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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of sex hormone and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis signaling on endometrial cancer recurrence is unknown. We evaluated these pathways in a prospective cohort of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)0210 trial endometrial adenocarcinoma patients. METHODS: Stage II-IV patients (N=816) were included in this study. Pre-treatment specimens were tested for tumor mRNA and protein expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and -3, insulin (IR) and IGF-I receptors (IGF1R), phosphorylated IR/IGF1R (pIGF1R/pIR), and estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Serum concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, estradiol, estrone and sex hormone binding globulin were measured. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for progression-free survival were calculated from Cox models adjusting for age, stage and grade. RESULTS: Recurrence occurred in 280 (34%) cases during a median of 4.6 years of follow-up. ER-positivity (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95), IR-positivity (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.98) and circulating IGF-I (highest versus lowest quartile, HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.92) were inversely associated with recurrence risk. Circulating estradiol (highest versus lowest tertile, HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02-2.36) and pIGF1R/pIR positivity (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.92) were associated with increased recurrence risk. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating estradiol and tissue phosphorylated (activated) IGR1R/IR were independently associated with higher risk of recurrence in endometrial cancer patients. IMPACT: This study may inform future clinical trials of endocrine-targeted adjuvant therapies in endometrial cancer patients that could include baseline assessment of serum and tissue biomarkers of estradiol and insulin signaling pathways.

3.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623115

RESUMO

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes play an important, but incompletely understood role in chemotherapy response and prognosis. In breast cancer, there appear to be distinct immune responses by subtype, but most studies have used limited numbers of protein markers or bulk sequencing of RNA to characterize immune response, in which spatial organization cannot be assessed. To identify immune phenotypes of Basal-like vs. Luminal breast cancer we used the GeoMx® (NanoString) platform to perform digital spatial profiling of immune-related proteins in tumor whole sections and tissue microarrays (TMA). Visualization of CD45, CD68, or pan-Cytokeratin by immunofluorescence was used to select regions of interest in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. Forty-four antibodies representing stromal markers and multiple immune cell types were applied to quantify the tumor microenvironment. In whole tumor slides, immune hot spots (CD45+) had increased expression of many immune markers, suggesting a diverse and robust immune response. In epithelium-enriched areas, immune signals were also detectable and varied by subtype, with regulatory T-cell (Treg) markers (CD4, CD25, and FOXP3) being higher in Basal-like vs. Luminal breast cancer. Extending these findings to TMAs with more patients (n = 75), we confirmed subtype-specific immune profiles, including enrichment of Treg markers in Basal-likes. This work demonstrated that immune responses can be detected in epithelium-rich tissue, and that TMAs are a viable approach for obtaining important immunoprofiling data. In addition, we found that immune marker expression is associated with breast cancer subtype, suggesting possible prognostic, or targetable differences.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for women at high risk of symptom-detected breast cancers that were missed by screening would enable targeting of enhanced screening regimens. To this end, we examined associations of breast cancer risk factors by mode of detection in screened women from the Cancer Prevention Study (CPS)-II Nutrition Cohort. METHODS: Among 77,206 women followed for a median of 14.8 years, 2711 screen-detected and 1281 symptom-detected breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable-adjusted associations were estimated using joint Cox proportional hazards regression models with person-time calculated contingent on screening. RESULTS: Factors associated with higher risks of symptom-detected and screen-detected breast cancer included current combined hormone therapy (HT) use (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.72-2.48 and 1.45, 1.27-1.65, respectively) and history of benign breast disease (1.85, 1.64-2.08 and 1.43, 1.31-1.55, respectively). Current estrogen-only HT use was associated with symptom-detected (1.40, 1.15-1.71) but not screen-detected (0.95, 0.83-1.09) breast cancer. Higher risk of screen-detected but not symptom-detected breast cancer was observed for obese vs. normal body mass index (1.22, 1.01-1.48 and 0.76, 0.56-1.01, respectively), per 3 h/day sitting time (1.10, 1.04-1.16 and 0.97, 0.89-1.06, respectively), and ≥ 2 drinks per day vs. nondrinker (1.40, 1.16-1.69 and 1.27, 0.97-1.66, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factors for symptom-detected vs. screen-detected breast cancer were observed and most notably, use of combined and estrogen-only HT and a history of benign breast disease were associated with increased risk of symptomatic detected breast cancer. IMPACT: If confirmed, these data suggest that such women may benefit from more intensive screening to facilitate early detection.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503056

