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1.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 778-789, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is the most common thyroid dysfunction, and its relationship with blood pressure (BP) has been controversial. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between SCH and newly-diagnosed hypertension. METHODS: Based on data from the Thyroid disease, Iodine nutrition and Diabetes Epidemiology (TIDE) study, 49,433 euthyroid individuals and 7,719 SCH patients aged ≥18 years were enrolled. Patients with a history of hypertension or thyroid disease were excluded. SCH was determined by manufacturer reference range. Overall hypertension and stage 1 and 2 hypertension were diagnosed according to the guidelines issued by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2017. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall hypertension (48.7%), including stage 1 (28.9%) and 2 (19.8%) hypertension, increased significantly in SCH patients compared with euthyroid subjects. With elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, the hypertension prevalence also increased significantly from the euthyroid to different SCH subgroups, which was more profound in females or subjects aged <65 years. The age- and sex-specific regression analysis further demonstrated the same trends in the general population and in the 1:1 propensity matched population. Similarly, several BP components (i.e., systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP) were positively associated with TSH elevation, and regression analysis also confirmed that all BP components were closely related with SCH in female subjects aged <65 years. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension increases for patients with SCH. SCH tends to be associated with hypertension and BP components in females younger than 65 years.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 807, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicine purchasing in Chinese public hospitals is decided by the hospital Pharmacy Management Committee (PMC), that is complex, subjective and requires efficient approaches to ensure transparency and consistency for the factors being considered. This study aimed to use the Evidence and Value: Impact on Decision Making (EVIDEM) framework to assess medicine in these hospitals. In this study anti-diabetic drugs DPP-4 inhibitors, which work by inhibiting the activation of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, were appraised. METHODS: Following EVIDEM methodology (EVIDEM-10th), we convened an appraisal group and asked each individual to express their perspectives by assigning weights to each criterion. A systematic literature search for information of each criterion of five DPP-4 inhibitors was completed. Then the appraisal group scored for each criterion of the five DPP-4 inhibitors. The estimated value of the five DPP-4 inhibitors was obtained by Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) which combined individual weighting of each criterion with individual scoring for each intervention in each criterion. RESULTS: By assigning weights, the most important criterion was the quality of evidence (4.01±0.52), and that the comparative cost consequences-non-medical cost was the least important criterion (2.87±1.03). Criteria included disease severity, size of the affected population, comparative effectiveness, type of therapeutic/preventive benefit and cost of intervention, all of which were assigned the same weight of 3.58. After MCDA, the overall value orders for each DPP-4 inhibitor included Sitagliptin (0.45), Linagliptin (0.44), Vildagliptin (0.43), Alogliptin (0.42) and Saxagliptin (0.40). CONCLUSIONS: Based on EVIDEM framework and MCDA, we found that overall value of five DPP-4 inhibitors was similar. It is feasible to use the EVIDEM framework and MCDA in purchasing medicine for Chinese public hospitals.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , China , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 651534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122333

RESUMO

Background: Universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in mainland China in 1996. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism and its risk factors now require examination. Methods: Data were acquired from a nationwide Thyroid, Iodine, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey (TIDE 2015-2017) of 78,470 subjects from 31 provinces. Iodine status, and thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured. Results: After two decades of USI, the prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism (OH), Graves' disease (GD), severe subclinical hyperthyroidism (severe SCH), and mild subclinical hyperthyroidism (mild SCH) in mainland China was 0.78%, 0.53%, 0.22%, and 0.22%, respectively. OH and GD prevalence were higher in women than in men (OH: 1.16% vs. 0.64%, P<0.001; GD: 0.65% vs. 0.37%, P<0.001).Prevalence was significantly decreased after 60 years-of-age compared with 30-39 years-of-age (OH:0.61% vs. 0.81%, P<0.001; GD: 0.38% vs. 0.57%, P<0.001).Excessive iodine(EI) and deficient iodine(DI) were both related to increased prevalence of OH (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-2.59; OR1.35, 95%CI 1.07-1.72, respectively); however, only deficient iodine was associated with increased prevalence of GD (OR1.67, 95%CI 1.30-2.15). Increased thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody levels were significantly associated with prevalence of OH and GD, but not severe SCH and mild SCH. Although hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in women, the association disappeared after adjusting for other factors such as antibody levels. Conclusion: OH and GD prevalences in mainland China are stable after two decades of USI. Iodine deficiency, elevated thyroid antibody levels, and middle age are the main risk factors for OH and GD. The severe SCH population, rather than the mild SCH population, shows similar characteristics to the OH population.

