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1.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 286, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772255

RESUMO

The marine iodine cycle has significant impacts on air quality and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the reaction of iodide with ozone in the top few micrometres of the surface ocean is an important sink for tropospheric ozone (a pollutant gas) and the dominant source of reactive iodine to the atmosphere. Sea surface iodide parameterisations are now being implemented in air quality models, but these are currently a major source of uncertainty. Relatively little observational data is available to estimate the global surface iodide concentrations, and this data has not hitherto been openly available in a collated, digital form. Here we present all available sea surface (<20 m depth) iodide observations. The dataset includes values digitised from published manuscripts, published and unpublished data supplied directly by the originators, and data obtained from repositories. It contains 1342 data points, and spans latitudes from 70°S to 68°N, representing all major basins. The data may be used to model sea surface iodide concentrations or as a reference for future observations.

2.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 213: 395-404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320831

RESUMO

Bromine and iodine chemistry has been updated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to better capture the influence of natural emissions from the oceans on ozone concentrations. Annual simulations were performed using the hemispheric CMAQ model without and with bromine and iodine chemistry. Model results over the Northern Hemisphere show that including bromine and iodine chemistry in CMAQ not only reduces ozone concentrations within the marine boundary layer but also aloft and inland. Bromine and iodine chemistry reduces annual mean surface ozone over seawater by 25%, with lesser ozone reductions over land. The bromine and iodine chemistry decreases ozone concentration without changing the diurnal profile and is active throughout the year. However, it does not have a strong seasonal influence on ozone over the Northern Hemisphere. Model performance of CMAQ is improved by the bromine and iodine chemistry when compared to observations, especially at coastal sites and over seawater. Relative to bromine, iodine chemistry is approximately four times more effective in reducing ozone over seawater over the Northern Hemisphere (on an annual basis). Model results suggest that the chemistry modulates intercontinental transport and lowers the background ozone imported to the United States.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(48): 12136-12141, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420500

RESUMO

Iodine is an important nutrient and a significant sink of tropospheric ozone, a climate-forcing gas and air pollutant. Ozone interacts with seawater iodide, leading to volatile inorganic iodine release that likely represents the largest source of atmospheric iodine. Increasing ozone concentrations since the preindustrial period imply that iodine chemistry and its associated ozone destruction is now substantially more active. However, the lack of historical observations of ozone and iodine means that such estimates rely primarily on model calculations. Here we use seasonally resolved records from an Alpine ice core to investigate 20th century changes in atmospheric iodine. After carefully considering possible postdepositional changes in the ice core record, we conclude that iodine deposition over the Alps increased by at least a factor of 3 from 1950 to the 1990s in the summer months, with smaller increases during the winter months. We reproduce these general trends using a chemical transport model and show that they are due to increased oceanic iodine emissions, coupled to a change in iodine speciation over Europe from enhanced nitrogen oxide emissions. The model underestimates the increase in iodine deposition by a factor of 2, however, which may be due to an underestimate in the 20th century ozone increase. Our results suggest that iodine's impact on the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere accelerated over the 20th century and show a coupling between anthropogenic pollution and the availability of iodine as an essential nutrient to the terrestrial biosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Gelo/análise , Iodo/química , Água do Mar/química , Atmosfera , Clima , Europa (Continente) , Ozônio/química , Estações do Ano
5.
Faraday Discuss ; 189: 105-20, 2016 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092375

RESUMO

There is growing global consumption of non-fossil fuels such as ethanol made from renewable biomass. Previous studies have shown that one of the main air quality disadvantages of using ethanol blended fuels is a significant increase in the production of acetaldehyde, an unregulated and toxic pollutant. Most studies on the impacts of ethanol blended gasoline have been carried out in the US and Brazil, with much less focus on the UK and Europe. We report time resolved measurements of ethanol in London during the winter and summer of 2012. In both seasons the mean mixing ratio of ethanol was around 5 ppb, with maximum values over 30 ppb, making ethanol currently the most abundant VOC in London air. We identify a road transport related source, with 'rush-hour' peaks observed. Ethanol is strongly correlated with other road transport-related emissions, such as small aromatics and light alkanes, and has no relationship to summer biogenic emissions. To determine the impact of road transport-related ethanol emission on secondary species (i.e. acetaldehyde and ozone), we use both a chemically detailed box model (incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM) and a global and nested regional scale chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), on various processing time scales. Using the MCM model, only 16% of the modelled acetaldehyde was formed from ethanol oxidation. However, the model significantly underpredicts the total levels of acetaldehyde, indicating a missing primary emission source, that appears to be traffic-related. Further support for a primary emission source comes from the regional scale model simulations, where the observed concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde can only be reconciled with the inclusion of large primary emissions. Although only constrained by one set of observations, the regional modelling suggests a European ethanol source similar in magnitude to that of ethane (∼60 Gg per year) and greater than that of acetaldehyde (∼10 Gg per year). The increased concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde from primary emissions impacts both radical and NOx cycling over Europe, resulting in significant regional impacts on NOy speciation and O3 concentrations, with potential changes to human exposure to air pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Etanol/análise , Acetaldeído/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Etanol/química , Modelos Lineares , Londres , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano
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