RESUMO

During the past decade, the age-adjusted mortality rate for endometrial cancer (EC) increased 1.9% annually with TP53 mutant (TP53-mu) EC disproportionally represented in advanced disease and deaths. Therefore, we aimed to assess pivotal molecular parameters that differentiate clinical outcomes in high- and low-risk EC. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas, we analyzed EC specimens with available DNA sequences and quantitative gene-specific RNA expression data. After polymerase ɛ (POLE)-mutant specimens were excluded, differential gene-specific mutations and mRNA expressions were annotated and integrated. Consequent to TP53-mu failure to induce p21, derepression of multiple oncogenes harboring promoter p21 repressive sites was observed, including CCNA2 and FOXM1 (P < .001 compared with TP53 wild type [TP53-wt]). TP53-wt EC with high CCNA2 expression (CCNA2-H) had a targeted transcriptomic profile similar to that of TP53-mu EC, suggesting CCNA2 is a seminal determinant for both TP53-wt and TP53-mu EC. CCNA2 enhances E2F1 function, upregulating FOXM1 and CIP2A, as observed in TP53-mu and CCNA2-H TP53-wt EC (P < .001). CIP2A inhibits protein phosphatase 2A, leading to AKT inactivation of GSK3ß and restricted oncoprotein degradation; PPP2R1A and FBXW7 mutations yield similar results. Upregulation of FOXM1 and failed degradation of FOXM1 is evidenced by marked upregulation of multiple homologous recombination genes (P < .001). Integrating these molecular aberrations generated a molecular biomarker panel with significant prognostic discrimination (P = 5.8×10-7); adjusting for age, histology, grade, myometrial invasion, TP53 status, and stage, only CCNA2-H/E2F1-H (P = .0003), FBXW7-mu/PPP2R1A-mu (P = .0002), and stage (P = .017) were significant. The generated prognostic molecular classification system identifies dissimilar signaling aberrations potentially amenable to targetable therapeutic options.

6.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(11): 901-910, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753376

RESUMO

The etiology of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) is poorly understood. As many TNBCs develop prior to the initiation of breast cancer screening or at younger ages when the sensitivity of mammography is comparatively low, understanding the etiology of TNBCs is critical for discovering novel prevention approaches for these tumors. Furthermore, the higher incidence rate of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers, and specifically, of TNBCs, among young African American women (AAW) versus white women is a source of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality. Whereas immune responses to TNBCs have received considerable attention in relation to prognosis and treatment, the concept that dysregulated immune responses may predispose to the development of TNBCs has received limited attention. We present evidence that dysregulated immune responses are critical in the pathogenesis of TNBCs, based on the molecular biology of the cancers and the mechanisms proposed to mediate TNBC risk factors. Furthermore, proposed risk factors for TNBC, especially childbearing without breastfeeding, high parity, and obesity, are more prevalent among AAW than white women. Limited data suggest genetic differences in immune responses by race, which favor a stronger Thr type 2 (Th2) immune response among AAW than white women. Th2 responses contribute to wound-healing processes, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of TNBCs. Accordingly, we review data on the link between immune responses and TNBC risk and consider whether the prevalence of risk factors that result in dysregulated immunity is higher among AAW than white women.

