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2.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Endocrine insufficiency following severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) leads to diabetes of the exocrine pancreas, (type 3c diabetes mellitus), however it is not known how this metabolic phenotype differs from that of type 2 diabetes, or how the two subtypes can be differentiated. We sought to determine the prevalence of diabetes following SAP, and to analyse the behaviour of glucose and pancreatic hormones across a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: Twenty-six patients following SAP (mean (range) duration of first SAP episode to study time of 119.3 (14.8-208.9) months) along with 26 matched controls underwent an OGTT with measurement of glucose, insulin, c-peptide, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) at fasting/15/90/120min. Beta-cell area was estimated using the 15min c-peptide/glucose ratio, and insulin resistance (IR) using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) models. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes/prediabetes was 54% following SAP (38.5% newly-diagnosed compared to 19.2% newly-diagnosed controls). Estimated beta-cell area and IR did not differ between groups. AUC c-peptide was lower in SAP versus controls. AUC insulin and AUC c-peptide were lower in SAP patients with diabetes versus controls with diabetes; between-group differences were observed at the 90 and 120 min time-points only. Half of new diabetes cases in SAP patients were only identified at the 120min timepoint. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes and pre-diabetes occur frequently following SAP and are difficult to distinguish from type 2 diabetes in controls but are characterised by reduced insulin and c-peptide at later stages of an OGTT. Consistent with this observation, most new post SAP diabetes cases were diagnosed by 2-h glucose levels only.

3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G9-G15, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380474

RESUMO

COVID-19 has changed the nature of medical consultations, emphasizing virtual patient counseling, with relevance for patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) or hyponatraemia. The main complication of desmopressin treatment in DI is dilutional hyponatraemia. Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. Patients should measure their body weight daily. Patients with DI admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 have a high risk for mortality due to volume depletion. Specialists must supervise fluid replacement and dosing of desmopressin. Patients after pituitary surgery should drink to thirst and measure their body weight daily to early recognize the development of the postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). They should know hyponatraemia symptoms. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in patients with pneumonia due to COVID-19 is not yet known, but seems to be low. In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU, from different multifactorial reasons, for example, due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics. Hypernatraemic dehydration may contribute to the high risk of acute kidney injury in COVID-19. IV fluid replacement should be administered with caution in severe cases of COVID-19 because of the risk of pulmonary oedema.


Assuntos
Antidiuréticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Hipernatremia/terapia , Hiponatremia/terapia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desidratação/terapia , Diabetes Insípido/complicações , Diabetes Insípido/terapia , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Soluções Hipotônicas/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia
4.
Endocr Rev ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266384

RESUMO

An adrenal incidentaloma is now established as a common endocrine diagnosis that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. The majority of patients can be reassured and discharged, but a personalized approach based upon image analysis, endocrine workup and clinical symptoms and signs are required in every case. ACC remains a real concern but is restricted to <2% of all cases. Functional AI lesions are commoner (but still probably <10% of total) and the greatest challenge remains the diagnosis and optimum management of autonomous cortisol secretion. Modern-day surgery has improved outcomes and novel radiological and urinary biomarkers will improve early detection and patient stratification in future years to come.

5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 505: 148-159, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145273

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid deficiency is the clinical state characterised by inadequate cortisol production. It may occur due to the primary failure of the adrenal cortex or to lack of stimulation of the adrenal cortex by adrenocorticotropic hormone. The aim of treatment of glucocorticoid deficiency is to mimic the normal physiological secretion of cortisol, in order to normalise quality of life and reverse pathological sequelae. However, the diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion is difficult to reproduce with exogenous glucocorticoid therapy. There is wide inter- and intra-individual variability of in the dynamics of physiological glucocorticoid secretion, and glucocorticoid preparations that are currently available cannot reproduce physiological profiles. In addition, there are no reliable biomarkers to determine the adequacy of treatment. The treatment of acute glucocorticoid deficiency/ adrenal crisis involves prompt recognition and administration of parenteral hydrocortisone, rehydration, and management of electrolyte abnormalities. In the management of chronic glucocorticoid deficiency, the prevention of adrenal crisis must be balanced with avoidance of the long-term adverse effects of over-replacement. This requires close collaboration with the patient, for whom education and empowerment in the management of glucocorticoid deficiency, and the prevention of crises, are crucial.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/terapia , Glucocorticoides/deficiência , Insuficiência Adrenal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Adrenal/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 505: 78-91, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035851

