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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2606-2614, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045524

RESUMO

Since greenhouse gas mitigation efforts are mostly being implemented in cities, the ability to quantify emission trends for urban environments is of paramount importance. However, previous aircraft work has indicated large daily variability in the results. Here we use measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO from aircraft over 5 days within an inverse model to estimate emissions from the DC-Baltimore region. Results show good agreement with previous estimates in the area for all three gases. However, aliasing caused by irregular spatiotemporal sampling of emissions is shown to significantly impact both the emissions estimates and their variability. Extensive sensitivity tests allow us to quantify the contributions of different sources of variability and indicate that daily variability in posterior emissions estimates is larger than the uncertainty attributed to the method itself (i.e., 17% for CO2, 24% for CH4, and 13% for CO). Analysis of hourly reported emissions from power plants and traffic counts shows that 97% of the daily variability in posterior emissions estimates is explained by accounting for the sampling in time and space of sources that have large hourly variability and, thus, caution must be taken in properly interpreting variability that is caused by irregular spatiotemporal sampling conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Baltimore , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , District of Columbia , Metano
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(15): 8976-8984, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283190

RESUMO

Current research efforts on the atmospheric impacts of natural gas (NG) have focused heavily on the production, storage/transmission, and processing sectors, with less attention paid to the distribution and end use sectors. This work discusses 23 flights at 14 natural gas-fired power plants (NGPPs) using an aircraft-based mass balance technique and methane/carbon dioxide enhancement ratios (ΔCH4/ΔCO2) measured from stack plumes to quantify the unburned fuel. By comparing the ΔCH4/ΔCO2 ratio measured in stack plumes to that measured downwind, we determined that, within uncertainty of the measurement, all observed CH4 emissions were stack-based, that is, uncombusted NG from the stack rather than fugitive sources. Measured CH4 emission rates (ER) ranged from 8 (±5) to 135 (±27) kg CH4/h (±1σ), with the fractional CH4 throughput lost (loss rate) ranging from -0.039% (±0.076%) to 0.204% (±0.054%). We attribute negative values to partial combustion of ambient CH4 in the power plant. The average calculated emission factor (EF) of 5.4 (+10/-5.4) g CH4/million British thermal units (MMBTU) is within uncertainty of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EFs. However, one facility measured during startup exhibited substantially larger stack emissions with an EF of 440 (+660/-440) g CH4/MMBTU and a loss rate of 2.5% (+3.8/-2.5%).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gás Natural , Dióxido de Carbono , Metano , Centrais Elétricas
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(29): 14479-14484, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253702

RESUMO

Bromine atoms play a central role in atmospheric reactive halogen chemistry, depleting ozone and elemental mercury, thereby enhancing deposition of toxic mercury, particularly in the Arctic near-surface troposphere. However, direct bromine atom measurements have been missing to date, due to the lack of analytical capability with sufficient sensitivity for ambient measurements. Here we present direct atmospheric bromine atom measurements, conducted in the springtime Arctic. Measured bromine atom levels reached 14 parts per trillion (ppt, pmol mol-1; 4.2 × 108 atoms per cm-3) and were up to 3-10 times higher than estimates using previous indirect measurements not considering the critical role of molecular bromine. Observed ozone and elemental mercury depletion rates are quantitatively explained by the measured bromine atoms, providing field validation of highly uncertain mercury chemistry. Following complete ozone depletion, elevated bromine concentrations are sustained by photochemical snowpack emissions of molecular bromine and nitrogen oxides, resulting in continued atmospheric mercury depletion. This study provides a breakthrough in quantitatively constraining bromine chemistry in the polar atmosphere, where this chemistry connects the rapidly changing surface to pollutant fate.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(14): 8057-8067, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184868