7.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(11): 967-976, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718942

RESUMO

Over one million women in the United States receive biopsy diagnoses of benign breast disease (BBD) each year, which confer a 1.5-4.0-fold increase in breast cancer risk. Studies in the general population suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID) lower breast cancer risk; however, associations among women with BBD are unknown. We assessed whether NSAID use among women diagnosed with BBD is associated with lower breast cancer risk. Participants included 3,080 women (mean age = 50.3 ± 13.5 years) in the Mayo BBD surgical biopsy cohort diagnosed between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2001 who completed breast cancer risk factor questionnaires that assessed NSAID use, and whose biopsies underwent detailed pathology review, masked to outcome. Women were followed from date of BBD biopsy to breast cancer diagnosis (main outcome) or censoring (death, prophylactic mastectomy, reduction mammoplasty, lobular carcinoma in situ or last contact). Median follow-up time was 16.4 ± 6.0 years. Incident breast cancer was diagnosed among 312 women over a median follow-up of 9.9 years. Regular non-aspirin NSAID use was associated with lower breast cancer risk [HR = 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46-0.85; P = 0.002] with trends of lower risk (highest tertiles of use vs. nonuse) for greater number of years used [HR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.31-0.97; P trend = 0.003), days used per month (HR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.33-0.80; P trend = 0.001) and lifetime number of doses taken (HR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31-0.89; P trend = 0.003). We conclude that nonaspirin NSAID use is associated with statistically significant lower breast cancer risk after a BBD biopsy, including a dose-response effect, suggesting a potential role for NSAIDs in breast cancer prevention among patients with BBD.

8.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1744947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523802

RESUMO

Tumors acquire numerous mutations during development and progression. When translated into proteins, these mutations give rise to neoantigens that can be recognized by T cells and generate antibodies, representing an exciting direction of cancer immunotherapy. While neoantigens have been reported in many cancer types, the profiling of neoantigens often focused on the class-I subtype that are presented to CD8 + T cells, and the relationship between neoantigen load and clinical outcomes was often inconsistent among cancer types. In this study, we described an informatics workflow, REAL-neo, for identification, quality control (QC), and prioritization of both class-I and class-II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) bound neoantigens that arise from somatic single nucleotide mutations (SNM), small insertions and deletions (INDEL), and gene fusions. We applied REAL-neo to 835 primary breast tumors in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed comprehensive profiling and characterization of the detected neoantigens. We found recurrent HLA class-I and class-II restricted neoantigens across breast cancer cases, and uncovered associations between neoantigen load and clinical traits. Both class-I and class-II neoantigen loads from SNM and INDEL were found to predict overall survival independent of tumor mutational burden (TMB), breast cancer subtypes, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels, tumor stage, and age at diagnosis. Our study highlighted the importance of accurate and comprehensive neoantigen profiling and QC, and is the first to report the predictive value of neoantigen load for overall survival in breast cancer.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 65, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crown-like structures in breast adipose tissue (CLS-B), composed of necrotic adipocytes encircled by macrophages, are associated with obesity and hypothesized to worsen breast cancer prognosis; however, data are sparse, particularly in multi-racial populations. METHODS: We assessed specimens for CLS-B from 174 African-American and 168 White women with stage I-III breast cancer treated by mastectomy. Benign breast tissue from an uninvolved quadrant was immunohistochemically stained for CD68 to determine CLS-B presence and density (per cm2 of adipose tissue). Demographic and lifestyle factors, collected via medical record review, were analyzed for associations with CLS-B using logistic regression. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between CLS-B and overall (OS) or progression-free (PFS) survival. RESULTS: Detection of any CLS-B was similar between African-American (32%) and White (29%) patients with no evidence of an association between race and CLS-B in multivariable models (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.49-1.36). Detection of CLS-B was associated with obesity (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.48-9.01) and age ≥ 60 years at diagnosis (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.99-3.21). There was some evidence of associations with parity and current smoking status. Detection of CLS-B was not associated with OS (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.55-1.87) or PFS (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.59-1.67). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a strong, positive association between BMI and CLS-B in non-tumor tissue similar to previous findings. Detection of CLS-B did not vary by race and was not associated with worse OS or PFS.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Afro-Americanos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz075, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337492