RESUMO

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a serious condition, which can arise from pathology affecting the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal insufficiency, PAI), hypothalamic or pituitary pathology (secondary adrenal insufficiency, SAI), or as a result of suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis by exogenous glucocorticoid therapy (tertiary adrenal insufficiency, TAI). AI is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality and a reduction in quality of life. In addition, the most common cause of PAI, autoimmune adrenalitis, may be associated with a variety of other autoimmune disorders. Untreated AI can present with chronic fatigue, weight loss and vulnerability to infection. The inability to cope with acute illness or infection can precipitate life-threatening adrenal crisis. It is therefore a critical diagnosis to make in a timely fashion, in order to institute appropriate management, aimed at reversing chronic ill health, preventing acute crises, and restoring quality of life. In this review, we will describe the normal physiology of the HPA axis and explain how knowledge of the physiology of this axis helps us understand the clinical presentation of AI, and forms the basis for the biochemical investigations which lead to the diagnosis of AI.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/complicações , Insuficiência Adrenal/terapia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

8.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1132): 67-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554730

RESUMO

In recent years, the short Synacthen test (SS) has become the most widely used test to assess adrenal reserve. Despite its frequent use, there are still several areas related to the short Synacthen test (SST), which have no consensus including the optimum sampling times, that is, whether a 60 min post-Synacthen administration cortisol is necessary or not. METHODOLOGY: We performed a retrospective data analysis of 492 SSTs performed on adult patients in a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Ireland. The SSTs were performed in the inpatient and outpatient setting and included patients across all medical disciplines and not exclusively to the endocrinology department. RESULTS: 313 patients had 0, 30 and 60 min samples available for analysis. A total of 270/313 (82%) were deemed to pass the test, that is, cortisol ≥500 nmol/L at both 30 and 60 min. Of the 313 patients, 19 (6%) patients had an indeterminate response, cortisol <500 nmol/L at 30 min, but rising to ≥500 nmol/L on the 60 min sample. Of these 19 patients, only 9/19 patients had a serum cortisol level at 30 min <450 nmol/L, requiring clinical treatment with glucocorticoid replacement. All 24/313 (8%) patients who had insufficient responses at 60 min were also insufficient at 30 min sampling. No individuals passed (≥500 nmol/L) at 30 min and then failed (<500 nmol/L) at 60 min. CONCLUSION: Using the 30 min cortisol sample post-Synacthen administration alone identifies clinically relevant adrenal insufficiency in the majority of cases. A small subset of patients have a suboptimal response at 30 min but have a 60 min cortisol concentration above the threshold for a pass. Data regarding the long-term outcomes and management of such patients are lacking and require further study.

9.
Phys Rev E ; 100(1-1): 013202, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499790

RESUMO

This paper describes a computational model that self-consistently combines physics of kinetic electrons and atomic processes in a single framework. The formulation consists of a kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation for free electrons and a non-Maxwellian collisional-radiative model for atomic state populations. We utilize this model to examine the influence of atomic kinetics on inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating and nonlocal thermal transport. We show that atomic kinetics affects nonlinear IB absorption rates by further modifying the electron distribution in addition to laser heating. We also show that accurate modeling of nonlocal heat flow requires a self-consistent treatment of atomic kinetics, because the effective thermal conductivity strongly depends on the ionization balance of the plasma.

10.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 10: 2042018819848218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223468

RESUMO

Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening emergency contributing to the excess mortality that is reported in patients with adrenal insufficiency. The incidence of adrenal crisis is estimated to be 8 per 100 patient years in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Patients with adrenal crisis present systemically unwell with nonspecific signs and symptoms often leading to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. An adrenal crisis may be the first presentation of adrenal insufficiency or can occur in patients who have been established on glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Infections are the major precipitating factor, but other causes include physical stress such as a surgical procedure or trauma, forgetting or discontinuing glucocorticoid therapy, pronounced physical activity, and psychological stress. The emergency treatment involves prompt recognition and administration of parenteral hydrocortisone, rehydration and management of electrolyte abnormalities. Prevention is centred around patient education. All patients should be educated on stress dosing and parenteral glucocorticoid administration. They should carry a steroid dependency alert card and wear a medical alert bracelet or similar identification. Despite many improvements in the management of patients with adrenal insufficiency, adrenal crisis continues to occur and represents a major source of morbidity, mortality and distress for patients. Improved patient and clinician education and measures to facilitate parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration in impending crisis are central to the management of this life-threatening event.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117051