4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 688, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099862

RESUMO

Persistent acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a recently recognized precursor of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we show that the ADM area of human pancreas tissue adjacent to PDAC expresses significantly higher levels of regenerating protein 3A (REG3A). Exogenous REG3A and its mouse homolog REG3B induce ADM in the 3D culture of primary human and murine acinar cells, respectively. Both Reg3b transgenic mice and REG3B-treated mice with caerulein-induced pancreatitis develop and sustain ADM. Two out of five Reg3b transgenic mice with caerulein-induced pancreatitis show progression from ADM to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Both in vitro and in vivo ADM models demonstrate activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Exostosin-like glycosyltransferase 3 (EXTL3) functions as the receptor for REG3B and mediates the activation of downstream signaling proteins. Our data indicates that REG3A/REG3B promotes persistent ADM through binding to EXTL3 and activating the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Targeting REG3A/REG3B, its receptor EXTL3, or other downstream molecules could interrupt the ADM process and prevent early PDAC carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Metaplasia/metabolismo , Metaplasia/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/análise , Ductos Pancreáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/análise , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Quinases raf/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(12): 5799-5810, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988300

RESUMO

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the most common and severe manifestation of Graves' disease (GD), is a disfiguring and potentially blinding autoimmune disease. The high relapse rate (up to 20%) and substantial side effects of glucocorticoid treatment further decrease the life quality of TAO patients. To develop novel therapies, we amid to explore the immunopathogenesis of TAO. To identify the key immune-related genes (IRGs) in TAO, we integrated the IRG expression profiles in thyrocytes from a GD patient set (GD vs healthy control) and a TAO patient set (TAO vs GD). Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein-protein interaction (PPI) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses identified the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene as the key IRG in TAO immunopathogenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) suggested enrichment of the antigen presentation pathway in TAO patients with higher LEPR. Increased LEPR expression was validated in TAO orbital tissues, and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that cell adhesion processes were positively correlated with LEPR. Our study revealed that LEPR is a key gene in TAO immunopathogenesis and plays different roles in thyrocytes and orbital tissues. Our findings provide new insights into diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for TAO.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doença de Graves/complicações , Oftalmopatia de Graves/patologia , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Doença de Graves/patologia , Oftalmopatia de Graves/etiologia , Oftalmopatia de Graves/metabolismo , Humanos , Curva ROC , Receptores para Leptina/genética
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 632492, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912135

RESUMO

Graves' disease (GD) is a T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorder. GD patients who have taken anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs) for more than 5 years with positive anti-thyroid stimulating hormone receptor autoantibodies value were defined as persistent GD (pGD). To develop novel immunotherapies for pGD, we investigated the role of T cells in the long-lasting phase of GD. Clinical characteristics were compared between the pGD and newly diagnosed GD (nGD) (N = 20 respectively). Flow cytometric analysis was utilized to determine the proportions of Treg and Th17 cells (pGD, N = 12; nGD, N = 14). T cell receptor sequencing (TCR-seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) were also performed (pGD, N = 13; nGD, N = 20). Flow cytometric analysis identified lower proportions of Th17 and Treg cells in pGD than in nGD (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0223). TCR-seq analysis revealed a lower diversity (P = 0.0025) in pGD. Specifically, marked clonal expansion, represented by an increased percentage of top V-J recombination, was observed in pGD patients. Interestingly, pGD patients showed more public T cell clonotypes than nGD patients (2,741 versus 966). Meanwhile, RNA-seq analysis revealed upregulation of the inflammation and chemotaxis pathways in pGD. Specifically, the expression of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic genes (IL1B, IL13, IL8, and CCL4) was increased in pGD, whereas Th17 and Treg cells associated genes (RORC, CARD9, STAT5A, and SATB1) decreased in pGD. Additionally, TCR diversity was negatively correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory or chemotactic genes (FASLG, IL18R1, CCL24, and CCL14). These results indicated that Treg dysregulation and the expansion of pathogenic T cell clones might be involved in the long-lasting phase of GD via upregulating chemotaxis or inflammation response. To improve the treatment of pGD patients, ATDs combined therapies, especially those aimed at improving Treg cell frequencies or targeting specific expanded pathogenic TCR clones, are worth exploring in the future.