RESUMO

Background: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been associated with approximately 50% breast cancer risk reduction among women with a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2), a finding that has recently been questioned. Methods: We estimated incidence rates of breast cancer and all cancers combined during 5 years of follow-up among participants selecting RRSO or ovarian cancer screening (OCS) among women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant or strong breast and/or ovarian cancer family history. Ovarian or fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer incidence rates were estimated for the OCS group. Breast cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for time-dependent RRSO were estimated using Cox regression with age time-scale (4943 and 4990 women-years in RRSO and OCS cohorts, respectively). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The RRSO cohort included 925 participants, and 1453 participants were in the OCS cohort (381 underwent RRSO during follow-up), with 88 incident breast cancers diagnosed. Among BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers, a non-statistically significant lower breast cancer incidence was observed in the RRSO compared with the OCS cohort (HR = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 1.67; P = .67). No difference was observed in the overall population or among subgroups stratified by prior breast cancer history or menopausal status. Seven fallopian tube and four ovarian cancers were prospectively diagnosed in the OCS cohort, and one primary peritoneal carcinoma occurred in the RRSO cohort. Conclusions: These data suggest that RRSO might be associated with reduced breast cancer incidence among women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant, although the effect, if present, is small. This evolving evidence warrants a thorough discussion regarding the impact of RRSO on breast cancer risk with women considering this intervention.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(4): 549.e1-549.e13, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most endometrial cancer cases are preceded by abnormal uterine bleeding, offering a potential opportunity for early detection and cure of endometrial cancer. Although clinical guidelines exist for diagnostic workup of abnormal uterine bleeding, consensus is lacking regarding optimal management for women with abnormal bleeding to diagnose endometrial cancer. OBJECTIVE: We report the baseline data from a prospective clinical cohort study of women referred for endometrial evaluation at the Mayo Clinic, designed to evaluate risk stratification in women at increased risk for endometrial cancer. Here, we introduce a risk-based approach to evaluate diagnostic tests and clinical management algorithms in a population of women with abnormal bleeding undergoing endometrial evaluation at the Mayo Clinic. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1163 women aged ≥45 years were enrolled from February 2013 to May 2019. We evaluated baseline absolute risks and 95% confidence intervals of endometrial cancer and endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia according to clinical algorithms for diagnostic workup of women with postmenopausal bleeding (assessment of initial vs recurrent bleeding episode and endometrial thickness measured through transvaginal ultrasound). We also evaluated risks among women with postmenopausal bleeding according to baseline age (<60 vs 60+ years) as an alternative example. For this approach, biopsy would be conducted for all women aged 60+ years and those aged <60 years with an endometrial thickness of >4 mm. We assessed the clinical efficiency of each strategy by estimating the percentage of women who would be referred for endometrial biopsy, the percentage of cases detected and missed, and the ratio of biopsies per case detected. RESULTS: Among the 593 women with postmenopausal bleeding, 18 (3.0%) had endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, and 47 (7.9%) had endometrial cancer, and among the 570 premenopausal women with abnormal bleeding, 8 (1.4%) had endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, and 7 (1.2%) had endometrial cancer. Maximum risk was noted in women aged 60+ years (17.7%; 13.0%-22.3%), followed by those with recurrent bleeding (14.7%; 11.0%-18.3%). Among women with an initial bleeding episode for whom transvaginal ultrasound was recommended, endometrial thickness did not provide meaningful risk stratification: risks of endometrial cancer and endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia were nearly identical in women with an endometrial thickness of >4 mm (5.8%; 1.3%-10.3%) and ≤4 mm (3.6%; 0.9%-8.6%). In contrast, among those aged <60 years with an endometrial thickness of >4 mm, the risk of endometrial cancer and endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia was 8.4% (4.3%-12.5%), and in those with an endometrial thickness of ≤4 mm, the risk was 0% (0.0%-3.0%; P=.01). The most efficient strategy was to perform biopsy in all women aged 60+ years and among those aged <60 years with an endometrial thickness of >4 mm, with the lowest percentage referred to biopsy while still detecting all cases. CONCLUSION: Existing clinical recommendations for endometrial cancer detection in women with abnormal bleeding are not consistent with the underlying risk. Endometrial cancer risk factors such as age can provide important risk stratification compared with the assessment of recurrent bleeding. Future research will include a formal assessment of clinical and epidemiologic risk prediction models in our study population as well as validation of our findings in other populations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Endometrial/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Metrorragia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia , Carcinoma in Situ/complicações , Hiperplasia Endometrial/complicações , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia , Metrorragia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Pós-Menopausa , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Ultrassonografia , Hemorragia Uterina/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia
13.
J Clin Med ; 9(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013177

