKL and interfere with their interaction, thereby suppressing RANKL-induced phosphorylation of IKKα/ß, IκBα, p65, JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 and key downstream regulatory factors, including nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), c-Src, and cathepsin K, in osteoclast precursors. This can ultimately inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, our results show that EGCG can bind directly to RANK and RANKL and block their interaction and that, by inhibiting NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, it negatively regulates RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, regular consumption of EGCG in green tea can inhibit the development and progression of osteoclast-related diseases.

10.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(2): 318-323, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to characterize the genetic abnormalities and prenatal diagnosis indications in one fetus with Cri-du-Chat syndrome with codependent 10q24.2-q26.3 duplication in prenatal screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 31-year-old woman had a second trimester serum screening that indicated the fetus was at low risk. During this pregnancy, the woman underwent amniocentesis at 18+4 weeks' gestation because of adverse fertility history and nuchal fold thickening. Cytogenetic analysis and next-generation sequencing analysis were simultaneously performed to provide genetic analysis of fetal amniotic fluid. According to abnormal results, parental chromosome karyotype of peripheral blood was performed to analysis. RESULTS: CNV-seq detected a 14.00 Mb deletion at 5p15.33-p15.2 and a 34.06 Mb duplication at 10q24.2-q26.3 in the fetus. Cytogenetic analysis of the fetus revealed a karyotype of 46, XY, der(5) t(5;10) (p15.2;q26.3). The karyotype of pregnant women was 46,XX,t(5;10) (p15.2;q24.2). The pregnancy was subsequently terminated after sufficient informed consent. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that reports prenatal diagnosis of a Cri-du-Chat syndrome with concomitant 10 q24.2-q26.3 duplication. Adverse pregnancy history has to be as an important indicator for prenatal diagnosis, and the genetic factors of abnormal pregnancy should be identified before next pregnancy. Nuchal fold thickening is closely related to fetal abnormalities. Combined with ultrasonography, the use of CNV-seq will improve the diagnosis of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations in fetuses with congenital anomalies.

11.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749420

RESUMO

Dendrocandins are characteristic chemical structures of D. officinale and have strong physiological bioactivities. In this study, a dendrocandin analogue (1) has been prepared by total synthesis (9 steps, 12.6% overall yield) in which coupling reaction and Wittig reaction as the key steps. Compound 1 was also evaluated for its anticancer activity in vitro against six human cancer cells (MCF-7, A549, A431, SW480, HepG-2 and HL-60) using MTT assays. Compound 1 showed potent cytotoxicity, with the IC50 value 16.27 ± 0.26 µM. The expression levels of apoptotic proteins indicated that compound 1 can up-regulate the expression of apoptotic proteins, leading to apoptosis. This compound suggested that it's potential as anticancer agent for further development.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587695

RESUMO

Partial multi-label learning (PML) deals with problems where each instance is assigned with a candidate label set, which contains multiple relevant labels and some noisy labels. Recent studies usually solve PML problems with the disambiguation strategy, which recovers ground-truth labels from the candidate label set by simply assuming that the noisy labels are generated randomly. In real applications, however, noisy labels are usually caused by some ambiguous contents of the example. Based on this observation, we propose a partial multi-label learning approach to simultaneously recover the ground-truth information and identify the noisy labels. The two objectives are formalized in a unified framework with trace norm and l1 norm regularizers. Under the supervision of the observed noise-corrupted label matrix, the multi-label classifier and noisy label identifier are jointly optimized by incorporating the label correlation exploitation and feature-induced noise model. Furthermore, by mapping each bag to a feature vector, we extend PML-NI mehtod into multi-instance multi-label learning by identifying noisy labels based on ambiguous instances. A theoretical analysis of generalization bound and extensive experiments on multiple data sets from various real-world tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(2): 1982-2014, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599116

