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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 126: 104207, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273355

RESUMO

Infectious bacterial and viral diseases that cause hemolysis are considered life-threatening to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), which is a species used in aquaculture worldwide. After heme and hemeproteins (Hb) are released as a result of hemolysis, the effect of excess Hb and heme on tissues remains to be characterized. To decipher the mechanisms, after incubation with Hb, we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Hb, and heme increased the cytotoxicity and secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in vitro, which was due to stimulation of the expression of innate immune receptors, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD2), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR 4, and TLR3. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were important for increasing the cytokine production to induce heme, Hb, and LPS. Moreover, we confirmed that after LPS, Hb, and heme challenge, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) synthetase (GSS) also caused remarkable destruction. However, catalase (CAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were strongly activated. In summary, our research findings present a framework through which heme and Hb concentrations amplify the secretions of inflammatory cytokines, which are induced by pattern recognition receptor (PRR) activation and present possible paths for immune intervention during infection with viral diseases and hemolytic bacterial.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638868

RESUMO

Mechanical unloading contributes to significant cardiovascular deconditioning. Endothelial dysfunction in the sites of microcirculation may be one of the causes of the cardiovascular degeneration induced by unloading, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. Here, we first demonstrated that mechanical unloading inhibited brain microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and downregulated histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) expression. Furthermore, HDAC6 promoted microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and attenuated the inhibition of proliferation caused by clinorotation unloading. To comprehensively identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are regulated by HDAC6, we analyzed differential miRNA expression in microvascular endothelial cells after transfection with HDAC6 siRNA and selected miR-155-5p, which was the miRNA with the most significantly increased expression. The ectopic expression of miR-155-5p inhibited microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and directly downregulated Ras homolog enriched in brain (RHEB) expression. Moreover, RHEB expression was downregulated under mechanical unloading and was essential for the miR-155-5p-mediated promotion of microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Taken together, these results are the first to elucidate the role of HDAC6 in unloading-induced cell growth inhibition through the miR-155-5p/RHEB axis, suggesting that the HDAC6/miR-155-5p/RHEB pathway is a specific target for the preventative treatment of cardiovascular deconditioning.

3.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520349

RESUMO

Drusen is considered as the landmark for diagnosis of AMD and important risk factor for the development of AMD. Therefore, accurate segmentation of drusen in retinal OCT images is crucial for early diagnosis of AMD. However, drusen segmentation in retinal OCT images is still very challenging due to the large variations in size and shape of drusen, blurred boundaries, and speckle noise interference. Moreover, the lack of OCT dataset with pixel-level annotation is also a vital factor hindering the improvement of drusen segmentation accuracy. To solve these problems, a novel multi-scale transformer global attention network (MsTGANet) is proposed for drusen segmentation in retinal OCT images. In MsTGANet, which is based on U-Shape architecture, a novel multi-scale transformer non-local (MsTNL) module is designed and inserted into the top of encoder path, aiming at capturing multi-scale non-local features with long-range dependencies from different layers of encoder. Meanwhile, a novel multi-semantic global channel and spatial joint attention module (MsGCS) between encoder and decoder is proposed to guide the model to fuse different semantic features, thereby improving the model's ability to learn multi-semantic global contextual information. Furthermore, to alleviate the shortage of labeled data, we propose a novel semi-supervised version of MsTGANet (Semi-MsTGANet) based on pseudo-labeled data augmentation strategy, which can leverage a large amount of unlabeled data to further improve the segmentation performance. Finally, comprehensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed MsTGANet and Semi-MsTGANet. The experimental results show that our proposed methods achieve better segmentation accuracy than other state-of-the-art CNN-based methods.

4.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570700

RESUMO

Hyper-reflective foci (HRF) refers to the spot-shaped, block-shaped areas with characteristics of high local contrast and high reflectivity, which is mostly observed in retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of patients with fundus diseases. HRF mainly appears hard exudates (HE) and microglia (MG) clinically. Accurate segmentation of HE and MG is essential to alleviate the harm in retinal diseases. However, it is still a challenge to segment HE and MG simultaneously due to similar pathological features, various shapes and location distribution, blurred boundaries, and small morphology dimensions. To tackle these problems, in this paper, we propose a novel global information fusion and dual decoder collaboration-based network (GD-Net), which can segment HE and MG in OCT images jointly. Specifically, to suppress the interference of similar pathological features, a novel global information fusion (GIF) module is proposed, which can aggregate the global semantic information efficiently. To further improve the segmentation performance, we design a dual decoder collaborative workspace (DDCW) to comprehensively utilize the semantic correlation between HE and MG while enhancing the mutual influence on them by feedback alternately. To further optimize GD-Net, we explore a joint loss function which integrates pixel-level with image-level. The dataset of this study comes from patients diagnosed with diabetic macular edema at the department of ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better than other state-of-the-art methods, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method and provides research ideas for medical applications.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 118: 94-101, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450271