RESUMO

Mammographic percent density (MPD) is an independent risk factor for developing breast cancer, but its inclusion in clinical risk models provides only modest improvements in individualized risk prediction, and MPD is not typically assessed in younger women because of ionizing radiation concerns. Previous studies have shown that tissue sound speed, derived from whole breast ultrasound tomography (UST), a non-ionizing modality, is a potential surrogate marker of breast density, but prior to this study, sound speed has not been directly linked to breast cancer risk. To that end, we explored the relation of sound speed and MPD with breast cancer risk in a case-control study, including 61 cases with recent breast cancer diagnoses and a comparison group of 165 women, frequency matched to cases on age, race, and menopausal status, and with a recent negative mammogram and no personal history of breast cancer. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the relation of quartiles of MPD and sound speed with breast cancer risk adjusted for matching factors. Elevated MPD was associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the trend did not reach statistical significance (OR per quartile = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.70; ptrend = 0.10). In contrast, elevated sound speed was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in a dose-response fashion (OR per quartile = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.54; ptrend = 0.0003). The OR trend for sound speed was statistically significantly different from that observed for MPD (p = 0.005). These findings suggest that whole breast sound speed may be more strongly associated with breast cancer risk than MPD and offer future opportunities for refining the magnitude and precision of risk associations in larger, population-based studies, including women younger than usual screening ages.

14.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(7): 563-568, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047026

RESUMO

Although endometrial cancer is often diagnosed at an early curable stage, the incidence and mortality from endometrial cancer is rising and minority women are particularly at risk. We hypothesize that delays in clinical presentation contribute to racial disparities in endometrial cancer mortality and treatment-related morbidity. Improved methods for endometrial cancer risk assessment and distinguishing abnormal uterine bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding from physiologic variation are needed. Accordingly, we propose a multipronged strategy that combines innovative patient education with novel early detection strategies to reduce health impacts of endometrial cancer and its precursors, especially among Black women. Futuristic approaches using gamification, smartphone apps, artificial intelligence, and health promotion outside of the physical clinic hold promise in preventing endometrial cancer and reducing morbidity and mortality related to the disease, but they also raise a number of questions that will need to be addressed by future research.

15.
J Clin Med ; 9(1)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963437

RESUMO

The association of progesterone/progesterone metabolites with elevated mammographic breast density (MBD) and delayed age-related terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, strong breast cancer risk factors, has received limited attention. Using a reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry assay, we quantified serum progesterone/progesterone metabolites and explored cross-sectional relationships with MBD and TDLU involution among women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. Quantitative MBD measures were estimated in pre-biopsy digital mammograms. TDLU involution was quantified in diagnostic biopsies. Adjusted partial correlations and trends across MBD/TDLU categories were calculated. Pregnenolone was positively associated with percent MBD-area (MBD-A, rho: 0.30; p-trend = 0.01) among premenopausal luteal phase women. Progesterone tended to be positively associated with percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.26; p-trend = 0.07) and postmenopausal (rho: 0.17; p-trend = 0.04) women. Consistent with experimental data, implicating an elevated 5α-pregnanes/3α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP/3αHP) metabolite ratio in breast cancer, higher 5αP/3αHP was associated with elevated percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.29; p-trend = 0.08), but not postmenopausal women. This exploratory analysis provided some evidence that endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites might be correlated with MBD, a strong breast cancer risk factor, in both pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing breast biopsy. Additional studies are needed to understand the role of progesterone/progesterone metabolites in breast tissue composition and breast cancer risk.

