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1.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319882154, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615291

RESUMO

AIMS: Secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease involves antithrombotic therapy and optimal control of cardiovascular risk factors. In the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) study, adding low-dose rivaroxaban on top of aspirin lowered cardiovascular events, but there is limited data about risk factor control in secondary prevention. We studied the association between risk factor status and outcomes, and the impact of risk factor status on the treatment effect of rivaroxaban, in a large contemporary population of patients with coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reported ischemic events (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) in participants from the randomized, double-blind COMPASS study by individual risk factor (blood pressure, smoking status, cholesterol level, presence of diabetes, body mass index, and level of physical activity), and by number of risk factors. We compared rates and hazard ratios of patients treated with rivaroxaban plus aspirin vs aspirin alone within each risk factor category and tested for interaction between risk factor status and antithrombotic regimen. Complete baseline risk factor status was available in 27,117 (99%) patients. Status and number of risk factors were both associated with increased risk of ischemic events. Rates of ischemic events (hazard ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.6) and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 2.0; 1.5-2.7) were more than twofold higher in patients with 4-6 compared with 0-1 risk factors (p < 0.0001 for both). Rivaroxaban reduced event rates independently of the number of risk factors (p interaction 0.93), with the largest absolute benefit in patients with the highest number of risk factors. CONCLUSION: More favorable risk factor status and low-dose rivaroxaban were independently associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1519-1528, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality and increased bleeding. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the effects of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin on sites, timing, severity, and management of bleeding in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) study. METHODS: This study reports, by treatment group, the number and proportion of patients; hazard rate ratios for bleeding according to site and severity; the timing of bleeding using landmark analyses; and the number and proportion of patients who received blood products and other hemostatic treatments. RESULTS: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68 years, 22% women), 18,278 were randomized to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to aspirin alone and followed for a mean of 23 months. Compared with aspirin alone, the combination increased modified International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (288 of 9,152 [3.1%] vs. 170 of 9,126 [1.9%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.05; p < 0.001), International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (206 of 9,152 [2.3%] vs. 116 of 9,126 [1.3%]), (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.23; p < 0.0001), and minor bleeding (838 of 9,152 [9.2%] vs. 503 of 9,126 [5.5%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p < 0.0001); the combination also increased the need for any red cell transfusion (87 of 9,152 [1.0%] vs. 44 of 9,126 [0.5%]), (HR: 1.97; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.83, p = 0.0002). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the most common site of increased major bleeding (140 of 9,152 [1.5%] vs. 65 of 9,126 [0.7%]), (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.89; p < 0.001), and the increase in bleeding was predominantly in the first year after randomization. Approximately one-third of major GI bleeding was gastric or duodenal, one-third was colonic or rectal, and one-third was from an unknown GI site. The study investigators reported that approximately three-quarters of major bleeding episodes were of mild or moderate intensity. A similar proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced major bleeding received platelets, clotting factors, or other hemostatic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone increased major bleeding, mainly from the GI tract. Most excess bleeding occurred during the first year after randomization, was of mild or moderate intensity, and was managed with conventional supportive therapy. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).

3.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1451-1459, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with antithrombotic drugs are at risk of bleeding. Bleeding may be the first manifestation of underlying cancer. METHODS: We examined new cancers diagnosed in relation to gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding among patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) and determined the hazard of new cancer diagnosis after bleeding at these sites. RESULTS: Of 27 395 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 years; women, 21%), 2678 (9.8%) experienced any (major or minor) bleeding, 713 (2.6%) experienced major bleeding, and 1084 (4.0%) were diagnosed with cancer during a mean follow-up of 23 months. Among 2678 who experienced bleeding, 257 (9.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with a 20-fold higher hazard of new gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (7.4% versus 0.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 20.6 [95% CI, 15.2-27.8]) and 1.7-fold higher hazard of new nongastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (3.8% versus 3.1%; HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20-2.40]). Genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 32-fold higher hazard of new genitourinary cancer diagnosis (15.8% versus 0.8%; HR, 32.5 [95% CI, 24.7-42.9]), and urinary bleeding was associated with a 98-fold higher hazard of new urinary cancer diagnosis (14.2% versus 0.2%; HR, 98.5; 95% CI, 68.0-142.7). Nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary bleeding was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary cancers (4.4% versus 1.9%; HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 2.32-3.91]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atherosclerosis treated with antithrombotic drugs, any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding was associated with higher rates of new cancer diagnosis. Any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding should prompt investigation for cancers at these sites. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
5.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
6.
Circulation ; 140(7): 529-537, Aug. 13, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27 395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or >/=40% at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and >/=40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excesso hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF.(AU)