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the main antioxidant enzymes involved in alleviating oxidative stress. Although mitochondrial manganese SOD (mMnSOD) has been reported to be correlated with the immune response in crustaceans, its biological properties and role in the immune response remain unclear. Here, we cloned the Macrobrachium rosenbergii mMnSOD (MrmMnSOD), analyzed its activity and expression pattern under Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection, and further explored its possible mechanism during antibacterial immune response. The results showed that both enzyme activity and the expression of MrmMnSOD were significantly up-regulated by bacterial infection. MrmMnSOD knockdown made the prawn susceptible to Vibrio infection, which increased the mortality rate and the number of bacteria in haemocytes. The bacterial agglutination assay confirmed that MrmMnSOD decreases bacterial abundance via agglutination. Overall, this work identified antibacterial function of MrmMnSOD in the immune response. In addition to contributing to immunological theory, these findings aid disease prevention and control in crustacean aquaculture.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242175

RESUMO

Quantitative measurements of corneal sub-basal nerves are biomarkers for many ocular surface disorders, and are also important for early diagnosis and assessment of progression of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop an automatic method for nerve fiber segmentation from in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) images, which is fundamental for nerve morphology quantification. A novel multi-discriminator adversarial convolutional network (MDACN) is proposed, where both the generator and the two discriminators emphasize multi-scale feature representations. The generator is a U-shaped fully convolutional network with multi-scale split and concatenate blocks, and the two discriminators have different effective receptive fields, sensitive to features of different scales. A novel loss function is also proposed which enables the network to pay more attention to thin fibers. The MDACN framework was evaluated on four datasets. Experiment results show that our method has excellent segmentation performance for corneal nerve fibers and outperforms some state-of-the-art methods.

7.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A large-scale multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of robotic gastrectomy (RG) and laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: RG is being increasingly used worldwide, but data from large-scale multicenter studies on the short- and long-term oncologic outcomes of RG versus LG are limited. The potential benefits of RG compared with LG for gastric cancer remain controversial. METHODS: Data from eligible patients who underwent RG or LG for gastric cancer of 11 experienced surgeons from 7 centers in China between March 2010 and October 2019 were collected. The RG group was matched 1:1 with the LG group by using propensity score matching (PSM). The primary outcome was postoperative complications. RESULTS: After PSM, a well-balanced cohort of 3552 patients was included for further analysis. The occurrence of overall complications (12.6% vs 15.2%, P = 0.023) was lower in the RG group than in the LG group. RG was associated with less blood loss (126.8 vs 142.5 mL, P < 0.001) and more retrieved lymph nodes in total (32.5 vs 30.7, P < 0.001) and in suprapancreatic areas (13.3 vs 11.6, P < 0.001). The long-term oncological outcomes were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this multicenter study demonstrate that RG is a safe and effective treatment for gastric cancer when performed by experienced surgeons, although longer operation time and higher costs are still concerns about RG. This study provides evidence suggesting that RG may represent an alternative surgical treatment to LG.

8.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211034579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286626

RESUMO

The systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII) and derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) are novel indexes that simultaneously reflect the host inflammatory and immune status and have prognostic value in some cancers. SII was associated with major cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, dNLR correlations with clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the predictive values of SII and dNLR on the long-term prognosis of patients with ACS undergoing PCI. In total, 1,553 ACS patients undergoing PCI were consecutively enrolled from January 2016 to December 2018. The subjects were divided into high and low SII and dNLR groups for comparison (high vs. low). The SII and dNLR cutoff values for predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves, and Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. The endpoint was a MACE, which included all-cause mortality and rehospitalization for severe heart failure during follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that a higher SII or dNLR value was associated with a higher risk of MACE (all P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression models showed that SII (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.545; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.416-4.574; P = 0.002) and dNLR (HR: 2.610, 95% CI: 1.454-4.685, P = 0.001) were independent predictors for MACE. dNLR may be a suitable laboratory marker to identify high-risk ACS patients after PCI.

