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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(576)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441424

RESUMO

More than 800 million people in the world suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci where genetic variants are associated with kidney function; however, causal genes and pathways for CKD remain unknown. Here, we performed integration of kidney function GWAS and human kidney-specific expression quantitative trait analysis and identified that the expression of beta-mannosidase (MANBA) was lower in kidneys of subjects with CKD risk genotype. We also show an increased incidence of renal failure in subjects with rare heterozygous loss-of-function coding variants in MANBA using phenome-wide association analysis of 40,963 subjects with exome sequencing data. MANBA is a lysosomal gene highly expressed in kidney tubule cells. Deep phenotyping revealed structural and functional lysosomal alterations in human kidneys from subjects with CKD risk alleles and mice with genetic deletion of Manba Manba heterozygous and knockout mice developed more severe kidney fibrosis when subjected to toxic injury induced by cisplatin or folic acid. Manba loss altered multiple pathways, including endocytosis and autophagy. In the absence of Manba, toxic acute tubule injury induced inflammasome activation and fibrosis. Together, these results illustrate the convergence of common noncoding and rare coding variants in MANBA in kidney disease development and demonstrate the role of the endolysosomal system in kidney disease development.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465052

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major epidemiological, clinical and biomedical challenge. During CKD, renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) suffer a persistent inflammatory and profibrotic response. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the main source of energy for TECs, is reduced in kidney fibrosis and contributes to its pathogenesis. To determine if FAO gain-of-function (FAO-GOF) could protect from fibrosis, we generated a conditional transgenic mouse model with overexpression of the fatty acid shuttling enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1 A (CPT1A) in TECs. Cpt1a knock-in mice subjected to three different models of renal fibrosis (unilateral ureteral obstruction, folic acid nephropathy-FAN and adenine induced nephrotoxicity) exhibited decreased expression of fibrotic markers, a blunted pro-inflammatory response and reduced epithelial cell damage and macrophage influx. Protection from fibrosis was also observed when Cpt1a overexpression was induced after FAN. FAO-GOF restituted oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial number and enhanced bioenergetics increasing palmitate oxidation and ATP levels, changes also recapitulated in TECs exposed to profibrotic stimuli. Studies in patients evidenced decreased CPT1 levels and increased accumulation of short and middle chain acyl-carnitines, reflecting impaired FAO in human CKD. We propose that strategies based on FAO-GOF may constitute powerful alternatives to combat fibrosis inherent to CKD.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.

5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104732, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357554

RESUMO

Beauveria bassiana is a promising biocontrol agent due to its entomopathogenic activities and residue-free characteristics. However, its susceptibility to abiotic stresses and naturally low virulence limit the effective application of this fungus. To effectively obtain fungal strains with high biocontrol potential, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to screen mutant libraries generated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Among about 8000 mutants obtained by ARTP mutagenesis, six candidate mutants were selected according to the forward scatter (FSC) signal readings of FACS. B6, with a 37.4% higher FSC reading than wild-type (WT), showed a 32.6% increase in virulence. It also presented a 13.5% decrease in median germinating time (GT50) and a 12.1% increase in blastospore production. Comparative analysis between insect transcriptional responses to B6 and WT infection showed that the immune response coupled with protein digestion and absorption progress was highly activated in B6-infected Galleria mellonella larvae, while fatty acid synthesis was suppressed after 3 days of infection. Our results confirmed the feasibility of sorting B. bassiana with high biocontrol potential via the combination of ARTP and FACS and facilitated the understanding of insect-pathogen interactions, highlighting a new strategy for modifying entomopathogenic fungi to improve the efficiency of biological control.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Mariposas , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Mutagênese , Plasma
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141683, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866749

RESUMO

Adsorption technology has been widely developed and employed for water and air pollution control. Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) emerge as the appropriate adsorbents candidate. To fulfill high capacity and good selectivity for the adsorption, strategies of flexible micropores design and functional group modification that facilitate the physical and chemical effect are considered desirable. The review firstly summarizes the advancements in structural studies of CMPs and the applications for contaminants adsorption from water and air. Further, the mechanisms involved in the remarkable capacity and selectivity of CMPs adsorbents are addressed. Finally, upcoming research efforts on materials design, adsorption principle, and resource recovery to overcome current practical bottlenecks are proposed.

