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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2572-2580, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860265

RESUMO

Recently, aluminum ion batteries (AIBs) have attracted great attention across the globe by virtue of their massive gravimetric and volumetric capacities in addition to their high abundance. Though carbon derivatives are excellent cathodes for AIBs, there is much room for further development. In this study, flexuous graphite (FG) was synthesized by a simple thermal shock treatment, and for the first time, an Al/FG battery was applied as a cathode for AIBs to reveal the real-time intercalation of AlCl4- into FG with high flexibility by using in-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements exclusively. Similarly, in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in-situ Raman techniques have been used to understand the anomalous electrochemical behavior of FG. It was found that FG adopts a unique integrated intercalation-adsorption mechanism where it follows an intercalation mechanism potential above 1.5 V and an adsorption mechanism potential below 1.5 V. This unique integrated intercalation-adsorption mechanism allows FG to exhibit superior properties, like high capacity (≥140 mAh/g), remarkable long-term stability (over 8000 cycles), excellent rate retention (93 mAh/g at 7.5 A/g), and extremely rapid charging and slow discharging.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(23): 15880-15888, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718174

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based materials have attracted interdisciplinary attention from many fields. However, their crystal structures have not yet been described well. Poly(triazine imide)/LiCl (PTI/LiCl) of good crystallinity synthesized from salt melts enables a confident structural solution for a better understanding of g-C3N4-based materials. In this study, we synthesize PTI/LiCl of high crystallinity in air without byproducts and confirm the orthorhombic feature, which is not observed in powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns at room temperature, by employing low-temperature synchrotron PXRD. Together with spectroscopic techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier-transform infrared/Raman), the orthorhombic structure (space group Cmc21, No. 36) was determined and found to be a superstructure of the previously reported hexagonal structure, as confirmed by electron diffraction. The temperature-dependent synchrotron PXRD data also reveal a highly anisotropic expansion. This work also shows the much higher activity of PTI/LiCl than of g-C3N4 for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet irradiation, especially so for PTI/LiCl with a densely packed (001) plane. This study demonstrates the structural complexity of the g-C3N4 class of materials and illustrates how their temperature-dependent anisotropies facilitate the discovery of the structural features in resolving the structure of g-C3N4-related materials and their structure-property relationship.

3.
Adv Mater ; 31(49): e1905087, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625638

RESUMO

Chromium-doped zinc gallate, ZnGa2 O4 :Cr3+ (ZGC), is viewed as a long-lasting luminescence (LLL) phosphor that can avoid tissue autofluorescence interference for in vivo imaging detection. ZGC is a cubic spinel structure, a typical agglomerative or clustered morphology lacking a defined cubic shape, but a sphere-like feature is commonly obtained for the nanometric ZGC. The substantial challenge remains achieving a well-defined cubic feature in nanoscale. The process by which dispersed and well-defined concave cubic ZGC is obtained is described, exhibiting much stronger LLL in UV and X-ray excitation for the dispersed cubic ZGC compared with the agglomerative form that cannot be excited using X-rays with a low dose of 0.5 Gy. The cubic ZGC reveals a specific accumulation in liver and 0.5 Gy used at the end of X-ray excitation is sufficient for imaging of deep-seated hepatic tumors. The ZGC nanocubes show highly passive targeting of orthotopic hepatic tumors.

4.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 3): 819-824, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074447

RESUMO

The covalent electron density, which makes Si(222) measurable, is subject to laser excitation. The three-wave Si(222)/(13 {\overline 1}) diffraction at 7.82 keV is used for phase measurements. It is found that laser excitation causes a relative phase change of around 4° in Si(222) in the first 100 ps of excitation and this is gradually recovered over several nanoseconds. This phase change is due to laser excitation of covalent electrons around the silicon atoms in the unit cell and makes the electron density deviate further from the centrosymmetric distribution.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7950, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138857