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina , Doença das Coronárias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Rivaroxabana , Insuficiência Cardíaca
7.
Circulation ; 140(7): 529-537, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and history of heart failure (HF) are at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. We explored the effects of rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in these patients. METHODS: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized 27 395 participants with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily alone, or aspirin 100 mg alone. Patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV HF or left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome comprised cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding using modified International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Investigators recorded a history of HF and EF at baseline, if available. We examined the effects of rivaroxaban on major adverse cardiovascular events and major bleeding in patients with or without a history of HF and an EF <40% or ≥40% at baseline. RESULTS: Of the 5902 participants (22%) with a history of HF, 4971 (84%) had EF recorded at baseline, and 12% had EF <40%. Rivaroxaban and aspirin had similar relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events compared with aspirin in participants with HF (5.5% versus 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86) and those without HF (3.8% versus 4.7%; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93; P for interaction 0.28) but larger absolute risk reduction in those with HF (HF absolute risk reduction 2.4%, number needed to treat=42; no HF absolute risk reduction 1.0%, number needed to treat=103). The primary major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was not statistically different between those with EF <40% (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42) and ≥40% (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98; P for interaction 0.36). The excess hazard for major bleeding was not different in participants with HF (2.5% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.88-2.09) than in those without HF (3.3% versus 1.9%; HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-2.21; P for interaction 0.26). There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes with rivaroxaban alone. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease and a history of mild or moderate HF, combination rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone produces similar relative but larger absolute benefits than in those without HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(18): 2243-2250, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of both bleeding and ischemic cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the balance of risks and benefits from the dual pathway antithrombotic regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily [bd] plus aspirin, compared with aspirin) in vascular patients with or without moderate renal dysfunction. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the COMPASS (Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS) trial involving 27,395 patients with chronic coronary or peripheral artery disease. RESULTS: In COMPASS, 21,111 patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at baseline of ≥60 ml/min, 6,276 had a GRF of <60 ml/min. Both the primary efficacy outcome (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and major bleeding were more frequent in those with renal dysfunction, and the frequency of these outcome events was inversely related to GFR. However, the primary outcome was consistently reduced with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bd plus aspirin, irrespective of GFR category (GFR ≥60 ml/min, 3.5% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 4.5% aspirin alone, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 0.90; GFR <60 ml/min, 6.4% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 8.4% aspirin alone, HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.94). Major bleeding was more frequent with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in those with GFR ≥60 ml/min (2.9% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 1.6% aspirin alone, HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.28) and similarly in those with GFR <60 ml/min (3.9% rivaroxaban plus aspirin, 2.7% aspirin alone, HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of the dual pathway COMPASS regimen (rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bd plus aspirin), versus aspirin alone, are preserved in patients with moderate renal dysfunction without evidence of an excess hazard of bleeding.

12.
Circulation ; 139(9): 1134-1145, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strokes were significantly reduced by the combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin in comparison with aspirin in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies). We present detailed analyses of stroke by type, predictors, and antithrombotic effects in key subgroups. METHODS: Participants had stable coronary artery or peripheral artery disease and were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 100 mg once daily (n=9126), rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily (n=9117), or rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin (n=9152). Patients who required anticoagulation or had a stroke within 1 month, previous lacunar stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 23 months, fewer patients had strokes in the rivaroxaban plus aspirin group than in the aspirin group (83 [0.9% per year] versus 142 [1.6% per year]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.76; P<0.0001). Ischemic/uncertain strokes were reduced by nearly half (68 [0.7% per year] versus 132 [1.4% per year]; HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.68; P<0.0001) by the combination in comparison with aspirin. No significant difference was noted in the occurrence of stroke in the rivaroxaban alone group in comparison with aspirin: annualized rate of 0.7% (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.65-1.05). The occurrence of fatal and disabling stroke (modified Rankin Scale, 3-6) was decreased by the combination (32 [0.3% per year] versus 55 [0.6% per year]; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; P=0.01). Independent predictors of stroke were prior stroke, hypertension, systolic blood pressure at baseline, age, diabetes mellitus, and Asian ethnicity. Prior stroke was the strongest predictor of incident stroke (HR, 3.63; 95% CI, 2.65-4.97; P<0.0001) and was associated with a 3.4% per year rate of stroke recurrence on aspirin. The effect of the combination in comparison with aspirin was consistent across subgroups with high stroke risk, including those with prior stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is an important new antithrombotic option for primary and secondary stroke prevention in patients with clinical atherosclerosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 377(14): 1319-1330, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P<0.001; z=-4.126), but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in intracranial or fatal bleeding between these two groups. There were 313 deaths (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, those assigned to rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin had better cardiovascular outcomes and more major bleeding events than those assigned to aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) alone did not result in better cardiovascular outcomes than aspirin alone and resulted in more major bleeding events. (Funded by Bayer; COMPASS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01776424 .).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
14.
N Engl J Med ; 377(14): 1319-1330, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P<0.001; z=-4.126), but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in intracranial or fatal bleeding between these two groups. There were 313 deaths (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group...(AU)