RESUMO

Atomic chlorine (Cl) is a strong atmospheric oxidant that shortens the lifetimes of pollutants and methane in the springtime Arctic, where the molecular halogens Cl2 and BrCl are known Cl precursors. Here, we quantify the contributions of reactive chlorine trace gases and present the first observations, to our knowledge, of ClNO2 (another Cl precursor), N2O5, and HO2NO2 in the Arctic. During March - May 2016 near Utqiagvik, Alaska, up to 21 ppt of ClNO2, 154 ppt of Cl2, 27 ppt of ClO, 71 ppt of N2O5, 21 ppt of BrCl, and 153 ppt of HO2NO2 were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The main Cl precursor was calculated to be Cl2 (up to 73%) in March, while BrCl was a greater contributor (63%) in May, when total Cl production was lower. Elevated levels of ClNO2, N2O5, Cl2, and HO2NO2 coincided with pollution influence from the nearby town of Utqiagvik and the North Slope of Alaska (Prudhoe Bay) Oilfields. We propose a coupled mechanism linking NOx with Arctic chlorine chemistry. Enhanced Cl2 was likely the result of the multiphase reaction of Cl-(aq) with ClONO2, formed from the reaction of ClO and NO2. In addition to this NOx-enhanced chlorine chemistry, Cl2 and BrCl were observed under clean Arctic conditions from snowpack photochemical production. These connections between NOx and chlorine chemistry, and the role of snowpack recycling, are important given increasing shipping and fossil fuel extraction predicted to accompany Arctic sea ice loss.


Assuntos
Cloro , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Alaska , Regiões Árticas , Halogênios
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(9): 4977-4987, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002496

RESUMO

Aerosol phase state is critical for quantifying aerosol effects on climate and air quality. However, significant challenges remain in our ability to predict and quantify phase state during its evolution in the atmosphere. Herein, we demonstrate that aerosol phase (liquid, semisolid, solid) exhibits a diel cycle in a mixed forest environment, oscillating between a viscous, semisolid phase state at night and liquid phase state with phase separation during the day. The viscous nighttime particles existed despite higher relative humidity and were independently confirmed by bounce factor measurements and atomic force microscopy. High-resolution mass spectrometry shows the more viscous phase state at night is impacted by the formation of terpene-derived and higher molecular weight secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and smaller inorganic sulfate mass fractions. Larger daytime particulate sulfate mass fractions, as well as a predominance of lower molecular weight isoprene-derived SOA, lead to the liquid state of the daytime particles and phase separation after greater uptake of liquid water, despite the lower daytime relative humidity. The observed diel cycle of aerosol phase should provoke rethinking of the SOA atmospheric lifecycle, as it suggests diurnal variability in gas-particle partitioning and mixing time scales, which influence aerosol multiphase chemistry, lifetime, and climate impacts.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Sulfatos , Aerossóis , Química Orgânica , Florestas
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(1): 287-295, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520634

RESUMO

Urban areas contribute approximately three-quarters of fossil fuel derived CO2 emissions, and many cities have enacted emissions mitigation plans. Evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation efforts will require measurement of both the emission rate and its change over space and time. The relative performance of different emission estimation methods is a critical requirement to support mitigation efforts. Here we compare results of CO2 emissions estimation methods including an inventory-based method and two different top-down atmospheric measurement approaches implemented for the Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. urban area in winter. By accounting for differences in spatial and temporal coverage, as well as trace gas species measured, we find agreement among the wintertime whole-city fossil fuel CO2 emission rate estimates to within 7%. This finding represents a major improvement over previous comparisons of urban-scale emissions, making urban CO2 flux estimates from this study consistent with local and global emission mitigation strategy needs. The complementary application of multiple scientifically driven emissions quantification methods enables and establishes this high level of confidence and demonstrates the strength of the joint implementation of rigorous inventory and atmospheric emissions monitoring approaches.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Combustíveis Fósseis , Indiana
7.
Science ; 361(6398): 186-188, 2018 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930092

RESUMO

Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated by using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 teragrams per year, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas production. This value is ~60% higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency inventory estimate, likely because existing inventory methods miss emissions released during abnormal operating conditions. Methane emissions of this magnitude, per unit of natural gas consumed, produce radiative forcing over a 20-year time horizon comparable to the CO2 from natural gas combustion. Substantial emission reductions are feasible through rapid detection of the root causes of high emissions and deployment of less failure-prone systems.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 700, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951540