7.
Endocr J ; 68(9): 1043-1056, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883332

RESUMO

The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been widely discussed. This study aimed to conduct an update and comprehensive meta-analysis to reveal the risk of MetS and its components in SCH. PubMed, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to identify relevant studies through February 20th, 2020. Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 14.0 were used to conduct the meta-analysis. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used. In total, 18 articles (19 studies) incorporating 79,727 participants were included. The pooled OR for MetS comparing subjects with SCH with euthyroid subjects was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.39, p = 0.04, I2 = 40%). Subgroup analysis results showed significant associations of SCH and MetS in the adult subgroup (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40), Asian population subgroup (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.19-1.42) and cross-sectional study design subgroup (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47). Significant associations of SCH and MetS also existed in all MetS definition criteria subgroups except the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) subgroup. SCH was correlated with MetS and was not affected by the subgroup analysis stratified by the proportion of females in the total population, the TSH cutoff value in SCH diagnostic criteria, or the adjustment for confounding factors. SCH was identified to be associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride (TG) levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In conclusion, SCH is significantly associated with an increased risk of MetS and four out of five components of MetS.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 548: 211-216, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647798

RESUMO

In the past decades, remarkable efforts have been made to unravel the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism, given the increasing prevalence of obesity and its huge impact on human health. Wnt signaling pathway is closely involved in this entity. As extracellular inhibitors to Wnt signaling, secreted protein Dickkopfs (Dkks) may be potential targets to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. In this study, we showed that Dkk2 was a beige fat-enriched adipokine to regulate adipogenesis. Dkk2 was strikingly expressed in beige fat depot compared to classic white, brown, and subcutaneous fat. Dkk2 treatment inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells, and primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Activation of the master adipogenic factor PPARγ by the synthetic Thiazolidinedione ligand rosiglitazone largely rescued the inhibition of adipogenesis by Dkk2. Furthermore, adenoviral overexpression of Dkk2 in the liver to mimic its gain-of-function showed minimal effect on whole-body metabolism. These results collectively suggest that Dkk2 is a first-in-class beige fat adipokine and functions mainly through a paracrine manner to inhibit adipogenesis rather than as an endocrine factor. Our findings aid a better understanding of beige fat function and regulation and further, provide a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Adipócitos Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia
9.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 39, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the relationship between thyroid hormones (THs) across the euthyroid ranges and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been widely discussed. This study aimed to present specific cutoff values of THs to assess the association between THs and MetS in a euthyroid cohort. METHODS: Data of 2694 subjects, aged 18-80 years, who attended health examination in Xi'an Electric Power Central Hospital from April 2011 to December 2015 were collected and analyzed. The first cohort enrolled 929 participants (followed up by 2221 person-years totally) to assess correlations between serum thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) levels and MetS. The second cohort included 698 participants (followed up by 1709 person-years totally) to evaluate relationships between serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) levels and MetS. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) scientific statements of 2009. Euthyroidism was defined as serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels within the reference ranges without taking any thyroid medication. RESULTS: The cutoff values for TSH, T3, T4, FT3 and FT4 were 2.0mIU/L, 1.9 nmol/L, 117 nmol/L, 4.3 pmol/L and 16 pmol/L, respectively. Participants were categorized into two groups according to cutoff values: the lower-THs group and the higher-THs group. There was no significant difference in the risk of MetS between two groups in TSH, T3, T4 and FT3. The incidence of MetS was significantly higher in lower-FT4 group than higher-FT4 group (1.00 vs 0.622 (0.458, 0.846), P = 0.002). The lower-FT4/higher-TSH group had the highest hazard ratios of MetS. (2.131vs 1.0 (1.380,3.291), P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Lower normal FT4 (FT4 ≤ 16.0 pmol/L) is an independent risk factor for MetS, and lower normal thyroid function (TSH > 2.0 mIU/L and FT4 ≤ 16.0 pmol/L) is associated with a higher risk of developing MetS.