RESUMO

Wild mushrooms are a vital source of income and nutrition for many poor communities and of value to recreational foragers. Literature relating to the edibility of mushroom species continues to expand, driven by an increasing demand for wild mushrooms, a wider interest in foraging, and the study of traditional foods. Although numerous case reports have been published on edible mushrooms, doubt and confusion persist regarding which species are safe and suitable to consume. Case reports often differ, and the evidence supporting the stated properties of mushrooms can be incomplete or ambiguous. The need for greater clarity on edible species is further underlined by increases in mushroom-related poisonings. We propose a system for categorizing mushroom species and assigning a final edibility status. Using this system, we reviewed 2,786 mushroom species from 99 countries, accessing 9,783 case reports, from over 1,100 sources. We identified 2,189 edible species, of which 2,006 can be consumed safely, and a further 183 species which required some form of pretreatment prior to safe consumption or were associated with allergic reactions by some. We identified 471 species of uncertain edibility because of missing or incomplete evidence of consumption, and 76 unconfirmed species because of unresolved, differing opinions on edibility and toxicity. This is the most comprehensive list of edible mushrooms available to date, demonstrating the huge number of mushrooms species consumed. Our review highlights the need for further information on uncertain and clash species, and the need to present evidence in a clear, unambiguous, and consistent manner.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6656365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542921

RESUMO

Macrocybe gigantea (M. gigantea) is a macrofungus genus that contains a big number of fairly fleshy gilled mushrooms with white spores. This macrofungus produces diverse bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and water-soluble polysaccharides. However, the genomic resources of this species remain unknown. Here, we assembled the genome of M. gigantea (41.23 Mb) into 336 scaffolds with a N50 size of 374,455 bp and compared it with the genomes of eleven other macrofungi. Comparative genomics study confirmed that M. gigantea belonged to the Macrocybe genus, a stand-alone genus different from the Tricholoma genus. In addition, we found that glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28) in M. gigantea shared conserved motifs that were significantly different from their counterparts in Tricholoma. The genomic resource uncovered by this study will enhance our understanding of fungi biology, especially the differences in their growth rates and energy metabolism.

15.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly aggressive, with high rates of early relapse and very poor overall prognosis. Amphiregulin (AREG) is the most abundant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agonist in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, whose proliferation can be inhibited by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea that is prone to oxidative polymerization. The effect of dimeric-EGCG, a dimer of oxidized and polymerized EGCG, on MDA-MB-231 cell the proliferation warrants further exploration. METHODS: In the present study, MTT, flow cytometry, migration scratch, transwell, western blotting, and surface plasmon resonance assays were used to evaluate the effect of dimeric-EGCG on MDA-MB-231 cells and explore the underlying mechanism. RESULTS: MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and migration were significantly inhibited by dimeric-EGCG at concentrations as low as 10 µM. Levels of EGFR and p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation in MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly reduced by treatment with 10 µM dimeric-EGCG (P < 0.01). In addition, the levels of phosphorylation induced by exogenous AREG were also inhibited by dimeric-EGCG (P < 0.01); however, no significant effects of dimeric-EGCG were observed on epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor-alpha signaling. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that 10 µM dimeric-EGCG bound directly to the extracellular domain of EGFR, competitively inhibiting the binding of AREG to EGFR. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a novel mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of dimeric-EGCG on MDA-MB-231 cells, with potential application in the development of drugs for the treatment of TNBC.

16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1930706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575321

RESUMO

Background: The tumor-infiltrating immune cells are closely associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). This article is aimed at determining the composition change of immune cells and immune regulatory factors in GC and normal tissues, depicting their prognosis value in GC, and revealing the relationship between them and GC clinical parameters. Methods: We used CIBERSORT to calculate the proportion of 22 immune cells in the GC or normal tissues; a t-test was applied to assess the expression difference of immune cells and immune regulatory factors in normal and GC tissues. The relationship of the immune cells, immune regulatory factors, and GC patients' clinical characteristics was assessed by univariate analysis. Results: In this study, we found that the proportion of macrophages increased, while plasma cells and monocytes decreased in GC tissues. In these immune fractions, Tregs and naïve B cells were found to be correlated with GC patients' prognosis. Interestingly, the expression of immune regulatory factors was ambiguous with their classical function in GC tissues. For example, TIM-3, FOXP3, and CMTM6 were overexpressed, while CD27 and PD-1 were underexpressed in GC tissues. We also found that IDO1, PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 were highly expressed in high-grade GC tissues, the HERC2 expression level was related to patients' gender, and the TIGIT expression level was sensitive to targeted therapy. Furthermore, our results suggested that the infiltration of Tregs and naive B cells was strongly correlated with the T stage, radiation therapy, targeted molecular therapy, and the expression levels of TIM-3 and FOXP3 in GC. Conclusion: The expression pattern of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune regulatory factors was systematically depicted in the GC tumor microenvironment, indicating that individualized treatment based on the tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune regulatory factors may be beneficial to GC patients.