RESUMO

The transformation of pyrite into pyrrhotite above 500 °C was observed in the Chelungpu fault zone, which formed as a result of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Similarly, pyrite transformation to pyrrhotite at approximately 640 °C was observed during the Tohoku earthquake in Japan. In this study, we investigated the high-temperature phase-transition of iron sulfide minerals (greigite) under anaerobic conditions. We simulated mineral phase transformations during fault movement with the aim of determining the temperature of fault slip. The techniques used in this study included thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found diversification between 520 °C and 630 °C in the TG/DTA curves that signifies the transformation of pyrite into pyrrhotite. Furthermore, the in situ XRD results confirmed the sequence in which greigite underwent phase transitions to gradually transform into pyrite and pyrrhotite at approximately 320 °C. Greigite completely changed into pyrite and pyrrhotite at 450 °C. Finally, pyrite was completely transformed into pyrrhotite at 580 °C. Our results reveal the temperature and sequence in which the phase transitions of greigite occur, and indicate that this may be used to constrain the temperature of fault-slip. This conclusion is supported by field observations made following the Tohoku and Chi-Chi earthquakes.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(23): 7767-7772, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957924

RESUMO

In this study, a series of Sr(LiAl3 )1-x (SiMg3 )x N4 :Eu2+ (SLA-SSM) phosphors were synthesized by a solid-solution process. The emission peak maxima of SLA-SSM range from 615 nm to 680 nm, which indicates structural differences in these materials. 7 Li solid-state NMR spectroscopy was utilized to distinguish between the Li(1)N4 and Li(2)N4 tetrahedra in SLA-SSM. Differences in the coordination environments of the two Sr sites were found which explain the unexpected luminescent properties. Three discernible morphologies were detected by scanning electron microscopy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and decay times were used to understand the diverse environments of europium ions in the two strontium sites Sr1 and Sr2, which also support the NMR analysis. Moreover, X-ray absorption near-edge structure studies reveal that the Eu2+ concentration in SLA-SSM is much higher than that in in SrLiAl3 N4 :Eu2+ and SrSiMg3 N4 :Eu2+ phosphors. Finally, an overall mechanism was proposed to explain the how the change in photoluminescence is controlled by the size of the coordinated cation.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(4): 1104-1109, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617078

RESUMO

The exact superconducting phase of K2-x Fe4+y Se5 has so far not been conclusively decided since its discovery due to its intrinsic multiphase in early material. In an attempt to resolve this mystery, we have carried out systematic structural studies on a set of well-controlled samples with exact chemical stoichiometry K2-x Fe4+x Se5 (x = 0-0.3) that are heat-treated at different temperatures. Using high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, our investigations have determined the superconducting transition by focusing on the detailed temperature evolution of the crystalline phases. Our results show that superconductivity appears only in those samples that have been treated at high-enough temperature and then quenched to room temperature. The volume fraction of superconducting transition strongly depends on the annealing temperature used. The most striking result is the observation of a clear contrast in crystalline phase between the nonsuperconducting parent compound K2Fe4Se5 and the superconducting K2-x Fe4+y Se5 samples. The X-ray diffraction patterned can be well indexed to the phase with I4/m symmetry in all temperatures investigated. However, we need two phases with similar I4/m symmetry but different parameters to best fit the data at a temperature below the Fe vacancy order temperature. The results strongly suggest that superconductivity in K2-x Fe4+y Se5 critically depends on the occupation of Fe atoms on the originally empty 4d site.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563014

RESUMO

Finding a cancer-selective drug that avoids damaging healthy cells and organs is a holy grail in medical research. In our previous studies, gold-coated iron (Fe@Au) nanoparticles showed cancer selective anti-cancer properties in vitro and in vivo but were found to gradually lose that activity with storage or "ageing." To determine the reasons for this diminished anti-cancer activity, we examined Fe@Au nanoparticles at different preparation and storage stages by means of transmission electron microscopy combined with and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, along with X-ray diffraction analysis and cell viability tests. We found that dried and reconstituted Fe@Au nanoparticles, or Fe@Au nanoparticles within cells, decompose into irregular fragments of γ-F2O3 and agglomerated gold clumps. These changes cause the loss of the particles' anti-cancer effects. However, we identified that the anti-cancer properties of Fe@Au nanoparticles can be well preserved under argon or, better still, liquid nitrogen storage for six months and at least one year, respectively.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 57(16): 10410-10415, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067346