9.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(6): 473-480, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092298

RESUMO

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
10.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 123: 104160, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087289

RESUMO

The BCL2-associated agonist of cell death protein is a key participant in apoptosis dependent on mitochondria and in disease progression that involves the regulation of cell death, such as tumorigenesis, diabetes, sepsis shock, and epilepsy. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the immune responses to teleost BAD bacterial infection and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, in this study, a Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) BAD gene named GcBAD1 was firstly cloned and characterized. The results indicated that the ORF (open reading frame) of GcBAD1 was 438 bp in length, encoding a 145-amino acid putative protein of 16.66 kDa. This deduced amino acid sequence has a better identity than another teleost species according to a phylogenetic analysis, and contains a Bcl2-BAD-1 domain. In healthy grass carp fish, the mRNA transcripts of GcBAD1 were widely present in the studied tissues, which could be ranked as follows; spleen > brain > middle-kidney > head-kidney > liver > gills > intestines > heart and muscle. In addition, during infection by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus, the mRNA transcription and protein levels expression of GcBAD1 in the head-kidney, spleen, and liver tissues of the fish were significantly up-regulated. Moreover, when the C. idellus kidney cell line (CIK) cells were incubated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), the GcBAD1 expression transcripts were also significantly up-regulated. Additionally, overexpression of GcBAD1 in CIK cells was able to activate apoptosis-related genes, including those encoding p53, Cytochrome C (CytoC), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Besides, in the TUNEL assays, when pEGFP-BAD1 was over-expressed, the number of red signals associated with apoptosis were significantly increased in the CIK cells infected with LPS or LTA at 12 h. This study demonstrates that GcBAD1 has a significant role in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of grass carp's innate immunity. Our findings provide new insight into the potential mechanisms of teleost antibacterial immunity.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066609

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), one of the dangerous multidrug resistance pathogens, orchestrates virulence factors production through quorum sensing (QS). Since the exploration of QS inhibitors, targeting virulence to circumvent bacterial pathogenesis without causing significant growth inhibition is a promising approach to treat P. aeruginosa infections. The present study has evaluated the anti-QS and anti-infective activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a bioactive ingredient of the traditional green tea, against P. aeruginosa. EGCG showed significant inhibitory effects on the development of biofilm, protease, elastase activity, swimming, and swarming motility, which was positively related to the production of C4-AHL. The expression of QS-related and QS-regulated virulence factors genes was also evaluated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that EGCG significantly reduced the expression of las, rhl, and PQS genes and was highly correlated with the alterations of C4-AHL production. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that EGCG treatment reduced P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). EGCG increased the survival of C. elegans by 23.25%, 30.04%, and 36.35% in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of this study strongly suggest that EGCG could be a potential candidate for QS inhibition as an anti-virulence compound against bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/biossíntese , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Movimento , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piocianina/biossíntese , Percepção de Quorum/genética
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112364, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051663

RESUMO

Nano-copper (nano-Cu) is widely used in the pharmaceutical field as well as a feed additive for animals owing to its unique physicochemical characteristics and bioactivities. In our previous study, nano-Cu was found to hamper fetal development; however, the toxicity of nano-Cu and its effects in placental function have not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the toxic effects of nano-Cu using rat placenta. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally exposed to different copper sources from the third day of gestation (GD 3) to GD 18. We found that nano-Cu (180 mg/kg) and CuCl2.2 H2O increased the accumulation of copper. Besides, nano-Cu and CuCl2.2 H2O disrupted the placental morphology and induced oxidative stress. Micro-copper (micro-Cu) caused similar toxicity in the placenta, but its effects were weaker than that of nano-Cu and CuCl2.2 H2O. In addition, exposure to nano-Cu (180 mg/kg) and CuCl2.2 H2O induced inflammation in the rat placenta. Furthermore, nano-Cu, micro-Cu, and CuCl2.2 H2O upregulated the expression of the autophagy-related proteins, Beclin-1 and LC3 II/ LC3 I, and downregulated that of p62. Moreover, nano-Cu, micro-Cu, and CuCl2.2 H2O downregulated the protein expression of PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-mTOR/mTOR in rat placentas, whereas the protein expression of p-AMPK/AMPK was upregulated. Taken together, our data indicated that prenatal exposure to nano-Cu induced autophagy via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and AMPK/mTOR pathways, which associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in rat placenta.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Cobre/química , Feminino , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882009

RESUMO

Raw optical coherence tomography (OCT) images typically are of low quality because speckle noise blurs retinal structures, severely compromising visual quality and degrading performances of subsequent image analysis tasks. In our previous study, we have developed a Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (cGAN) for speckle noise removal in OCT images collected by several commercial OCT scanners, which we collectively refer to as scanner T. In this paper, we improve the cGAN model and apply it to our in-house OCT scanner (scanner B) for speckle noise suppression. The proposed model consists of two steps: 1) We train a Cycle-Consistent GAN (CycleGAN) to learn style transfer between two OCT image datasets collected by different scanners. The purpose of the CycleGAN is to leverage the ground truth dataset created in our previous study. 2) We train a mini-cGAN model based on the PatchGAN mechanism with the ground truth dataset to suppress speckle noise in OCT images. After training, we first apply the CycleGAN model to convert raw images collected by scanner B to match the style of the images from scanner T, and subsequently use the mini-cGAN model to suppress speckle noise in the style transferred images. We evaluate the proposed method on a dataset collected by scanner B. Experimental results show that the improved model outperforms our previous method and other state-of-the-art models in speckle noise removal, retinal structure preservation and contrast enhancement.