RESUMO

Oxidation of bromide in aqueous environments initiates the formation of molecular halogen compounds, which is important for the global tropospheric ozone budget. In the aqueous bulk, oxidation of bromide by ozone involves a [Br•OOO-] complex as intermediate. Here we report liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements that provide direct experimental evidence for the ozonide and establish its propensity for the solution-vapour interface. Theoretical calculations support these findings, showing that water stabilizes the ozonide and lowers the energy of the transition state at neutral pH. Kinetic experiments confirm the dominance of the heterogeneous oxidation route established by this precursor at low, atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations. Taken together, our results provide a strong case of different reaction kinetics and mechanisms of reactions occurring at the aqueous phase-vapour interface compared with the bulk aqueous phase.Heterogeneous oxidation of bromide in atmospheric aqueous environments has long been suspected to be accelerated at the interface between aqueous solution and air. Here, the authors provide spectroscopic, kinetic and theoretical evidence for a rate limiting, surface active ozonide formed at the interface.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(38): 10053-10058, 2017 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874585

RESUMO

During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ∼1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(14): 8001-8009, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678487

RESUMO

Methane emissions from oil and gas facilities can exhibit operation-dependent temporal variability; however, this variability has yet to be fully characterized. A field campaign was conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas, to examine spatiotemporal variability of methane emissions using four methods. Clusters of methane-emitting sources were estimated from 14 aerial surveys of two ("East" or "West") 35 × 35 km grids, two aircraft-based mass balance methods measured emissions repeatedly at five gathering facilities and three flares, and emitting equipment source-types were identified via helicopter-based infrared camera at 13 production and gathering facilities. Significant daily variability was observed in the location, number (East: 44 ± 20% relative standard deviation (RSD), N = 7; West: 37 ± 30% RSD, N = 7), and emission rates (36% of repeat measurements deviate from mean emissions by at least ±50%) of clusters of emitting sources. Emission rates of high emitters varied from 150-250 to 880-1470 kg/h and regional aggregate emissions of large sources (>15 kg/h) varied up to a factor of ∼3 between surveys. The aircraft-based mass balance results revealed comparable variability. Equipment source-type changed between surveys and alterations in operational-mode significantly influenced emissions. Results indicate that understanding temporal emission variability will promote improved mitigation strategies and additional analysis is needed to fully characterize its causes.


Assuntos
Metano , Gás Natural , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Texas
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(17): 9533-9542, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732168

RESUMO

Multiphase reactions involving sea spray aerosol (SSA) impact trace gas budgets in coastal regions by acting as a reservoir for oxidized nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as being a source of halogen gases (HCl, ClNO2, etc.). Whereas most studies of multiphase reactions on SSA have focused on marine environments, far less is known about SSA transported inland. Herein, single-particle measurements of SSA are reported at a site >320 km from the Gulf of Mexico, with transport times of 7-68 h. Samples were collected during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June-July 2013 near Centreville, Alabama. SSA was observed in 93% of 42 time periods analyzed. During two marine air mass periods, SSA represented significant number fractions of particles in the accumulation (0.2-1.0 µm, 11%) and coarse (1.0-10.0 µm, 35%) modes. Chloride content of SSA particles ranged from full to partial depletion, with 24% of SSA particles containing chloride (mole fraction of Cl/Na ≥ 0.1, 90% chloride depletion). Both the frequent observation of SSA at an inland site and the range of chloride depletion observed suggest that SSA may represent an underappreciated inland sink for NOx/SO2 oxidation products and a source of halogen gases.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Cloretos , Alabama , Halogênios , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(6): 3373-3381, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221780