10.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(3): 735-745, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514849

RESUMO

Graves' orbitopathy (GO), the most severe manifestation of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH), is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorder, and treatments often exhibit a low efficacy. CD4+ T cells have been reported to play vital roles in GO progression. To explore the pathogenic CD4+ T cell types that drive GO progression, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq), T cell receptor sequencing (TCR-Seq), flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assays to evaluate CD4+ T cells from GO and GH patients. scRNA-Seq revealed the novel GO-specific cell type CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which are characterized by chemotactic and inflammatory features. The clonal expansion of this CD4+ CTL population, as demonstrated by TCR-Seq, along with their strong cytotoxic response to autoantigens, localization in orbital sites, and potential relationship with disease relapse provide strong evidence for the pathogenic roles of GZMB and IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ CTLs in GO. Therefore, cytotoxic pathways may become potential therapeutic targets for GO.

11.
J Int Med Res ; 49(1): 300060520985664, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor antagonism have therapeutic effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the effects of sitagliptin and Pro3(GIP) in a mouse model of diabetes. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. Blood glucose was assessed weekly. Six weeks later, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and glucose tolerance were assessed and pancreatic and adipose tissues were collected. RESULTS: Combination therapy with sitagliptin and Pro3(GIP) resulted in significantly greater reductions of blood glucose and triglycerides than either monotherapy. Combination therapy also improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. ß-cell mass and insulin-positive cell percentage in the pancreas was higher in mice receiving combination therapy compared with either monotherapy. Crown-like structures, inflammatory markers in adipose tissue, and serum leptin concentrations were decreased in mice receiving combination therapy compared with either monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with Pro3(GIP) and sitagliptin improved metabolic abnormalities in diabetic mice. Changes in serum leptins and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in adipose tissue might account for the observed effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Insulina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibidores de Proteases , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais
12.
Thyroid ; 31(4): 638-648, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076782

RESUMO

Background: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the most common and serious manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). It is characterized by orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling. Although several GO models have been reported, most lack a full assessment or mechanistic evaluation. Here, we established a promising mouse model mimicking many aspects of human GO with a frequency of 70% and characterized the key role of T cells in the progression of GO. Methods: An adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor A subunit (Ad-TSHRA) was injected in the muscles of female BALB/C mice nine times to induce GO. At predetermined time points, histological examinations of retrobulbar tissues and thyroid glands were performed to dynamically monitor changes; serum autoantibodies and total thyroxine levels were examined to evaluate thyroid function. Flow cytometry of CD4+ T cell subgroups and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of splenocytes were also performed to explore the underlying mechanism. Results: After nine injections, 7 of 10 mice challenged with Ad-TSHRA developed the orbital changes associated with GO. Seven mice manifested retrobulbar fibrosis, and four mice showed adipogenesis. Exophthalmia, conjunctival redness, and orbital lymphocyte infiltration were also observed in a subset of mice. The orbitopathy was first detected after seven injections and followed the hyperplastic change observed in thyroids after four injections. Flow cytometry revealed increased proportions of Th1 cells and decreased proportions of Th2 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the splenocytes of GO mice. This change in CD4+ T cell subgroups was confirmed by orbital immunohistochemical staining. Genes involved in T cell receptor signaling, proliferation, adhesion, inflammation, and cytotoxicity were upregulated in GO mice according to the RNA-Seq; a trend of upregulation of these GO-specific genes was observed in mice with hyperthyroidism without orbitopathy after four injections. Conclusions: A GO mouse model was successfully established by administering nine injections of Ad-TSHRA. The model was achieved with a frequency of 70% and revealed the importance of T cell immunity. A potential time window from Graves' hyperthyroidism to GO was presented for the first time. Therefore, this model could be used to study the pathogenesis and novel treatments for GO.