14.
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 3000605211010059, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood on the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Patients (n=1558) were consecutively enrolled and the median follow-up was 1142 days. Patients were divided into the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) 1 group (n=63) (all-cause mortality [n=58] and rehospitalization for severe heart failure [n=5], no MACE1 group (n=1495), MACE2 group (n=38) (cardiac mortality [n=33] and rehospitalization for severe heart failure [n=5]), and no MACE2 group (n=1520). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were analyzed. RESULTS: The NLR, MLR, and PLR were higher in the MACE groups than in the no MACE groups. Different subsets of inflammatory cells had similar diagnostic values for MACE. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the survival time gradually decreased with an increase in the degree of risk as determined by the NLR, MLR, and PLR. The risk of MACE was highest in the extremely high-risk group. CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood inflammatory cell subsets can predict MACE in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. These cell subsets could be important laboratory markers for the prognosis and clinical treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 555: 175-181, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819748

RESUMO

Microgravity and radiation exposure-induced bone damage is one of the most significant alterations in astronauts after long-term spaceflight. However, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Recent ground-based simulation studies have suggested that this impairment is likely mediated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during spaceflight. The small Maf protein MafG is a basic-region leucine zipper-type transcription factor, and it globally contributes to regulation of antioxidant and metabolic networks. Our research investigated the role of MafG in the process of apoptosis induced by simulated microgravity and radiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that simulated microgravity or radiation alone decreased MafG expression and elevated apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, and combined simulated microgravity and radiation treatment aggravated apoptosis. Meanwhile, under normal conditions, increased ROS levels facilitated apoptosis and downregulated the expression of MafG in MC3T3-E1 cells. Overexpression of MafG decreased apoptosis induced by simulated microgravity and radiation. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of bone damage induced by microgravity and radiation during space flight.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Transcrição MafG/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição MafG/genética , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Simulação de Ausência de Peso , Raios X
16.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 56: 101003, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In December 2019, the global outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) was reported. As of March 8, 2020, more than 90,000 cases were reported worldwide, resulting in a shortage of global medical resources. The purpose of this study was to understand the working experience of triage nurses in the emergency department (ED) of a large teaching general hospital in Shenzhen (Guangdong province, China) during the COVID-19 epidemic. This will provide a basis for improving the emergency nursing strategies and the epidemic response capabilities of triage nurse. METHODS: Ten triage nurses were selected as subjects by objective sampling for in- depth interviews, and the data were analyzed by the Colaizzi seven-step analysis method. RESULTS: There were four themes in the working experience of triage nurses, including fear of infection and transmission, job stress, gratitude, and expectations of managers. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19, the work experience of triage nurses mainly included the fear of infection and transmission, the high work pressure, the sense of team strength and the care of leaders. It was suggested that nursing managers should ensure the human resources of triage nurses, increase training, strengthen emergency drills, improve emergency nursing countermeasures, and improve the response capability of triage nurses during the epidemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Enfermagem em Emergência , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 113: 24-34, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757800

RESUMO

An increasing important area in immunology is the process cell death mechanism, enabling the immune system triggered thru extrinsic or intrinsic signals to effectively remove unwanted or virus infected cells called apoptosis. A recently isolated infectious Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV), comprising negative strand RNA and encoded viral matrix (M) proteins, is responsible for causing cytopathic effects in infected fish cells. However, the mechanism by which viral M protein mediates apoptosis has not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present experiments, it was investigated the regulatory potential of apoptosis signals during SHVV infection. By employing the model of SHVV infection in SSN-1 cells, the accelerated apoptosis pathway involves an intrinsic pathway requiring the activation of caspase-9 but not caspase-3 or -8. In the groups of infection (SHVV) or treatment (hydrogen peroxide) were induced apoptotic morphological changes and indicated the activation of the main caspases, i.e.; executioner caspase-3, initiators caspase-8 and caspase-9 using colorimetric assays. Turning to the role of viral M protein when it was overexpressed in SSN-1 cells, it was indicated that the viral M gene alone has the ability to induce apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanism of apoptosis in SSN-1 cells, the activation inhibitors of main caspases were used showing that inhibiting of caspase-3 or caspase-8 activation did not seize induction of apoptosis in virus-infected SSN-1 cells. However, the inhibiting of caspase-9 activation reduced significantly the apoptosis initiation process and sharply the expression of viral M gene, suggesting that SHVV plays a major role in the early induction of apoptosis by caspase-9. Interestingly, there were also differences in the mitochondrial membrane potential after the apoptotic induction of caspases, which confirm that caspase-9 is primarily responsible for the cleavage of caspases during apoptosis. Taken together, these findings can therefore be assumed that viral M protein induces apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in SHVV infecting SSN-1 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vesiculovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia
18.
J Nat Prod ; 84(4): 1022-1033, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721994