RESUMO

Pregnancy in acromegaly is rare and generally safe, but tumour expansion may occur. Managing tumour expansion during pregnancy is complex, due to the potential complications of surgery and side effects of anti-tumoural medication. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with acromegaly at 11-week gestation. She had a large macroadenoma invading the suprasellar cistern. She developed bitemporal hemianopia at 20-week gestation. She declined surgery and was commenced on 100 µg subcutaneous octreotide tds, with normalisation of her visual fields after 2 weeks of therapy. She had a further deterioration in her visual fields at 24-week gestation, which responded to an increase in subcutaneous octreotide to 150 µg tds. Her vision remained stable for the remainder of the pregnancy. She was diagnosed with gestational diabetes at 14/40 and was commenced on basal bolus insulin regimen at 22/40 gestation. She otherwise had no obstetric complications. Foetal growth continued along the 50th centile throughout pregnancy. She underwent an elective caesarean section at 34/40, foetal weight was 3.2 kg at birth with an APGAR score of 9. The neonate was examined by an experienced neonatologist and there were no congenital abnormalities identified. She opted not to breastfeed and she is menstruating regularly post-partum. She was commenced on octreotide LAR 40 mg and referred for surgery. At last follow-up, 2 years post-partum, the infant has been developing normally. In conclusion, our case describes a first presentation of acromegaly in pregnancy and rescue of visual field loss with somatostatin analogue therapy. Learning points: Tumour expansion may occur in acromegaly during pregnancy. Treatment options for tumour expansion in pregnancy include both medical and surgical options. Somatostatin analogues may be a viable medical alternative to surgery in patients with tumour expansion during pregnancy.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(9): 3595-3602, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hyponatremia is a medical emergency that confers high mortality, attributed primarily to cerebral edema. Expert guidelines advocate the use of intravenous boluses of hypertonic saline rather than traditional continuous infusion to achieve a faster initial rise in plasma sodium (pNa) concentration. However, there is a limited evidence base for this recommended policy change. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the clinical and biochemical outcomes in patients treated for symptomatic hyponatremia caused by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis in response to intravenous bolus treatment with 3% saline (100 mL, repeated up to two more times) and compared the outcomes to retrospective data from patients treated with continuous intravenous infusion of low-dose (20 mL/h) 3% saline. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were treated with bolus infusion and 28 with continuous infusion. Three percent saline bolus caused more rapid elevation of pNa at 6 hours [median (range) 6 (2 to11) vs 3 (1 to 4) mmol/L, P < 0.0001], with a concomitant improvement in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) [median (range) 3 (1 to 6) vs 1 (-2 to 2), P < 0.0001] at 6 hours. Median pNa concentration was similar at 24 hours in the two treatment groups. The administration of a third saline bolus was associated with greater need for dextrose/dDAVP to prevent overcorrection (OR 24; P = 0.006). There were no cases of osmotic demyelination in either group. CONCLUSION: Three percent saline bolus produces faster initial elevation of pNa than continuous infusion with quicker restoration of GCS, and without osmotic demyelination. Frequent electrolyte monitoring, and judicious intervention with dDAVP is required to prevent overcorrection with bolus therapy.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 588-594, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793471

RESUMO

Overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndromes are characterized by increased growth (height and/or head circumference ≥+2 SD) in association with an intellectual disability. Constitutive EED variants have previously been reported in five individuals with an OGID syndrome, eponymously designated Cohen-Gibson syndrome and resembling Weaver syndrome. Here, we report three additional individuals with constitutive EED variants, identified through exome sequencing of an OGID patient series. We compare the EED phenotype with that of Weaver syndrome (56 individuals), caused by constitutive EZH2 variants. We conclude that while there is considerable overlap between the EED and EZH2 phenotypes with both characteristically associated with increased growth and an intellectual disability, individuals with EED variants more frequently have cardiac problems and cervical spine abnormalities, boys have cryptorchidism and the facial gestalts can usually be distinguished.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Dedos/anormalidades , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Mutação , Miopia/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Dedos/patologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Miopia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
14.
JCI Insight ; 4(6)2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753168