7.
Cell Metab ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301705

RESUMO

Kidney disease is poorly understood because of the organ's cellular diversity. We used single-cell RNA sequencing not only in resolving differences in injured kidney tissue cellular composition but also in cell-type-specific gene expression in mouse models of kidney disease. This analysis highlighted major changes in cellular diversity in kidney disease, which markedly impacted whole-kidney transcriptomics outputs. Cell-type-specific differential expression analysis identified proximal tubule (PT) cells as the key vulnerable cell type. Through unbiased cell trajectory analyses, we show that PT cell differentiation is altered in kidney disease. Metabolism (fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation) in PT cells showed the strongest and most reproducible association with PT cell differentiation and disease. Coupling of cell differentiation and the metabolism was established by nuclear receptors (estrogen-related receptor alpha [ESRRA] and peroxisomal proliferation-activated receptor alpha [PPARA]) that directly control metabolic and PT-cell-specific gene expression in mice and patient samples while protecting from kidney disease in the mouse model.

8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 3075-3084, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345509

RESUMO

To explore the mechanism of Solanum lycopersicum rootstock function in enhancing salt tolerance of grafted seedlings, we examined the growth, Na+ accumulation, amino acid contents and active oxygen metabolism (ROS) in three grafted seedlings treated with and without 175 mmol·L-1 NaCl conditions. RS grafted seedlings were formed by split grafting using salt-sensitive variety 'Zhongza 9'(S) as scion and salt-tolerant variety 'OZ-006'(R) as rootstock, while the other two experiment materials were the scion self-grafted (SS) and rootstock self-grafted (RR) seedlings. The results showed that NaCl stress significantly increased the salt damage index and Na+ content, concomitantly with substantial decrease in growth rate and chlorophyll content of seedlings. More-over, there were significant differences among the grafting combinations, with an order of SS>RS>RR. NaCl stress significantly increased total amino acid content in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings. The amino acid contents were significantly higher than those in the control. There were 9 kinds of amino acid in RR and RS leaves, and 8 kinds in RR and RS roots, with the most significant change in proline. Only 2 and 4 kinds of amino acids in leaves and roots of SS were significantly higher than those in control, respectively. Amino acid contents among three grafted seedlings showed RR>RS>SS under NaCl stress. The contents of amino acid in RR and RS leaves increased by 32.8% and 16.6% compared with SS, and those in RR and RS roots increased by 53.1% and 32.5%, respectively. The changes of ROS were caused by NaCl stress, which enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, the production rate of O2-· and MDA content in both leaves and roots. Among different grafted seedlings, RR had the most prominent increase of antioxidant enzymes activities in leaves and roots, followed by RS, and SS showed the smallest. The active oxygen levels among the three grafted seedlings were show as SS>RS>RR. In summary, rootstock alleviated salt damage of grafted seedlings by inhibiting Na+ transport upward, enhancing amino acid content and antioxidant enzyme activities. The salt tolerance ability showed remarkable difference among three different combinations of rootstock and scion, with a order of RR>RS>SS. Our results suggested that salt tolerance of S. lycopersicum grafted seedlings was mainly affected by the ability of rootstock salt tolerance, followed by scion, and also closely related to the regulation of both amino acid and active oxygen metabolism in seedlings.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Plântula , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estresse Fisiológico
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(46): 29013-29024, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144501

