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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16651-16662, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554402

RESUMO

When nanoparticles (NPs) are assembled from solution, a common assembly method of choice is either solution destabilization or solvent evaporation technique. The destabilization of the NP solution by non-solvents results in the formation of faceted supercrystals (SCs) while periodic film-like assemblies are typically formed by solvent evaporation. Here, we reveal the effect of non-solvents in washing, dispersing, and crystallizing NPs. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is employed for monitoring the ligand shell of NPs in solutions upon introduction of various non-solvents. The SC crystallization process is traced in situ with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the structures of the resulting single-crystalline SCs are examined in detail by mapping the reciprocal space using SAXS and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Our study suggests that the relative miscibility of the non-solvent with solvents and ligands determines the solvation and thickness of the ligand shell and thereby the resulting structure of SCs. In the early stage of crystallization, truncated octahedral PbS NPs form SCs with face-centered cubic (fcc) symmetry. In the later stage, the fcc symmetry is preserved in the SC formed by larger (5.60 nm) NPs, but the SC assembled from smaller (4.14 nm) NPs undergoes a phase transition into body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice via Bain transformation, becoming a polycrystalline SC containing three structurally correlated bcc domains and one untransformed fcc domain. Our study provides the detailed understanding of the non-solvent effect that impacts beyond the formation of SCs, enabling the judicious selection of solvent/non-solvent mixtures for NP purification.

2.
Nanoscale ; 11(41): 19285-19290, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539009

RESUMO

While a large number of studies deal with biomedical applications of various types of nanoparticles synthesized using wet chemistry, we propose the concept of targeted biosynthesis of nanoparticles in the living brain. Here we demonstrate that the pathological biochemical process of accumulation of reduced pyridine nucleotides under deleterious conditions of brain hypoxia can be redirected to drive the biosynthesis of biocompatible Au nanoparticles from a precursor salt in situ in the immediate vicinity of the hypoxia site, thereby restoring the redox status of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Animais , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NAD/química , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(33): 30154-30162, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353888

RESUMO

Here, we propose a simple approach for the design of highly porous multicomponent heterostructures by infiltration of block-co-polymer templates with inorganic precursors in swelling solvents followed by gas-phase sequential infiltration synthesis and thermal annealing. This approach can prepare conformal coatings, free-standing membranes, and powders consisting of uniformly sized metal or metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) well dispersed in a porous oxide matrix. We employed this new, versatile synthetic concept to synthesize catalytically active heterostructures of uniformly dispersed ∼4.3 nm PdO nanoparticles accessible through three-dimensional pore networks of the alumina support. Importantly, such materials reveal high resistance against sintering at 800 °C, even at relatively high loadings of NPs (∼10 wt %). At the same time, such heterostructures enable high mass transport due to highly interconnected nature of the pores. The surface of synthesized nanoparticles in the porous matrix is highly accessible, which enables their good catalytic performance in methane and carbon monoxide oxidation. In addition, we demonstrate that this approach can be utilized to synthesize heterostructures consisting of different types of NPs on a highly porous support. Our results show that swelling-based infiltration provides a promising route toward the robust and scalable synthesis of multicomponent structures.

4.
Nanoscale ; 11(22): 10655-10666, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839029

RESUMO

Precise engineering of nanoparticle superlattices (NPSLs) for energy applications requires a molecular-level understanding of the physical factors governing their morphology, periodicity, mechanics, and response to external stimuli. Such knowledge, particularly the impact of ligand dynamics on physical behavior of NPSLs, is still in its infancy. Here, we combine coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and small angle X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell to demonstrate that coverage density of capping ligands (i.e., number of ligands per unit area of a nanoparticle's surface), strongly influences the structure, elasticity, and high-pressure behavior of NPSLs using face-centered cubic PbS-NPSLs as a representative example. We demonstrate that ligand coverage density dictates (a) the extent of diffusion of ligands over NP surfaces, (b) spatial distribution of the ligands in the interstitial spaces between neighboring NPs, and (c) the fraction of ligands that interdigitate across different nanoparticles. We find that below a critical coverage density (1.8 nm-2 for 7 nm PbS NPs capped with oleic acid), NPSLs collapse to form disordered aggregates via sintering, even under ambient conditions. Above the threshold ligand coverage density, NPSLs surprisingly preserve their crystalline order even under high applied pressures (∼40-55 GPa), and show a completely reversible pressure behavior. This opens the possibility of reversibly manipulating lattice spacing of NPSLs, and in turn, finely tuning their collective electronic, optical, thermo-mechanical, and magnetic properties.