RESUMO

The discovery of efficient and specific HIV-latency-reversing agents is critical for HIV therapy. Here, we developed wikstroelide E, a daphnane diterpene from the buds of Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, as a potential HIV-latency-reversing agent that is 2500-fold more potent than the drug prostratin. Based on transcriptome analysis, the underlying mechanism was that wikstroelide E regulated the MAPK, PI3K-Akt, JAK-Stat, TNF, and NF-κB signaling pathways. We clearly demonstrated that wikstroelide E reversed latent HIV infection by activating PKC-NF-κB signals, serving as a proxy for verifying the transcriptome data. Strikingly, the Tat protein contributes to the robust activation of latent HIV in wikstroelide-E-treated cells, producing an unexpected latency-reversing effect against latent HIV. This study provides the basis for the potential development of wikstroelide E as an effective HIV-latency-reversing agent.

19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 198: 113989, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684829

RESUMO

In vivo metabolite profiling of herbal medicines remains a challenge due to the complex chemical composition and drastic interference from biological matrix. In this study, a systematic strategy was established for comprehensive metabolite profiling of Danqi Tongmai (DQTM) tablet, a combination of salvianolic acids and notoginsenosides, in rats after oral administration. This strategy was composed of six steps. Firstly, the rat plasma and tissue samples were collected at multiple time points to increase the representativeness of samples. Secondly, different sample preparation methods were systematically investigated including protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction to obtain superior extraction efficiency for both salvianolic acids and notoginsenosides. Thirdly, the MS acquisition method was optimized by splitting the full scan range into two separate segments to improve the detection capability for minor components. Fourthly, an extended polygonal mass defect filter (EP-MDF) model was constructed to filter potential metabolites of salvianolic acids and notoginsenosides, and remove large amounts of interference ions. Fifthly, ion intensity-based time point-staggered precursor ion list (IITPS-PIL) was generated to trigger more targeted MS/MS acquisition for potential metabolites at the highest concentration. Finally, the absorbed prototypes and metabolites were comprehensively characterized by reference standards and MS/MS fragmentation. The proposed strategy significantly improved the detection ability for trace prototypes and metabolites in vivo. A total of 370 components, including 94 prototypes (38 confirmed with reference standards) and 276 metabolites, were tentatively characterized in rat plasma and tissue samples after oral administration of DQTM. Collectively, this paper provided an applicable reference for comprehensive metabolite profiling of herbal medicines in complex biological samples.


Assuntos
Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Íons , Ratos , Comprimidos
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7499-7516, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686021

RESUMO

Bradykinin receptor B2 (BDKRB2) has been reported as an oncogene in several malignancies. In glioma, the role of BDKRB2 remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating its clinical significance and biological function in glioma at the transcriptional level. We selected 301 glioma patients with microarray data from CGGA database and 697 with RNAseq data from TCGA database. Transcriptome and clinical data of 998 samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis and figure generating were performed with R language. BDKRB2 expression showed a positive correlation with the WHO grade of glioma. BDKRB2 was increased in IDH wildtype and mesenchymal subtype of glioma. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that BDKRB2 was profoundly associated with extracellular matrix organization in glioma. GSEA analysis revealed that BDKRB2 was particularly correlated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). GSVA analysis showed that BDKRB2 was significantly paralleled with several EMT signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT, hypoxia, and TGF-ß. Moreover, BDKRB2 expression was significantly correlated with key biomarkers of EMT, especially with N-cadherin, snail, slug, vimentin, TWIST1, and TWIST2. Finally, higher BDKRB2 indicated significantly shorter survival for glioma patients. In conclusion, BDKRB2 was associated with more aggressive phenotypes of gliomas. Furthermore, BDKRB2 was involved in the EMT process and could serve as an independent prognosticator in glioma.


Assuntos
Glioma/mortalidade , Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos
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