13.
Thyroid ; 31(4): 692-702, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076783

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine [T3]) plays an important role in regulating vertebrate developmental, cellular, and metabolic processes via T3 receptor (TR). Liganded TR recruit coactivator complexes that include steroid receptor coactivators (SRC1, SRC2 or SRC3), which are histone acetyltransferases, to T3-responsive promoters. The functions of endogenous coactivators during T3-dependent mammalian adult organ development remain largely unclear, in part, due to the difficulty to access and manipulate late-stage embryos and neonates. We use Xenopus metamorphosis as a model for postembryonic development in vertebrates. This process is controlled by T3, involves drastic changes in every organ/tissue, and can be easily manipulated. We have previously found that SRC3 was upregulated in the intestine during amphibian metamorphosis. Methods: To determine the function of endogenous SRC3 during intestinal remodeling, we have generated Xenopus tropicalis animals lacking a functional SRC3 gene and analyzed the resulting phenotype. Results: Although removing SRC3 had no apparent effect on external development and animal gross morphology, the SRC3 (-/-) tadpoles displayed a reduction in the acetylation of histone H4 in the intestine compared with that in wild-type animals. Further, the expression of TR target genes was also reduced in SRC3 (-/-) tadpoles during intestinal remodeling. Importantly, SRC3 (-/-) tadpoles had inhibited/delayed intestinal remodeling during natural and T3-induced metamorphosis, including reduced adult intestinal stem cell proliferation and apoptosis of larval epithelial cells. Conclusion: Our results, thus, demonstrate that SRC3 is a critical component of the TR-signaling pathway in vivo during intestinal remodeling.

14.
Thyroid ; 31(4): 563-571, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138723

RESUMO

Background: Malnutrition in early life may permanently change the structure and function of the body, which lead to a number of diseases in adulthood. The effect of famine exposure during the early life on thyroid function and disorders remains unclear. This study investigated the association between exposure to the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood. Methods: Nine thousand eight hundred eighty-one subjects with appropriate birth dates derived from the Thyroid disorders, Iodine status, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey were included. Thyroid function and disorders were defined by the test results of blood sample and ultrasonography of all participants. Associations between famine exposure in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood were assessed with binary logistic regression and linear regression. Results: Participants exposed to the Great Chinese Famine during the fetal stage was associated with a higher thyrotropin (TSH) level in adulthood (ß = 0.024; p = 0.038), compared with the nonexposed participants. The association was significant among rural participants (ß = 0.039; p = 0.02) but not in urban participants (ß = 0.005; p = 0.77). Fetal-exposed group did not show a higher risk of thyroid disorders than the age-matched balanced control group, including overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and thyroid nodules (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Famine exposure during the fetal stage was associated with a higher TSH level in adulthood. The fetal stage could be the critical period for programming the pituitary-thyroid axis.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4138657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381554

RESUMO

Background: Associations between iodine intake and thyroid nodules (TNs) were not consistent. We aimed to illustrate the relationship between urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and TNs. Methods: A total of 12,698 participants were enrolled in analysis. All of the participants filled out questionnaires and underwent physical examinations, laboratory tests, and thyroid ultrasonography. UIC, serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were measured in the central laboratory. Results: The prevalence of TNs was 16.00%, and the median UIC was 206.1 µg/L. TNs and UIC were negatively related when UIC was less than 527 µg/L (adjusted OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80, 0.94), and the relationship between UIC and TNs was not statistically significant when UIC was greater than 527 µg/L (adjusted OR = 1.25; 95% CI, 0.98, 1.60). In women, UIC was negatively associated with risk for TNs (adjusted OR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91, 0.99). Conclusion: The relationship between TNs and UIC differed between men and women. The risk of TNs decreased with the elevation of UIC in men when UIC was lower than 527 µg/L, while UIC and the presence of TNs were negatively correlated in women. In the future, cohort studies or other studies that can explain causality must be conducted to explore the relationship between iodine status and TNs.


Assuntos
Iodo/urina , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/urina , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
17.
Redox Biol ; 37: 101709, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The trace element selenium (Se) is needed for regular biosynthesis of selenoproteins, which contribute to antioxidative defense systems and affect redox-regulated signaling. Elevated Se intake and selenoprotein expression levels have been associated with impaired hydrogen peroxide-dependent signaling by insulin, leading to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The relation of low Se intake with glucose status and carbohydrate metabolism is poorly known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross sectional analysis among healthy subjects residing in two Chinese counties with different habitual Se intakes was conducted. Fasted glucose levels were related to Se concentrations of 5686 adults by linear regression analysis with Se, body mass index, age, thyroid status, insulin and sex as independent variables. RESULTS: Serum Se correlated strongly and positively with glucose in the Se-deficient population. There was no strong relationship of Se and glucose in the non-deficient population. Overt hypoglycemia (serum glucose < 2.8 mM) was observed in 19.2% of this random sample of subjects in the Se-deficient and in 1.4% of the moderately supplied population, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: An adequate Se supply constitutes an important factor for glucose homeostasis in human subjects. The interaction between Se status and glucose control is not limited to hyperglycemia, but apparently extends to hypoglycemia risk in Se deficiency. This newly identified relationship may be of relevance for the course of severe disease including major trauma, sepsis and COVID-19, where Se deficiency has been associated with mortality risk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Selênio/deficiência , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selênio/metabolismo
18.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 6(3): 198-207, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885155