5.
Langmuir ; 35(3): 796-803, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614710

RESUMO

Infiltration of the polymer templates with inorganic precursors using the selective vapor-phase infiltration approach, or sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), allows the design of materials with advanced properties. Swelling of the block co-polymer (BCP) templates enables the additional control of the structure, porosity, and thickness of the composite or inorganic materials. Here, we use the highly precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique to investigate quantitatively the effect of the micelle opening by swelling and inorganic precursor infiltrating on the evolution of porosity in amphiphilic BCPs. We show that swelling of the polystyrene- block-poly-4-vinyl pyridine (PS- b-P4VP) BCP in ethanol at 75 °C occurs rapidly and results in a stable polymer structure in 30 min. By using an alumina model system, we found that swelling enables access to all available polar domains of the PS- b-P4VP film leading to an increase in the SIS-infiltrated alumina mass as compared to the nonswelled BCP layer. Our results demonstrate that swelling of the 110 nm thick BCP template results in the formation of 192 nm thick alumina films with 2 times larger alumina mass and 4 times larger effective pore volume than in case of the nonswelled sample. In the case of the thicker polymer template, the difference due to swelling becomes even more substantial because the fraction of accessible polymer is increased much more than in thin films. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanism of the infiltration of the inorganic precursors into swelled and nonswelled, spin-coated BCP templates enabling the design of highly porous thick ceramic films by SIS.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 29(49): 495703, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211698

RESUMO

Inorganic nanoporous materials with highly accessible pores are of great interest for the design of efficient catalytic, purification and detection systems. Limited access to the pores is a common problem associated with traditional approaches for the synthesis of porous materials, affecting the functionality of the low-density structure. Recently, infiltration of a nanoporous polymer template with inorganic precursors followed by oxidative annealing was proposed as a new and efficient approach to creating porous inorganic structures with controlled thickness, composition and pore sizes. Here, we report an ultra-high accessibility of the pores in porous films prepared via polymer-swelling-assisted sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS). Using a quartz crystal microbalance technique, we show the increased solvent adsorbing capabilities of highly porous alumina films as a result of high interconnectivity of the pores in such structures. The directionality and highly interconnected nature of the pores are demonstrated in experiments with the partial blocking of pore access by the deposition of a single-layer graphene that is not transparent to solvent. 60% of the pores remain accessible when only 20% of the surface is exposed to solvent. Using humidity detection as an example, we also show that highly porous alumina produced by polymer-swelling-assisted SIS is a promising candidate for sensing applications.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(29): 24715-24724, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953206

RESUMO

Low-cost transition metal oxides are actively explored as alternative materials to precious metal-based electrocatalysts for the challenging multistep oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We utilized the Kirkendall effect allowing the formation of hollow polycrystalline, highly disordered nanoparticles (NPs) to synthesize highly active binary metal oxide OER electrocatalysts in alkali media. Two synthetic strategies were applied to achieve compositional control in binary transition metal oxide hollow NPs. The first strategy is capitalized on the oxidation of transition-metal NP seeds in the presence of other transition-metal cations. Oxidation of Fe NPs treated with Ni (+2) cations allowed the synthesis of hollow oxide NPs with a 1-4.7 Ni-to-Fe ratio via an oxidation-induced doping mechanism. Hollow Fe-Ni oxide NPs also reached a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at 0.30 V overpotential. The second strategy is based on the direct oxidation of iron-cobalt alloy NPs which allows the synthesis of hollow Fe xCo100- x-oxide NPs where x can be tuned in the range between 36 and 100. Hollow Fe36Co64-oxide NPs also revealed the current density of 10 mA/cm2 at 0.30 V overpotential in 0.1 M KOH.

8.
Nanoscale ; 10(14): 6382-6392, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561055

RESUMO

We combined synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray fluorescence and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to probe the structure of chemically synthesized CoPt3 nanoparticles (NPs) after ligand removal via the commonly accepted solvent/nonsolvent approach. We showed that the improved catalytic activity of extensively purified NPs could not be explained only in terms of a "cleaner" surface. We found that extensive surface purification results in the substantial leaching of the Co atoms from the chemically synthesized CoPt3 NPs transforming them into CoPt3/Pt core/shell structures with an unexpectedly thick (∼0.5 nm) Pt shell. We indicated that the improved catalytic activity of extensively purified NPs in octyne hydrogenation reaction can be explained by the formation of CoPt3/Pt core/shell structures. Also, we demonstrated that drastic compositional and structural transformation of water transferred CoPt3 NPs was rather a result of extensive removal of native ligands via a solvent/nonsolvent approach than leaching of cobalt atoms in aqueous media. We expect that these findings can be relevant to other transition metal based multicomponent NPs.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(8): 1900-1906, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589949

RESUMO

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are commonly grown with a shell of a second semiconductor material to obtain desired physical properties, such as increased photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the growth of a lattice-mismatched shell results in strain within the nanocrystal, and this strain has the potential to produce crystalline defects. Here, we study CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods as a model system to investigate the influence of core size and shape on the formation of stacking faults in the nanocrystal. Using a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and pair-distribution-function analysis of synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that growth of the CdS shell on smaller, spherical CdSe cores results in relatively small strain and few stacking faults. By contrast, growth of the shell on larger, prolate spheroidal cores leads to significant strain in the CdS lattice, resulting in a high density of stacking faults.