RESUMO

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of unknown etiology, characterized by elevated intracranial pressure frequently manifesting with chronic headaches and visual loss. Similar to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), IIH predominantly affects obese women of reproductive age. In this study, we comprehensively examined the systemic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) androgen metabolome in women with IIH in comparison with sex-, BMI-, and age-matched control groups with either simple obesity or PCOS (i.e., obesity and androgen excess). Women with IIH showed a pattern of androgen excess distinct to that observed in PCOS and simple obesity, with increased serum testosterone and increased CSF testosterone and androstenedione. Human choroid plexus expressed the androgen receptor, alongside the androgen-activating enzyme aldoketoreductase type 1C3. We show that in a rat choroid plexus cell line, testosterone significantly enhanced the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase, a surrogate of CSF secretion. We demonstrate that IIH patients have a unique signature of androgen excess and provide evidence that androgens can modulate CSF secretion via the choroid plexus. These findings implicate androgen excess as a potential causal driver and therapeutic target in IIH.

15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(4): K21-K29, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620709

RESUMO

Pregnancy is rarely reported in acromegaly. Many patients are diagnosed in later life and younger patients may have subfertility due to hypopituitarism. We present a case series of 17 pregnancies in 12 women with acromegaly. Twelve women with acromegaly who completed pregnancy were identified from centres involved in the Irish Pituitary Study. Eleven women had pituitary macroadenomas and one woman had a microadenoma. Only 5/17 pregnancies had optimal biochemical control of acromegaly preconception, as defined by IGF-1 concentration in the age-related reference level and plasma GH concentration of <2 µg/L. In 6/17 pregnancies, dopamine agonist treatment was continued during pregnancy; all other acromegaly treatments were discontinued during pregnancy. Effect of pregnancy on acromegaly: No patient developed new visual field abnormalities, or symptoms suggestive of tumour expansion during pregnancy. In 9/12 patients, plasma IGF-1 concentrations that were elevated preconception normalised during pregnancy. There was a reduction in plasma IGF-1 concentrations, though not into the normal range, in a further two pregnancies. Effect of acromegaly on pregnancy: 15 healthy babies were born at term; one patient underwent emergency C-section at 32 weeks for pre-eclampsia, and one twin pregnancy had an elective C-section at 35 weeks' gestation. Blood pressure remained within normal limits in the remainder of the pregnancies. Gestational diabetes did not develop in any pregnancy. Our data suggests that pregnancy in women with acromegaly is generally safe, from a maternal and foetal perspective. Furthermore, biochemical control tends to improve despite the withdrawal of somatostatin analogue therapy during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico
16.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(5): 744-752, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatraemia is common in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and is associated with increased mortality. The mechanism of hyponatraemia in CAP is not completely understood and treatment is therefore ill-defined. We aimed to define the causation of hyponatraemia in CAP. DESIGN: Prospective, single-centre, observational study of all patients with CAP and hyponatraemia (≤ 130 mmol/L) during a 9-month period. PATIENTS: The prevalence of each subtype of hyponatraemia, and the associated mortality, was determined in 143 admissions with CAP (Study 1). A sub-cohort of patients with SIAD (n = 10) was prospectively followed, to document the natural history of SIAD associated with CAP (Study 2). MEASUREMENTS: In Study 2, blood and urine were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 following admission for measurement of plasma vasopressin, sodium, osmolality and urine osmolality. RESULTS: In study 1, 143/1723(8.3%) of CAP patients had hyponatraemia (≤130 mmol/L). About 66 had SIAD (46%), 60(42%) had hypovolaemic hyponatraemia (HON), 13(9%) had hypervolaemic hyponatraemia (HEN) and 4(3%) patients had hyponatraemia due to glucocorticoid hormone deficiency. Mortality was higher in the HEN than in the HON, SIAD or normonatraemic groups (P < 0.01). In Study 2, plasma sodium concentration normalized in 8/10 (80%) by day 7. Two patients with persistent hyponatraemia were discovered to have underlying bronchiectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Hyponatraemia in CAP is most commonly secondary to SIAD or hypovolaemia. HEN is less common, but has worse prognosis. Prospective observation demonstrates that in SIAD, plasma AVP and sodium concentrations normalize with antimicrobials; failure of reversal of suggests underlying lung disease, such as bronchiectasis.