RESUMO

BaFe xNi1- xO3 with end members of BaNiO3 ( x = 0) and BaFeO3 ( x = 1), which, respectively, adopt the 2H and 6H hexagonal perovskite structures, were synthesized, and their crystal structures were investigated. A new single phase, Ba4Fe3NiO12 ( x = 0.75), that adopts the 12R perovskite structure with the space group R3̅ m ( a = 5.66564(7) Å and c = 27.8416(3) Å), was found to be stabilized. Mössbauer spectroscopy results and structure analysis using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data revealed that nominal Fe3+ occupies the corner-sharing octahedral site while the unusually high valence Fe4+ and Ni4+ occupy the face-sharing octahedral sites in the trimers, giving a charge formula of Ba4Fe3+Fe4+2Ni4+O11.5. The magnetic properties of the compound are also discussed.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192005, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390013

RESUMO

Variability in spider major ampullate (MA) silk properties at different scales has proven difficult to determine and remains an obstacle to the development of synthetic fibers mimicking MA silk performance. A multitude of techniques may be used to measure multiscale aspects of silk properties. Here we fed five species of Araneoid spider solutions that either contained protein or were protein deprived and performed silk tensile tests, small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), amino acid composition analyses, and silk gene expression analyses, to resolve persistent questions about how nutrient deprivation induces variations in MA silk mechanical properties across scales. Our analyses found that the properties of each spider's silk varied differently in response to variations in their protein intake. We found changes in the crystalline and non-crystalline nanostructures to play specific roles in inducing the property variations we found. Across treatment MaSp expression patterns differed in each of the five species. We found that in most species MaSp expression and amino acid composition variations did not conform with our predictions based on a traditional MaSp expression model. In general, changes to the silk's alanine and proline compositions influenced the alignment of the proteins within the silk's amorphous region, which influenced silk extensibility and toughness. Variations in structural alignment in the crystalline and non-crystalline regions influenced ultimate strength independent of genetic expression. Our study provides the deepest insights thus far into the mechanisms of how MA silk properties vary from gene expression to nanostructure formations to fiber mechanics. Such knowledge is imperative for promoting the production of synthetic silk fibers.


Assuntos
Seda , Aranhas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Espalhamento de Radiação , Especificidade da Espécie , Aranhas/classificação , Resistência à Tração
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(7): 1797-1801, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266619

RESUMO

Mn4+ -doped fluoride phosphors have been widely used in wide-gamut backlighting devices because of their extremely narrow emission band. Solid solutions of Na2 (Six Ge1-x )F6 :Mn4+ and Na2 (Gey Ti1-y )F6 :Mn4+ were successfully synthesized to elucidate the behavior of the zero-phonon line (ZPL) in different structures. The ratio between ZPL and the highest emission intensity υ6 phonon sideband exhibits a strong relationship with luminescent decay rate. First-principles calculations are conducted to model the variation in the structural and electronic properties of the prepared solid solutions as a function of the composition. To compensate for the limitations of the Rietveld refinement, electron paramagnetic resonance and high-resolution steady-state emission spectra are used to confirm the diverse local environment for Mn4+ in the structure. Finally, the spectral luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) is used to reveal the important role of ZPL in practical applications.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 57(2): 843-848, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278498

RESUMO

A Sr analogue of Ca0.5Bi0.5FeO3, Sr0.5Bi0.5FeO3, containing unusually high valence Fe3.5+ ions was synthesized by using a high-pressure technique. It relieves the electronic instability due to the unusually high valence of Fe3.5+ by a single charge disproportionation (CD) transition (Fe3.5+ → 0.75Fe3+ + 0.25Fe5+) rather than the successive CD and intermetallic charge transfer (CT) transitions seen in Ca0.5Bi0.5FeO3. Conduction-band narrowing due to the significant bend in the Fe-O-Fe bond in the rhombohedral R3̅c crystal structure stabilized the charge-disproportionated state at low temperatures. Most importantly, Bi3+ ions in Sr0.5Bi0.5FeO3 do not act as countercations accepting oxygen holes as they do in Ca0.5Bi0.5FeO3, resulting in the absence of the intermetallic CT transition. The large cavity of the A-site Sr ions prevents the charge-transferred Bi5+ from being stabilized. In the charge-disproportionated state the nearest-neighbor Fe3+ spins align antiferromagnetically and one-fourth of the Fe3+ spins are randomly replaced by Fe5+ spins coupled ferromagnetically with the neighboring Fe3+ spins.