10.
ACS Nano ; 11(3): 2521-2530, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139905

RESUMO

Control over refractive index and thickness of surface coatings is central to the design of low refraction films used in applications ranging from optical computing to antireflective coatings. Here, we introduce gas-phase sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) as a robust, powerful, and efficient approach to deposit conformal coatings with very low refractive indices. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of inorganic coatings can be efficiently tuned by the number of cycles used in the SIS process, composition, and selective swelling of the of the polymer template. We show that the refractive index of Al2O3 can be lowered from 1.76 down to 1.1 using this method. The thickness of the Al2O3 coating can be efficiently controlled by the swelling of the block copolymer template in ethanol at elevated temperature, thereby enabling deposition of both single-layer and graded-index broadband antireflective coatings. Using this technique, Fresnel reflections of glass can be reduced to as low as 0.1% under normal illumination over a broad spectral range.

11.
ACS Omega ; 2(11): 7812-7819, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457338

RESUMO

Nanoporous conformal coating is an important class of materials for electrocatalysis, water purification, antireflective coatings, etc. Common synthesis methods of porous films often require harsh conditions (high temperature and high plasma power) or specific substrate materials. Here, we report a plasma-enhanced sequential infiltration synthesis (PE SIS) as a new platform toward deposition of nanoporous inorganic films. PE SIS is based on oxygen-plasma-induced rapid conversion of metal precursors selectively adsorbed in a block-copolymer template. Porosity and thickness of resulting materials can be easily controlled by characteristics of the template. PE SIS is conducted under gentle conditions, and can be applied to a broad range of substrates, including water-sensitive surfaces. PE SIS offers adventurous rapid infiltration with improved ability to obtain highly interconnected porous alumina films with thicknesses up to 5 µm. We show that full infiltration of the polar domain of the polymer template can be achieved upon initial exposure to TMA, followed by its oxygen-plasma-induced conversion into a functional material. Since different types of plasma (such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.) induce conversion of a broad range of metal precursors, PE SIS opens a new approach for synthesis of highly porous materials with various elemental compositions and stoichiometries.

12.
Chem Rev ; 116(18): 10343-5, 2016 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27677520
13.
ACS Nano ; 10(7): 7208-15, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387010

RESUMO

Long-range charge and exciton transport in quantum dot (QD) solids is a crucial challenge in utilizing QDs for optoelectronic applications. Here, we present a direct visualization of exciton diffusion in highly ordered CdSe QDs superlattices by mapping exciton population using ultrafast transient absorption microscopy. A temporal resolution of ∼200 fs and a spatial precision of ∼50 nm of this technique provide a direct assessment of the upper limit for exciton transport in QD solids. An exciton diffusion length of ∼125 nm has been visualized in the 3 ns experimental time window and an exciton diffusion coefficient of (2.5 ± 0.2) × 10(-2) cm(2) s(-1) has been measured for superlattices constructed from 3.6 nm CdSe QDs with center-to-center distance of 6.7 nm. The measured exciton diffusion constant is in good agreement with Förster resonance energy transfer theory. We have found that exciton diffusion is greatly enhanced in the superlattices over the disordered films with an order of magnitude higher diffusion coefficient, pointing toward the role of disorder in limiting transport. This study provides important understandings on energy transport mechanisms in both the spatial and temporal domains in QD solids.

14.
Nano Lett ; 16(6): 3738-47, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152970

RESUMO

Doping is a well-known approach to modulate the electronic and optical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). However, doping at nanoscale is still very challenging, and the reasons for that are not well understood. We studied the formation and doping process of iron and iron oxide NPs in real time by in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our study revealed that the mass flow of the iron triggered by oxidation is responsible for the internalization of the dopant (molybdenum) adsorbed at the surface of the host iron NPs. The oxidation induced doping allows controlling the doping levels by varying the amount of dopant precursor. Our in situ studies also revealed that the dopant precursor substantially changes the reaction kinetics of formation of iron and iron oxide NPs. Thus, in the presence of dopant precursor we observed significantly faster decomposition rate of iron precursors and substantially higher stability of iron NPs against oxidation. The same doping mechanism and higher stability of host metal NPs against oxidation was observed for cobalt-based systems. Since the internalization of the adsorbed dopant at the surface of the host NPs is driven by the mass transport of the host, this mechanism can be potentially applied to introduce dopants into different oxidized forms of metal and metal alloy NPs providing the extra degree of compositional control in material design.