RESUMO

Poor metabolic control and host genetic predisposition are critical for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) development. The epigenome integrates information from sequence variations and metabolic alterations. Here, we performed a genome-wide methylome association analysis in 500 subjects with DKD from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort for DKD phenotypes, including glycemic control, albuminuria, kidney function, and kidney function decline. We show distinct methylation patterns associated with each phenotype. We define methylation variations that are associated with underlying nucleotide variations (methylation quantitative trait loci) and show that underlying genetic variations are important drivers of methylation changes. We implemented Bayesian multitrait colocalization analysis (moloc) and summary data-based Mendelian randomization to systematically annotate genomic regions that show association with kidney function, methylation, and gene expression. We prioritized 40 loci, where methylation and gene-expression changes likely mediate the genotype effect on kidney disease development. Functional annotation suggested the role of inflammation, specifically, apoptotic cell clearance and complement activation in kidney disease development. Our study defines methylation changes associated with DKD phenotypes, the key role of underlying genetic variations driving methylation variations, and prioritizes methylome and gene-expression changes that likely mediate the genotype effect on kidney disease pathogenesis.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2686-2692, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer. No studies yet have attempted to replicate these SNPs in US minority populations. We aimed to replicate the associations of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs with pancreatic cancer and build and test a polygenic risk score (PRS) for pancreatic cancer in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS: We evaluated 31 risk variants in the Multiethnic Cohort and the Southern Community Cohort Study. We included 691 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases and 13,778 controls from African-American, Japanese-American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and white participants. We tested the association between each SNP and PDAC, established a PRS using the 31 SNPs, and tested the association between the score and PDAC risk. RESULTS: Eleven of the 31 SNPs were replicated in the multiethnic sample. The PRS was associated with PDAC risk [OR top vs. middle quintile = 2.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.92)]. Notably, the PRS was associated with PDAC risk in all ethnic groups except Native Hawaiian (OR per risk allele ranged from 1.33 in Native Hawaiians to 1.91 in African Americans; P heterogeneity = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to replicate 11 of the 31 GWAS-identified risk variants for pancreatic cancer in multiethnic populations, including African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Latinos. Our results also suggest a potential utility of PRS with GWAS-identified risk variants for the identification of individuals at increased risk for PDAC across multiple ethnic groups. IMPACT: PRS can potentially be used to stratify pancreatic cancer risk across multiple ethnic groups.

11.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 154(6): 639-654, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776193

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the mechanism of fluid shear stress in regulating the primary cilia assembly or disassembly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) using microfluidic chamber experiments. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that primary cilia assembled under disturbed fluid shear stress (DF) of 1 dyne/cm2, while disassembled under unidirectional shear stress (USS) of 15 dynes/cm2. Disheveled (Dvl2) in Wnt signaling pathway was effectively co-immunoprecipitated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins 8 (Bbs8) and γ-tubulin. Compared with those in the control group, the percentages of ciliated cells with Dvl2 overexpression were found to be 67% and 59.667%, respectively, under USS and DF (an increment of 21-38.7%); while, those with Dvl2 silencing were 16% and 32.667%, respectively, under USS and DF (a decrement of 23-30%). Further, the expression of Bbs8 and γ-tubulin was decreased by RNA interference of Dvl2 but increased with Dvl2 overexpression. The results indicated that Dvl2 played a pivotal role during DF-induced primary cilia assembly, and was important for apical docking of basal bodies through Bbs8 and γ-tubulin.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

13.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(8): 1112-1123, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766472