16.
Endocr Rev ; 41(2)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512725

RESUMO

Synthetic progestogens (progestins) have been linked to increased breast cancer risk; however, the role of endogenous progesterone in breast physiology and carcinogenesis is less clearly defined. Mechanistic studies using cell culture, tissue culture, and preclinical models implicate progesterone in breast carcinogenesis. In contrast, limited epidemiologic data generally do not show an association of circulating progesterone levels with risk, and it is unclear whether this reflects methodologic limitations or a truly null relationship. Challenges related to defining the role of progesterone in breast physiology and neoplasia include: complex interactions with estrogens and other hormones (eg, androgens, prolactin, etc.), accounting for timing of blood collections for hormone measurements among cycling women, and limitations of assays to measure progesterone metabolites in blood and progesterone receptor isotypes (PRs) in tissues. Separating the individual effects of estrogens and progesterone is further complicated by the partial dependence of PR transcription on estrogen receptor (ER)α-mediated transcriptional events; indeed, interpreting the integrated interaction of the hormones may be more essential than isolating independent effects. Further, many of the actions of both estrogens and progesterone, particularly in "normal" breast tissues, are driven by paracrine mechanisms in which ligand binding to receptor-positive cells evokes secretion of factors that influence cell division of neighboring receptor-negative cells. Accordingly, blood and tissue levels may differ, and the latter are challenging to measure. Given conflicting data related to the potential role of progesterone in breast cancer etiology and interest in blocking progesterone action to prevent or treat breast cancer, we provide a review of the evidence that links progesterone to breast cancer risk and suggest future directions for filling current gaps in our knowledge.

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(1): 95-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802322