RESUMO

Presently, there is high uncertainty in estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from natural gas-fired power plants (NGPP) and oil refineries, two major end users of natural gas. Therefore, we measured CH4 and CO2 emissions at three NGPPs and three refineries using an aircraft-based mass balance technique. Average CH4 emission rates (NGPPs: 140 ± 70 kg/h; refineries: 580 ± 220 kg/h, 95% CL) were larger than facility-reported estimates by factors of 21-120 (NGPPs) and 11-90 (refineries). At NGPPs, the percentage of unburned CH4 emitted from stacks (0.01-0.08%) was much lower than respective facility-scale losses (0.09-0.34%), and CH4 emissions from both NGPPs and refineries were more strongly correlated with enhanced H2O concentrations (R2avg = 0.65) than with CO2 (R2avg = 0.21), suggesting noncombustion-related equipment as potential CH4 sources. Additionally, calculated throughput-based emission factors (EF) derived from the NGPP measurements made in this study were, on average, a factor of 4.4 (stacks) and 37 (facility-scale) larger than industry-used EFs. Subsequently, throughput-based EFs for both the NGPPs and refineries were used to estimate total U.S. emissions from these facility-types. Results indicate that NGPPs and oil refineries may be large sources of CH4 emissions and could contribute significantly (0.61 ± 0.18 Tg CH4/yr, 95% CL) to U.S. emissions.


Assuntos
Metano , Gás Natural , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aeronaves , Centrais Elétricas
14.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 122(17): 9467-9484, 2017 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308343

RESUMO

Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occassionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during winter months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emissions estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1, and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C day-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997362

RESUMO

The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities. INFLUX's scientific objectives are to quantify CO2 and CH4 emission rates at 1 km resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer) temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban emissions are a central facet of our experimental design. INFLUX was initiated in 2010 and measurements and analyses are ongoing. To date we have quantified urban atmospheric GHG enhancements using aircraft and towers with measurements collected over multiple years, and have estimated whole-city CO2 and CH4 emissions using aircraft and tower GHG measurements, and inventory methods. Significant differences exist across methods; these differences have not yet been resolved; research to reduce uncertainties and reconcile these differences is underway. Sectorally- and spatially-resolved flux estimates, and detection of changes of fluxes over time, are also active research topics. Major challenges include developing methods for distinguishing anthropogenic from biogenic CO2 fluxes, improving our ability to interpret atmospheric GHG measurements close to urban GHG sources and across a broader range of atmospheric stability conditions, and quantifying uncertainties in inventory data products. INFLUX data and tools are intended to serve as an open resource and test bed for future investigations. Well-documented, public archival of data and methods is under development in support of this objective.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(22): 12394-12400, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768281

RESUMO

During springtime, unique halogen chemistry involving chlorine and bromine atoms controls the prevalence of volatile organic compounds, ozone, and mercury in the Arctic lower troposphere. In situ measurements of the chlorine monoxide radical, ClO, and its precursor, Cl2, along with BrO and Br2, were conducted using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) during the Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) near Barrow, Alaska, in March 2012. To our knowledge, these data represent the first ClO measurements made using CIMS. A maximum daytime ClO concentration of 28 ppt was observed following an early morning peak of 75 ppt of Cl2. A zero-dimensional photochemistry model was constrained to Cl2 observations and used to simulate ClO during a 7-day period of the field campaign. The model simulates ClO within the measurement uncertainty, and the model results highlight the importance of chlorine chemistry participation in bromine radical cycling, as well as the dependence of halogen chemistry on NOx levels. The ClO measurements and simulations are consistent with Cl2 being the dominant Cl atom source in the Arctic boundary layer. Simulated Cl atom concentrations, up to ∼1 × 106 molecules cm-3, highlight the importance of chlorine chemistry in the degradation of volatile organic compounds, including the greenhouse gas methane.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Cloro/química , Ozônio/química , Regiões Árticas , Bromo/química , Halogênios/química
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(16): 8910-7, 2016 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27487422

RESUMO

This paper describes process-based estimation of CH4 emissions from sources in Indianapolis, IN and compares these with atmospheric inferences of whole city emissions. Emissions from the natural gas distribution system were estimated from measurements at metering and regulating stations and from pipeline leaks. Tracer methods and inverse plume modeling were used to estimate emissions from the major landfill and wastewater treatment plant. These direct source measurements informed the compilation of a methane emission inventory for the city equal to 29 Gg/yr (5% to 95% confidence limits, 15 to 54 Gg/yr). Emission estimates for the whole city based on an aircraft mass balance method and from inverse modeling of CH4 tower observations were 41 ± 12 Gg/yr and 81 ± 11 Gg/yr, respectively. Footprint modeling using 11 days of ethane/methane tower data indicated that landfills, wastewater treatment, wetlands, and other biological sources contribute 48% while natural gas usage and other fossil fuel sources contribute 52% of the city total. With the biogenic CH4 emissions omitted, the top-down estimates are 3.5-6.9 times the nonbiogenic city inventory. Mobile mapping of CH4 concentrations showed low level enhancement of CH4 throughout the city reflecting diffuse natural gas leakage and downstream usage as possible sources for the missing residual in the inventory.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Indiana , Gás Natural , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
18.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 30(13): 1627-38, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27321851