RESUMO

The global rise in fatty liver is a major public health problem. Thus, it is critical to identify both global and population-specific genetic variants associated with liver fat. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of percent liver fat and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,709 participants from the population-based Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study. Our participants comprised older adults of five U.S. racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 277), Japanese Americans (n = 424), Latinos (n = 348), Native Hawaiians (n = 274), and European Americans (n = 386). The established missense risk variant rs738409 located in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) at 22q13 was confirmed to be associated with percent liver fat (P = 3.52 × 10-15) but more strongly in women than men (P heterogeneity = 0.002). Its frequency correlated with the prevalence of NAFLD across the five ethnic/racial groups. Rs738409 was also associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (beta = 0.028; P = 0.009) and circulating levels of insulin (beta = 0.022; P = 0.020) and alanine aminotransferase (beta = 0.016; P = 0.030). A novel association of percent liver fat with rs77249491 (located at 6q13 between limb region 1 domain containing 1 [LMBRD1] and collagen type XIX alpha 1 chain [COL19A1] (P = 1.42 × 10-8) was also observed. Rs7724941 was associated with HOMA-IR (beta = 0.12; P = 0.0005), insulin (beta = 0.11; P = 0.0003), triglycerides (beta = 0.059; P = 0.01), high-density lipoprotein (beta = -0.046; P = 0.04), and sex hormone binding globulin (beta = -0.084; P = 0.0012). This variant was present in Japanese Americans (minor allele frequency [MAF], 8%) and Native Hawaiians (MAF, 2%). Conclusion: We replicated the PNPLA3 rs738409 association in a multiethnic population and identified a novel liver fat risk variant in Japanese Americans and Native Hawaiians. GWASes of percent liver fat in East Asian and Oceanic populations are needed to replicate the rs77249491 association.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 2877-2888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764886

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of our research was to analyze and compare the pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin, calycosin, calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside, and 6-gingerol in the blood and brain tissue of normal and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats by HPLC-MS/MS method. Methods: The blood and brain tissue samples of normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats were compared. The blood and brain tissue samples were collected by using microdialysis technique. The concentrations of paeoniflorin, calycosin, calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside, and 6-gingerol in blood and brain tissues were determined by the HPLC-MS/MS internal standard method. Results: Compared with the normal group, the model group after the administration of the Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction showed that Cmax blood, AUC0-t blood, and AUC0-inf blood of paeoniflorin were increased, CLblood, t1/2 brain, and Vbrain of paeoniflorin were decreased; Cmaxblood, AUC0-tblood, AUC0-infblood, and average residence time (MRTbrain) of calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside were decreased and the CLblood and Cmax brain of calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside were increased; Cmax blood of calycosin was decreased, Vblood and Vbrain of calycosin were increased; Cmax blood, AUC0-t blood, AUC0-inf blood, and MRTbrain of 6-gingerol were decreased, CLblood of 6-gingerol was increased. Conclusion: This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive. It is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction in the blood and brain tissue of rats. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury increased the content of paeoniflorin, calycosin, calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside, and 6-gingerol in the blood, affecting the clearance rate of paeoniflorin in the brain, the detention time of calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside and the 6-gingerol in the brain. In normal and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats, the content of paeoniflorin and 6-gingerol in the blood was higher than that in brain tissue, while the content of calycosin, calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside in the brain tissue was higher than that in blood, suggesting that calycosin and calycosin-7-o-ß-d-6-glucoside have brain targeting properties.

15.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 4: 32-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In studies of men of European ancestry, rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair pathway genes have been shown to be associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. The contribution of rare coding variation to prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry has not been established. METHODS: We sequenced a panel of 19 DNA repair and cancer predisposition genes in 2,453 African American and 1,151 Ugandan prostate cancer cases and controls. Rare variants were classified as pathogenic or putatively functionally disruptive and examined in association with prostate cancer risk and disease aggressiveness in gene and pathway-level association analyses. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants were found in 75 out of 2,098 cases (3.6%) and 31 out of 1,481 controls (2.1%) (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.19 to 2.79, P=0.0044) with the association being stronger for more aggressive disease phenotypes (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.54 to 6.23, P=0.0022). The highest risks for aggressive disease were observed with pathogenic variants in the ATM, BRCA2, PALB2 and NBN genes, with odds ratios ranging from ~4 to 15 in the combined study sample of African American and Ugandan men. Rare, non-pathogenic, non-synonymous variants did not have a major impact on risk of overall prostate cancer or disease aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes have appreciable effects on risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. These findings have potential implications for panel testing and risk stratification in this high-risk population.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39135-39148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642887