15.
Nano Lett ; 15(10): 7161-7, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26397120

RESUMO

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) presents a significant hazard under numerous realistic scenarios. The standard detection scheme for this fast-acting toxin is a lab-based mouse lethality assay that is sensitive and specific, but slow (∼2 days) and requires expert administration. As such, numerous efforts have aimed to decrease analysis time and reduce complexity. Here, we describe a sensitive ratiometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer scheme that utilizes highly photostable semiconductor quantum dot (QD) energy donors and chromophore conjugation to compact, single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) to yield a fast, fieldable sensor for BoNT with a 20-40 pM detection limit, toxin quantification, adjustable dynamic range, sensitivity in the presence of interferents, and sensing times as fast as 5 min. Through a combination of mutations, we achieve stabilized scFv denaturation temperatures of more than 60 °C, which bolsters fieldability. We also describe adaptation of the assay into a microarray format that offers persistent monitoring, reuse, and multiplexing.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas/análise , Pontos Quânticos , Radiometria/métodos , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção
17.
Nat Mater ; 14(2): 215-23, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25362354

RESUMO

To be able to control the functions of engineered multicomponent nanomaterials, a detailed understanding of heterogeneous nucleation at the nanoscale is essential. Here, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that in the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Au on Pt or Pt-alloy seeds the heteroepitaxial growth of the Au shell exerts high stress (∼2 GPa) on the seed by forming a core/shell structure in the early stage of the reaction. The development of lattice strain and subsequent strain relaxation, which we show using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy to occur through the slip of {111} layers, induces morphological changes from a core/shell to a dumbbell structure, and governs the nucleation and growth kinetics. We also propose a thermodynamic model for the nucleation and growth of dumbbell metallic heteronanostructures.

18.
ACS Nano ; 8(7): 7202-7, 2014 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24995678

RESUMO

As batteries become more powerful and utilized in diverse applications, thermal management becomes one of the central problems in their application. We report the results on thermal properties of a set of different Li-ion battery electrodes enhanced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Our measurements reveal that the highest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities achieved in the carbon-nanotube-enhanced electrodes reached up to 141 and 3.6 W/mK, respectively. The values for in-plane thermal conductivity are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those for conventional electrodes based on carbon black. The electrodes were synthesized via an inexpensive scalable filtration method, and we demonstrate that our approach can be extended to commercial electrode-active materials. The best performing electrodes contained a layer of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes sandwiched between two layers of carbon nanotubes and had in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of ∼50 and 3 W/mK, respectively, at room temperature. The obtained results are important for thermal management in Li-ion and other high-power-density batteries.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(6): 2342-50, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24443818

RESUMO

We report here detailed in situ studies of nucleation and growth of Au on CdSe/CdS nanorods using synchrotron SAXS technique and time-resolved spectroscopy. We examine structural and optical properties of CdSe/CdS/Au heterostructures formed under UV illumination. We compare the results for CdSe/CdS/Au heterostructures with the results of control experiments on CdSe/CdS nanorods exposed to gold precursor under conditions when no such heterostructures are formed (no UV illumination). Our data indicate similar photoluminescence (PL) quenching and PL decay profiles in both types of samples. Via transient absorption and PL, we show that such behavior is consistent with rapid (faster than 3 ps) hole trapping by gold-sulfur sites at the surface of semiconductor nanoparticles. This dominant process was overlooked in previous end-point studies on semiconductor/metal heterostructures.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(7): 2435-8, 2013 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23360327

RESUMO

Diamond anvil cell (DAC), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques are used to probe the composition inside hollow γ-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs). SAXS experiments on 5.2, 13.3, and 13.8 nm hollow-shell γ-Fe(3)O(4) NPs, and 6 nm core/14.8 nm hollow-shell Au/Fe(3)O(4) NPs, reveal the significantly high (higher than solvent) electron density of the void inside the hollow shell. In high-pressure DAC experiments using Ne as pressure-transmitting medium, formation of nanocrystalline Ne inside hollow NPs is not detected by XRD, indicating that the oxide shell is impenetrable. Also, FTIR analysis on solutions of hollow-shell γ-Fe(3)O(4) NPs fragmented upon refluxing shows no evidence of organic molecules from the void inside, excluding the possibility that organic molecules get through the iron oxide shell during synthesis. High-pressure DAC experiments on Au/Fe(3)O(4) core/hollow-shell NPs show good transmittance of the external pressure to the gold core, indicating the presence of the pressure-transmitting medium in the gap between the core and the hollow shell. Overall, our data reveal the presence of most likely small fragments of iron and/or iron oxide in the void of the hollow NPs. The iron oxide shell seems to be non-porous and impenetrable by gases and liquids.

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