Assuntos
Rivaroxabana , Aspirina , Doenças Cardiovasculares
15.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 9(4): e003414, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction are at increased risk for adverse events. It is unclear if image guidance by optical coherence tomography (OCT) can improve outcomes in these patients. We compared OCT-guided versus angiography-guided primary PCI for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction among patients in the Thrombectomy Versus PCI Alone (TOTAL) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 10 732 patients enrolled in the TOTAL trial, OCT was used for PCI guidance as a part of a prospective substudy in 214 patients. Using 2:1 propensity matching, we identified 428 patients in the trial who had PCI performed with angiography guidance alone. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and target-vessel revascularization at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included final in-stent angiographic minimum lumen diameter, procedure time, and contrast dose. The final in-stent angiographic minimum lumen diameter was 2.99±0.48 mm in the OCT-guided group versus 2.79±0.47 mm in the angiography-guided group (P<0.0001). OCT- and angiography-guided PCI had a median (interquartile range) procedure time of 58 (47, 71) minute versus 38 (28, 52) minute (P<0.0001) and total contrast dose of 239.7±81.1 mL versus 193.3±78.6 mL (P<0.0001). The primary outcome was observed in 7.5% of the OCT-guided group versus 9.8% of the angiography-guided group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.34; P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: OCT-guided primary PCI for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was associated with a larger final in-stent minimum lumen diameter. There was no significant difference in clinical outcomes at 1 year; however, the study was underpowered to detect a treatment effect. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01149044.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Trombectomia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Fatores de Risco , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Age Ageing ; 45(1): 77-83, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26590293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: increasing age is associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), and higher risks of stroke and bleeding. We report the effects of apixaban versus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in older patients (≥75 years and ≥85 years) compared with younger patients with AF unsuitable for vitamin K antagonists. METHODS: AVERROES (Apixaban Versus ASA to Prevent Stroke In AF Patients Who Have Failed or Are Unsuitable for Vitamin K Antagonist Treatment) trial (n = 5,599) included 1,898 patients ≥75 years and 366 patients ≥85 years. We compared the baseline characteristics and effects of apixaban compared with aspirin on clinical outcomes by age. RESULTS: compared with aspirin, apixaban was more efficacious for preventing strokes and systemic embolism in patients ≥85 years (absolute rate [AR] 1%/year on apixaban versus 7.5%/year on aspirin; hazard ratio [HR] 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.48) compared with younger patients (AR 1.7%/year on apixaban versus 3.4%/year on aspirin; HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.69) (P-value for interaction = 0.05). Major haemorrhage was higher in patients ≥85 years compared with younger patients but similar with apixaban versus aspirin in both young and older individuals (4.9%/year versus 1.0%/year on aspirin and 4.7%/year versus 1.2%/year on apixaban) with no significant treatment-by-age interaction (P-value = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: older patients with AF are at particularly high risk of stroke if given aspirin and have substantially greater relative and absolute benefits from apixaban compared with younger patients with no greater risk of haemorrhage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00496769. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00496769.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Age ageing ; 45(1): 77-83, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34755

RESUMO

Increasing age is associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), and higher risks of stroke andbleeding. We report the effects of apixaban versus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in older patients (≥75 years and ≥85 years) compared with younger patients with AF unsuitable for vitamin K antagonists...(AU)


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Idoso , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
18.
Eur Heart J ; 36(29): 1892-900, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25994742