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Despite ample research into the atmospheric oxidation of α-pinene, an important precursor to biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, the identification of its reaction products, specifically organic nitrates, which impact atmospheric NOx concentrations, is still incomplete. This negatively impacts our understanding of α-pinene oxidation chemistry and its relation to air quality. METHODS: Photochemical chamber experiments were conducted in conjunction with mass spectrometric techniques, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight (HPLC/TOF), and paper spray ionization MS, to investigate products from the OH radical initiated oxidation of α-pinene under high NOx conditions. RESULTS: Over 30 compounds were tentatively identified, including those newly detected from photochemical chamber studies of α-pinene oxidation, pinocamphenol, fencholenic aldehyde, and α-pinene-derived nitrate isomers. α-Pinene-derived hydroxynitrate isomers were successfully detected using chromatographic methods, demonstrating, for the first time, the identification of individual first-generation organic nitrate products derived from α-pinene. The application of paper spray ionization to particle-phase compounds collected on filters represents a novel method for the direct analysis of filter samples at ambient pressure and temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The use of HPLC/TOF and paper spray ionization methods to identify previously unobserved α-pinene-derived products helps lower the uncertainty in α-pinene oxidation chemistry and provides new platforms that can be used to identify and quantify important atmospheric compounds that relate to air quality in a complex sample matrix, such as ambient aerosol particles. Additionally, the use of paper spray ionization for direct filter analysis is a fast, relatively inexpensive sample preparation technique that can be used to reduce sample manipulation from solvent-induced reactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(6): 1516-21, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26811465

RESUMO

Speciated particle-phase organic nitrates (pONs) were quantified using online chemical ionization MS during June and July of 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. A large fraction of pONs is highly functionalized, possessing between six and eight oxygen atoms within each carbon number group, and is not the common first generation alkyl nitrates previously reported. Using calibrations for isoprene hydroxynitrates and the measured molecular compositions, we estimate that pONs account for 3% and 8% of total submicrometer organic aerosol mass, on average, during the day and night, respectively. Each of the isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived groups exhibited a strong diel trend consistent with the emission patterns of likely biogenic hydrocarbon precursors. An observationally constrained diel box model can replicate the observed pON assuming that pONs (i) are produced in the gas phase and rapidly establish gas-particle equilibrium and (ii) have a short particle-phase lifetime (∼2-4 h). Such dynamic behavior has significant implications for the production and phase partitioning of pONs, organic aerosol mass, and reactive nitrogen speciation in a forested environment.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(6): 911-7, 2016 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26745214

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol acidity is an important characteristic of aqueous particles, which has been linked to the formation of secondary organic aerosol by catalyzing reactions of oxidized organic compounds that have partitioned to the particle phase. However, aerosol acidity is difficult to measure and traditionally estimated using indirect methods or assumptions based on composition. Ongoing disagreements between experiments and thermodynamic models of particle acidity necessitate improved fundamental understanding of pH and ion behavior in high ionic strength atmospheric particles. Herein, Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the pH of individual particles (H2SO4+MgSO4) based on sulfate and bisulfate concentrations determined from νs(SO4(2-)) and νs(HSO4(-)), the acid dissociation constant, and activity coefficients from extended Debye-Hückel calculations. Shifts in pH and peak positions of νs(SO4(2-)) and νs(HSO4(-)) were observed as a function of relative humidity. These results indicate the potential for direct spectroscopic determination of pH in individual particles and the need to improve fundamental understanding of ion behavior in atmospheric particles.

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