RESUMO

Environmental protection and economic development seem to be controversial, and there have been opposite views for a long time. Hence, in this article, representative indicators of economy and environment are selected to analyze the external correlation and the internal relationship between environment and economy from the perspective of coupling coordination. The results show that environmental protection may slow down economic growth in the short term. However, their correlation becomes increasingly stronger with higher degree of coupling, and as the result in the long run, environmental protection can gradually improve the infrastructure of economic development, and environmental and economic development will become more closely coordinated in promoting green economic development. It is demonstrated that an effective way to promoting economic development is to promote scientific and technological innovation and cultivate high-end talents and improve regional cooperation, which can reduce the negative effect of environmental protection on economic development. It is also necessary to enhance the positive impact of environmental protection on economic development by transforming the mode of economic development, developing the environmental protection industry, and raising people's awareness of environmental protection. Thus, the coupling coordination between environment and economy can sustain, with both continuously bolstered.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , China , Indústrias
17.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(13): 2275-2284, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491157

RESUMO

Statistical imputation applied to genome-wide array data is the most cost-effective approach to complete the catalog of genetic variation in a study population. However, imputed genotypes in underrepresented populations incur greater inaccuracies due to ascertainment bias and a lack of representation among reference individuals, further contributing to the obstacles to study these populations. Here we examined the consequences due to the lack of representation by genotyping in a large number of self-reported Native Hawaiians (N = 3693) a functionally important, Polynesian-specific variant in the CREBRF gene, rs373863828. We found the derived allele was significantly associated with several adiposity traits with large effects (e.g. ~ 1.28 kg/m2 per allele in body mass index as the most significant; P = 7.5 × 10-5), consistent with the original findings in Samoans. Due to the current absence of Polynesian representation in publicly accessible reference sequences, rs373863828 or its proxies could not be tested through imputation using these existing resources. Moreover, the association signals at the entire CREBRF locus could not be captured by alternative approaches, such as admixture mapping. In contrast, highly accurate imputation can be achieved even if a small number (<200) of internally constructed Polynesian reference individuals were available; this would increase sample size and improve the statistical evidence of associations. Taken together, our results suggest the alarming possibility that lack of representation in reference panels could inhibit discovery of functionally important loci such as CREBRF. Yet, they could be easily detected and prioritized with improved representation of diverse populations in sequencing studies.

19.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1381-1388, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The four-kallikrein (4K) panel has been demonstrated to improve prediction of aggressive prostate cancer compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) among men with moderately elevated PSA levels. However, the development and testing of the 4K panel has been conducted primarily in White men, with limited data in African Americans and no studies in other racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: We evaluated the 4K panel in a nested case-control study among African American, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and White men in the Multiethnic Cohort. Prediagnostic blood levels of free, intact, and total PSA and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured among 1,667 incident prostate cancer cases and 691 controls with PSA ≥2 ng/mL. We evaluated the discriminative ability of the 4K panel within and across all racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: The 4K panel enhanced discrimination of overall prostate cancer compared with free plus total PSA and total PSA alone (AUC 0.748 vs. 0.711 and 0.669, respectively). Discrimination was further enhanced for Gleason 8+ prostate cancer, aggressive prostate cancer, and death due to prostate cancer, and to a lesser degree for nonaggressive prostate cancer. Improvement of the 4K panel over PSA was observed in each population. Adding a prostate cancer polygenic risk score slightly improved upon the discriminative ability of the 4K panel. CONCLUSIONS: The superior discriminative ability of the 4K panel over PSA for overall and aggressive prostate cancer across multiethnic populations indicates the broad clinical applicability of the 4K panel. IMPACT: Our multiethnic investigation suggests potential for the 4K panel to improve current prostate cancer screening practices.

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