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade provides an integrated measure of biologic features which affects cancer prognosis. In invasive ductal breast cancer (IDBC), the grade of the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive components are usually concordant, suggesting grade is established early in tumorigenesis and may be linked to etiologic factors. In this study, we used prospectively collected data from postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort to compare risk factor associations among low-grade and high-grade DCIS, as well as low-grade and high-grade IDBC. METHODS: Among 73,825 cancer-free women at enrollment in the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992-1993 (mean age: 62.1 years), we verified 802 diagnosed with DCIS (C50 8500/2; n = 430 low-grade and 372 high-grade) and 3,125 with IDBC (C50 8500/3; n = 2,221 low-grade and 904 high-grade) through June 2013. Person-time contribution was conditional on screening mammograms self-reported on biennial surveys. Multivariable-adjusted joint Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A personal history of benign breast disease was more strongly associated with higher risk of low-grade DCIS (HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.81-2.67; p for heterogeneity = 0.0004) than high-grade DCIS. Consumption of two or more alcoholic drinks/day was only associated with a higher risk of low-grade IDBC (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.33-1.88; p for heterogeneity = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest heterogeneity by grade for breast cancer etiology. Identification of potential risk factor differences among low-grade and high-grade DCIS and IDBC may help to clarify associations, and ultimately, improve breast cancer risk prediction models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/prevenção & controle , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(2): 387-392, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether endometrial cancer (EC) can be detected in shed DNA collected with vaginal tampon by analyzing copy number, methylation markers, and mutations. METHODS: Tampons were collected prior to hysterectomy from 38 EC patients and 28 women with benign indications. Extracted tampon DNA underwent the following: 1) low-coverage whole genome sequencing (LC-WGS) to assess copy number, 2) pyrosequencing to measure percent promotor methylation of HOXA9, RASSF1, and CDH13 and 3) next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify mutations in 19 genes associated with EC identified through The Cancer Genome Atlas. Sensitivity and specificity for each test and test combinations were calculated. RESULTS: Methylation analysis yielded the highest specificities but lowest sensitivities (37-40% sensitivity; 100% specificity for HOXA9, RASSF1 and HTR1B) while mutation analysis had improved sensitivity (50% sensitivity; 83% specificity). Only one "false positive" result for copy number variants was identified among women with benign surgical indications, which was based on detection of copy number changes, and associated with a leiomyosarcoma that was only recognized at hysterectomy. Considering any of the 3 biomarker classes as a positive, resulted in a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 86%. Mutation analysis did not add sensitivity to the combination of analysis of copy number and methylation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a proof-of-principle for non-invasive yet precise detection of endometrial cancer. We propose that with improved biomarker testing, it may be possible to develop a clinically useful test for detecting EC.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico , Doenças Uterinas/genética , Doenças Uterinas/patologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 169-177, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endometrial cancer (EC) risk assessment and early detection strategies in high-risk populations, we designed a large, prospective cohort study of women undergoing endometrial evaluation to assess risk factors and collect novel biospecimens for future testing of emerging EC biomarkers. Here we report on the baseline findings of this study. METHODS: Women aged ≥45 years were enrolled at the Mayo Clinic from February 2013-June 2018. Risk factors included age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, oral contraceptive and hormone therapy use, and parity. We collected vaginal tampons, endometrial biopsies, and Tao brush samples. We estimated mutually-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multinomial logistic regression; outcomes included EC, atypical hyperplasia, hyperplasia without atypia, disordered proliferative endometrium, and polyps, versus normal endometrium. RESULTS: Subjects included 1205 women with a mean age of 55 years; 55% were postmenopausal, and 90% had abnormal uterine bleeding. The prevalence of EC was 4.1% (n = 49), predominantly diagnosed in postmenopausal women (85.7%). Tampons and Tao brushings were obtained from 99% and 68% of women, respectively. Age (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) and BMI (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were positively associated with EC; atypical hyperplasia (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.0-1.1; OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.5-2.6, respectively), and polyps (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.0-1.1; OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, respectively); hormone therapy use and smoking were inversely associated with EC (OR 0.42, 95%, 0.2-0.9; OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9, respectively). Parity and past oral contraception use were not associated with EC. CONCLUSIONS: Well-established EC risk factors may have less discriminatory accuracy in high-risk populations. Future analyses will integrate risk factor assessment with biomarker testing for EC detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Metrorragia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689948

RESUMO

Mammographic breast density (MD) reflects breast fibroglandular content. Its decline following adjuvant tamoxifen treated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been associated with improved outcomes. Breast cancers arise from structures termed lobules, and lower MD is associated with increased age-related lobule involution. We assessed whether pre-treatment involution influenced associations between MD decline and risk of breast cancer-specific death. ER-positive tamoxifen treated patients diagnosed at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (1990-2008) were defined as cases who died of breast cancer (n = 54) and matched controls (remained alive over similar follow-up; n = 180). Lobule involution was assessed by examining terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in benign tissues surrounding cancers as TDLU count/mm2, median span and acini count/TDLU. MD (%) was measured in the unaffected breast at baseline (median 6-months before) and follow-up (median 12-months after tamoxifen initiation). TDLU measures and baseline MD were positively associated among controls (p < 0.05). In multivariable regression models, MD decline (≥10%) was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death before (odds ratio (OR): 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.92) and after (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.94) adjustment for TDLU count/mm2, TDLU span (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.84), and acini count/TDLU (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.81). MD decline following adjuvant tamoxifen is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death, irrespective of pre-treatment lobule involution.

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