RESUMO

Background: To date, there is only scare evidence characterizing the temporal features and progression of metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Hence, its specific pathogenesis remains unclear. Methods: Sixty 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into HFD and control diet (CD) groups and sacrificed at 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 weeks, respectively. At weekly intervals, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance testing (IPITT) were performed in both groups. A detailed time course in HFD-fed mice was investigated by evaluating the initiation of glucose homeostasis impairment, dyslipidemia, systemic insulin sensitivity, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) expansion, macrophage content changes, pro-inflammatory (M1)/anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophage imbalance, lipid accumulation in the liver, and ß-cell morphometry in the pancreas. Results: In the HFD group, progressive weight gain and impairments in glucose metabolism (elevated fasting blood glucose and area under the curve (AUC) of IPGTT) were observed from the 3rd week, and a significantly elevated AUC of IPITT was first detected after week 7 of HFD feeding. As for dyslipidemia, after 9 weeks of feeding, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and total cholesterol level in HFD group were significantly higher than those in the CD group (all P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were shown in triglyceride level. Adipocyte size increased significantly in the HFD group in the 1st week, a phenotypic switch in eWAT from anti-inflammatory (M2) to pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages was observed in the 5th week, and the metabolic inflammation was distinct in eWAT in the 9th week. Additionally, liver steatosis was considerably obvious at the 17th week and pancreatic ß-cell morphometry did not change during 21 weeks of HFD feeding. Conclusion: The eWAT expansion was detected early in HFD-induced obese mice, which occurred prior to obvious insulin resistance.

19.
Thyroid ; 30(12): 1810-1819, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762331

RESUMO

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism is diagnosed based on serum thyrotropin (TSH) reference intervals, which in turn are affected by many factors. Methods: Data were acquired from a Chinese nationally representative cross-sectional study of 78,470 participants (TIDE study). The total study population were participants from the TIDE program, and the reference population was a subset of the total population defined by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines. Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroid antibodies, and urine iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Results: The geometric mean serum TSH (2.5th-97.5th) for the reference population (defined by the NACB) and total population was 2.28 mIU/L (0.74-7.04 mIU/L) and 2.34 mIU/L (0.61-8.33 mIU/L), respectively. In the reference population, increase in UIC was significantly associated with increase in the 50th and 97.5th centiles and decrease in the 2.5th centile of TSH. The median TSH was significantly higher in women than in men (2.41 mIU/L vs. 2.16 mIU/L, p-value <0.001). Increased age was significantly associated with an increased TSH, 97.5th centile. For each 10-year increase in the population age, the TSH 97.5th centile increased by 0.534 mIU/L. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed according to the assay-recommended interval (Roche 0.27-4.2 mIU/L) and NACB standard interval in the TIDE study (0.74-7.04 mIU/L) differed significantly (Roche 13.61% vs. TIDE 3.00%, p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in future cardiovascular disease, reflected by the Framingham risk score, between the 0.27-4.2 and 4.2-7.04 mIU/L TSH groups. Conclusions: Serum TSH concentration significantly increased with increase in iodine intake. Thus, iodine intake must be considered in establishing TSH reference intervals. To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, different areas should use individual serum TSH reference intervals.

20.
Cell Biosci ; 10: 66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477489

RESUMO

Organ homeostasis is essential for organ physiology and disease prevention. In adult vertebrates, the intestinal epithelium is maintained through constant cell proliferation in the crypt and apoptosis of differentiated epithelial cells, mainly at the tip of the villus. Based on studies with altered cell proliferation and tissue damage in the adult mouse intestine, we hypothesize that there is a communication between cell proliferation in the crypt and cell death on the villus, likely via cell-cell and cell-ECM (extracellular matrix) interactions, to coordinate the rate of cell proliferation and death, thus ensuring epithelial homeostasis.

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