13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 10(4)2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966395

RESUMO

A discrete complex [Zn(tpro)2(H2O)2] (1, Htpro = l-thioproline), and two structural isomers of coordination polymers, a 1D chain of [Zn(tpro)2]n (2) and a layered structure [Zn(tpro)2]n (3), were synthesized and characterized. The discrete complex 1 undergoes a temperature-driven structural transformation, leading to the formation of a 1D helical coordination polymer 2. Compound 3 is comprised of a 2D homochiral layer network with a (4,4) topology. These layers are mutually linked through hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in the formation of a 3D network. When 1 is heated, it undergoes nearly complete conversion to the microcrystalline form, i.e., compound 2, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD). The carboxylate motifs could be activated after removing the coordinated water molecules by heating at temperatures of up to 150 °C, their orientations becoming distorted, after which, they attacked the activation sites of the Zn(II) centers, leading to the formation of a 1D helix. Moreover, a portion of the PXRD pattern of 1 was converted into the patterns corresponding to 2 and 3, and the ratio between 2 and 3 was precisely determined by the simulation study of in-situ synchrotron PXRD expriments. Consequently, such a 0D complex is capable of underdoing structural transformations and can be converted into 1D and/or 2D amino acid-based coordination polymers.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(42): 36897-36906, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984127

RESUMO

We have identified an often observed yet unresolved intermediate structure in a popular processing with dimethylformamide solutions of lead chloride and methylammonium iodide for perovskite solar cells. With subsecond time-resolved grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, supplemental with ab initio calculation, the resolved intermediate structure (CH3NH3)2PbI2Cl2·CH3NH3I features two-dimensional (2D) perovskite bilayers of zigzagged lead-halide octahedra and sandwiched CH3NH3I layers. Such intermediate structure reveals a hidden correlation between the intermediate phase and the composition of the processing solution. Most importantly, the 2D perovskite lattice of the intermediate phase is largely crystallographically aligned with the [110] planes of the three-dimensional perovskite cubic phase; consequently, with sublimation of Cl ions from the organo-lead octahedral terminal corners in prolonged annealing, the zigzagged octahedral layers of the intermediate phase can merge with the intercalated methylammonium iodide layers for templated growth of perovskite crystals. Regulated by annealing temperature and the activation energies of the intermediate and perovskite, deduced from analysis of temperature-dependent structural kinetics, the intermediate phase is found to selectively mature first and then melt along the layering direction for epitaxial conversion into perovskite crystals. The unveiled epitaxial conversion under growth kinetics controls might be general for solution-processed and intermediate-templated perovskite formation.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(13): 8681-8693, 2017 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272620

RESUMO

Metal oxides of the spinel family have shown great potential towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), but the fundamental OER mechanism of spinel oxides is still far from being completely understood, especially for the role of the metal ions. Owing to various coordinated sites of divalent/trivalent metals ions and surface conditions (morphology and defects), it is a great challenge to have a fair assessment of the electrocatalytic performance of spinel systems. Herein, we demonstrated a series of MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) with a well-controlled morphology to achieve a comprehensive study of electrocatalytic activity toward OER. By utilizing several in situ analyses, we could conclude a universal rule that the activities for OER in the metal oxide systems were determined by the occurrence of a phase transformation, and this structural transformation could work well in both crystallographic sites (Td and Oh sites). Additionally, the divalent metal ion significantly dominated the formation of oxyhydroxide through an epitaxial relationship, which depended on the atomic arrangement at the interface of spinel and metal oxyhydroxide, while trivalent metal ions remained unchanged as a host lattice. The metal oxyhydroxide was formed during a redox reaction rather than being formed during OER. The occurrence of the redox reaction seems to accompany a remarkable increase in resistance and capacitance might result from the structural transformation from spinel to metal oxyhydroxide. We believe that the approaching strategies and information obtained in the present study can offer a guide to designing a promising electrocatalytic system towards the oxygen evolution reaction and other fields.