17.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(1): 3-14, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120786

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones, which are essential for life. They are secreted by the adrenal cortex under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoids are essential for the normal function of most organ systems and, in both, excess and deficiency can lead to significant adverse consequences. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare, life-threatening disorder characterized by insufficient production of corticosteroid hormones. Primary AI is defined by the inability of the adrenal cortex to produce sufficient amounts of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids despite normal or increased adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). Secondary AI is adrenal hypofunction due to insufficient amount of ACTH produced by the pituitary gland. Conventional treatment of both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiencies involves lifelong glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The role of cortisol deficiency and the impact of hydrocortisone replacement on morbidity and mortality in this patient group are under increasing scrutiny. Established glucocorticoid replacement regimens do not completely mirror endogenous hormonal production, and their monitoring to ensure optimum therapy is hampered by the lack of reliable biomarkers of hormone sufficiency. A further confounding issue is the tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid through the two isozymes of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD) with research focusing on the role of this prereceptor regulation in the development of adverse metabolic features in patients. This review defines the factors influencing glucocorticoid action in patients with adrenal insufficiency receiving glucocorticoid therapy.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Doença de Addison/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico
19.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(4): 528-533, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575078

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aldosterone/renin ratio is the initial screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA), but little data exists regarding ethnic variations in this. METHODS: Following clinical observation of a high prevalence of abnormal aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) in patients of African-origin, we retrospectively reviewed all ARR measurements in a single centre over 10 years. Rates of hypokalaemia, intraventricular septal thickness (IVS, by echocardiography) and adrenal imaging were recorded when available. RESULTS: Aldosterone/renin ratio was available in 1473 patients, and abnormal in 374 (25.4%). Abnormal ARR was observed in 305/1349 (22.6%) of European-origin and 69/124 (55.6%) of African-origin patients (P < 0.001). Among those with abnormal ARR, hypokalaemia (<3.5 mmol/L) was documented on at least one occasion in 171/305 (56.1%) European-origin and 43/69 (62.3%) African-origin patients (P = 0.35). Median (range) IVS was 1.57 (0.78-2.80) cm in African-origin and 1.20 (0.69-2.18) cm in European-origin patients (P < 0.002); IVS did not correlate with aldosterone or ARR however. Adrenal adenoma was identified in 41/170 (24.1%) of European-origin and 4/29 (13.7%) African-origin patients (P = 0.15), while hyperplasia was identified in 35/170 (20.5%) of European and 8/29 (27.5%) African patients (P = 0.39). CONCLUSION: In summary, ARR was abnormal in 55.6% of African-origin patients screened at an Irish hospital. Rates of hypokalaemia were similar between European-origin and African-origin patients. These findings have implications for the use of current screening guidelines for ARR in African-origin patients and also for the mechanistic role of aldosterone in hypertensive complications in African-origin patients.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1038-1044, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503519

RESUMO

During genome replication, polymerase epsilon (Pol ε) acts as the major leading-strand DNA polymerase. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in POLE, encoding the Pol ε catalytic subunit POLE1, in 15 individuals from 12 families. Phenotypically, these individuals had clinical features closely resembling IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genitourinary anomalies in males), a disorder previously associated with gain-of-function mutations in CDKN1C. POLE1-deficient individuals also exhibited distinctive facial features and variable immune dysfunction with evidence of lymphocyte deficiency. All subjects shared the same intronic variant (c.1686+32C>G) as part of a common haplotype, in combination with different loss-of-function variants in trans. The intronic variant alters splicing, and together the biallelic mutations lead to cellular deficiency of Pol ε and delayed S-phase progression. In summary, we establish POLE as a second gene in which mutations cause IMAGe syndrome. These findings add to a growing list of disorders due to mutations in DNA replication genes that manifest growth restriction alongside adrenal dysfunction and/or immunodeficiency, consolidating these as replisome phenotypes and highlighting a need for future studies to understand the tissue-specific development roles of the encoded proteins.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Mutação/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p57/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
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