RESUMO

AIMS: Manual thrombectomy has been proposed as a strategy to reduce thrombus burden during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the effectiveness of manual thrombectomy in reducing thrombus burden is uncertain. In this substudy of the TOTAL (ThrOmbecTomy versus PCI ALone) trial, we compared the thrombus burden at the culprit lesion using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients treated with thrombectomy vs. PCI-alone. METHODS AND RESULTS: The TOTAL trial (N = 10 732) was an international, multicentre, randomized trial of thrombectomy (using the Export catheter, Medtronic Cardiovascular, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. The OCT substudy prospectively enrolled 214 patients from 13 sites in 5 countries. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after thrombectomy or PCI-alone and then repeated after stent deployment. Thrombus quantification was performed by an independent core laboratory blinded to treatment assignment. The primary outcome of pre-stent thrombus burden as a percentage of segment analysed was 2.36% (95% CI: 1.73-3.22) in the thrombectomy group and 2.88% (95% CI: 2.12-3.90) in the PCI-alone group (P = 0.373). Absolute pre-stent thrombus volume was not different (2.99 vs. 3.74 mm(3), P = 0.329). Other secondary outcomes of pre-stent quadrants of thrombus, post-stent atherothrombotic burden, and post-stent atherothrombotic volume were not different between groups. CONCLUSION: Manual thrombectomy did not reduce pre-stent thrombus burden at the culprit lesion compared with PCI-alone. Both strategies were associated with low thrombus burden at the lesion site after the initial intervention to restore flow.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Trombectomia/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
19.
N Engl J Med ; 372(15): 1389-98, 2015 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25853743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), manual thrombectomy may reduce distal embolization and thus improve microvascular perfusion. Small trials have suggested that thrombectomy improves surrogate and clinical outcomes, but a larger trial has reported conflicting results. METHODS: We randomly assigned 10,732 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI to a strategy of routine upfront manual thrombectomy versus PCI alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure within 180 days. The key safety outcome was stroke within 30 days. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 347 of 5033 patients (6.9%) in the thrombectomy group versus 351 of 5030 patients (7.0%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio in the thrombectomy group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P=0.86). The rates of cardiovascular death (3.1% with thrombectomy vs. 3.5% with PCI alone; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P=0.34) and the primary outcome plus stent thrombosis or target-vessel revascularization (9.9% vs. 9.8%; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; P=0.95) were also similar. Stroke within 30 days occurred in 33 patients (0.7%) in the thrombectomy group versus 16 patients (0.3%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.75; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI who were undergoing primary PCI, routine manual thrombectomy, as compared with PCI alone, did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or NYHA class IV heart failure within 180 days but was associated with an increased rate of stroke within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; TOTAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149044.).


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Trombectomia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Trombose Coronária/complicações , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Microvasos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos
20.
Eur Heart J ; 36(5): 281-7a, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25187524

RESUMO

AIMS: The pattern of atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence-paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent-is associated with progressive stages of atrial dysfunction and structural changes and may therefore be associated with progressively higher stroke risk. However, previous studies have not consistently shown AF pattern to predict stroke but have been hampered by methodological shortcomings of low power, variable event ascertainment, and variable anticoagulant use. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the rates of stroke and systemic embolism in 6563 aspirin-treated patients with AF from the ACTIVE-A/AVERROES databases. There was thorough searching for events and adjudication. Multivariable analyses were performed with the adjustment for known risk factors for stroke. Mean age of patients with paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent AF was 69.0 ± 9.9, 68.6 ± 10.2, and 71.9 ± 9.8 years (P < 0.001). The CHA2DS2-VASc score was similar in patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF (3.1 ± 1.4), but was higher in patients with permanent AF (3.6 ± 1.5, P < 0.001). Yearly ischaemic stroke rates were 2.1, 3.0, and 4.2% for paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent AF, respectively, with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.83 (P < 0.001) for permanent vs. paroxysmal and 1.44 (P = 0.02) for persistent vs. paroxysmal. Multivariable analysis identified age ≥ 75 year, sex, history of stroke or TIA, and AF pattern as independent predictors of stroke, with AF pattern being the second strongest predictor after prior stroke or TIA. CONCLUSION: In a large population of non-anticoagulated AF patients, pattern of AF was a strong independent predictor of stroke risk and may be helpful to assess the risk/benefit for anticoagulant therapy, especially in lower risk patients.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/etiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
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