16.
Langmuir ; 33(13): 3253-3261, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288275

RESUMO

The nucleation and growth process of gold supercrystals in a surfactant diffusion approach is followed by simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), supplemented with scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that supercrystal nucleation can be activated efficiently upon placing a concentrated surfactant solution of a nematic phase on top of a gold nanocrystal solution droplet trapped in the middle of a vertically oriented capillary tube. Supercrystal nuclei comprised of tens of gold nanocubes are observed nearly instantaneously in the broadened liquid-liquid interface zone of a steep gradient of surfactant concentration, revealing a diffusion-kinetics-controlled nucleation process. Once formed, the nuclei can sediment into the naoncrystal zone below, and grow efficiently into cubic or tetragonal supercrystals of ∼1 µm size within ∼100 min. Supercrystals matured during sedimentation in the capillary can accumulate and face-to-face align at the bottom liquid-air interface of the nanocrystal droplet. This is followed by superpacking of the supercrystals into highly oriented hierarchical sheets, with a huge number of gold nanocubes aligned for largely coherent crystallographic orientations.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(45): 30677-30682, 2016 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802017

RESUMO

A new concept called "full-spectrum lighting" has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Traditional devices are usually combined with ultraviolet-light-emitting diode (LED), red, green, and blue phosphors. However, a cyan cavity exists in the 480-520 nm region. Hence, cyan phosphors are needed to compensate for the cavity. (Sr,Ba)5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphors feature an extremely unique and tunable photoluminescence spectrum. Nevertheless, the tuning mechanisms of these phosphors remain unclear. In this study, we elucidate the mechanism of the cation size-controlled activator uneven-occupation and reoxidation in (Sr,Ba)5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphors. This mechanism could help tune the optical properties of related apatite families and structures with multiple cation sites and strongly uneven occupation of activators and cations. Finally, the package of the LED device is constructed to show that both color rendering index Ra and R9 are higher than 95. Thus, the device could be a potential candidate for full-spectrum lighting.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(30): 19612-7, 2016 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403812

RESUMO

Red phosphors (e.g., SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+)) with high thermal stability and narrow-band properties are urgently explored to meet the next-generation high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, to date, synthesis of such phosphors remains an arduous task. Herein, we report, for the first time, a facile method to synthesize SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) through Sr3N2, Li3N, Al, and EuN under atmospheric pressure. The as-synthesized narrow-band red-emitting phosphor exhibits excellent thermal stability, including small chromaticity shift and low thermal quenching. Intriguingly, the title phosphor shows an anomalous increase in theoretical lumen equivalent with the increase of temperature as a result of blue shift and band broadening of the emission band, which is crucial for high-power white LEDs. Utilizing the title phosphor, commercial YAG:Ce(3+), and InGaN-based blue LED chip, a proof-of-concept warm white LEDs with a color rendering index (CRI) of 91.1 and R9 = 68 is achieved. Therefore, our results highlight that this method, which is based on atmospheric pressure synthesis, may open a new means to explore narrow-band-emitting nitride phosphor. In addition, the underlying requirements to design Eu(2+)-doped narrow-band-emitting phosphors were also summarized.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(8): 1567-70, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26741953

RESUMO

A well-defined co-catalyst system TiO2 nanotube-Au (core)-Pt (shell) was demonstrated to be the combination of the localized surface plasmon effect of gold and excellent proton reduction nature of platinum. Furthermore, surface engineering by the descending Fermi energies of gold and platinum was beneficial to electron transfer.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanoestruturas , Platina/química , Catálise , Hidrogênio/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Titânio/química
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(36): 23667-73, 2015 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299873

RESUMO

Quantitative structural parameters of pyrochlore Nd2Ru2O7, with temperature dependence, have been derived upon fitting XRD and EXAFS data. An anomalous expansion of the lattice parameter and the Ru-O bond length indicates a structural instability at low temperatures; in particular, an increase in the non-thermal term of the mean square fluctuation in the bond length is the evidence for a static disorder of Ru atoms. This static disorder is closely correlated with a decrease in the average Ru-O-Ru bond angle with decreasing temperature, favoring the short-range ferromagnetic coupling in the material. This ferromagnetic coupling formed thus triggered the spin frustration at low temperature when the contradictory constraints of antiferromagnetic interaction act upon the same Ru site in the corner-sharing tetrahedrons of pyrochlore Nd2Ru2O7. This study demonstrates that the spin frustration arising from the competition of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interactions in pyrochlore Nd2Ru2O7 will cause structural instability especially on the atomic scale, which provides a new point of view to help understand its particular magnetic state.

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