17.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(4): 1375-1382, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386866

RESUMO

An aerobic, Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile bacterial strain, designated SJY2T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of tea plants (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) collected in the organic tea garden of the Jingmai Pu-erh tea district in Pu'er city, Yunnan, southwest China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Paenibacillus. The closest phylogenetic relative was Paenibacillus filicis DSM 23916T (98.1% similarity). The major fatty acids (> 10% of the total fatty acids) were anteiso-C15:0 and isoC16:0. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the major polar lipid was diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The peptidoglycan contained glutamic acid, serine, alanine and meso-diaminopimelic acid. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 6.71 Mbp and a G + C content of 53.1%. Pairwise determined whole genome average nucleotide identity (gANI) values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values suggested that strain SJY2T represents a new species, for which we propose the name Paenibacillus puerhi sp. nov. with the type strain SJY2T (= CGMCC 1.17156T = KCTC 43242T).

18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(4): 1509-1518, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398399

RESUMO

A Gram-staining positive aerobic bacterium, designated TLY-12T, was isolated from the Pu-erh tea pile-fermentation process in Pu'er city, Yunnan, China. Strain TLY-12T grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum, pH 9.0) and 0-9.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and iso-C16:0. The respiratory quinone were menaquinones MK-9 (H2) and MK-9 (H4). The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphoglycolipid (PGL), glycolipid (GL) and an unidentified phospholipid (PL). The peptidoglycan contained glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine, with the last named being the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole-cell sugars of the isolate were ribose, galactose and glucose. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene showed that this strain belonged to the family Promicromonosporaceae, and was most closely related to Isoptericola cucumis DSM 101603 T, which gave sequence similarity of 97.9%. Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 3.91 Mbp and a G + C content of 75.0%. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were all below the species threshold of described Promicromonosporaceae species. Genome phylogenetic analysis showed that strain TLY-12T formed a separate evolutionary branch, and was parallel to other related genera of Promicromonosporaceae. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genome pairwise data, strain TLY-12T is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Promicromonosporaceae, for which the name Puerhibacterium puerhi gen. nov, sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TLY-12T (= CGMCC 1.17157T = KCTC 49467T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinomycetales/classificação , Actinomycetales/genética , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fermentação , Glicolipídeos/análise , Peptidoglicano/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 9, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of lactic acid (LA) on the progression of bone metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) and its regulatory effects on primary CD115 (+) osteoclast (OC) precursors. METHODS: The BrdU assay, Annexin-V/PI assay, TRAP staining and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the effect of LA on the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of OC precursors in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry was performed to sort primary osteoclast precursors and CD4(+) T cells and to analyze the change in the expression of target proteins in osteoclast precursors. A recruitment assay was used to test how LA and Cadhein-11 regulate the recruitment of OC precursors. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to analyze the changes in the mRNA and protein expression of genes related to the PI3K-AKT pathway and profibrotic genes. Safranin O-fast green staining, H&E staining and TRAP staining were performed to analyze the severity of bone resorption and accumulation of osteoclasts. RESULTS: LA promoted the expression of CXCL10 and Cadherin-11 in CD115(+) precursors through the PI3K-AKT pathway. We found that CXCL10 and Cadherin-11 were regulated by the activation of CREB and mTOR, respectively. LA-induced overexpression of CXCL10 in CD115(+) precursors indirectly promoted the differentiation of osteoclast precursors through the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells, and the crosstalk between these two cells promoted bone resorption in bone metastasis from CRC. On the other hand, Cadherin-11 mediated the adhesion between osteoclast precursors and upregulated the production of specific collagens, especially Collagen 5, which facilitated fibrotic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Blockade of the PI3K-AKT pathway efficiently prevented the progression of bone metastasis caused by lactate. CONCLUSION: LA promoted metastatic niche formation in the tumor microenvironment through the PI3K-AKT pathway. Our study provides new insight into the role of LA in the progression of bone metastasis from CRC. Video Abstract.

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