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1.
Nat Genet ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049975

RESUMO

Aspergillus tubingensis is an important pathogen of economically important crops. Different biotic stresses strongly influence the balance of metabolites in plants. The aim of this study was to understand the function and response of resistance associated metabolites which, in turn are involved in many secondary metabolomics pathways to influence defense mechanism of cotton plant. Analysis of non-targeted metabolomics using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) revealed abundant accumulation of key metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, fatty acids and carbohydrates, in response to leaf spot of cotton. The principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots illustrated the evidences of variation between two varieties of cotton under mock and pathogen inoculated treatments. Primary metabolism was affected by the up regulation of pyruvate and malate and by the accumulation of carbohydrates like cellobiose and inulobiose. Among 241 resistance related (RR) metabolites, 18 were identified as resistance related constitutive (RRC) and 223 as resistance related induced (RRI) metabolites. Several RRI metabolites, identified in the present study were the precursors for many secondary metabolic pathways. These included phenylpropanoids (stilbenes and furanocoumarin), flavonoids (phlorizin and kaempferol), alkaloids (indolizine and acetylcorynoline) and terpenoids (azelaic acid and oleanolic acid). Our results demonstrated that secondary metabolism, primary metabolism and energy metabolism were more active in resistant cultivar, as compared to sensitive cultivar. Differential protein and fatty acid metabolism was also depicted in both cultivars. Accumulation of these defense related metabolites in resistant cotton cultivar and their suppression in susceptible cotton cultivar revealed the reason of their respective tolerance and susceptibility against A. tubingensis.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978163

RESUMO

Rice flag leaves are major source organs providing more than half of the nutrition needed for rice seed development. The dynamic metabolic changes in rice flag leaves and the detailed metabolic relationship between source and sink organs in rice, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, the metabolic changes of flag leaves in two japonica and two indica rice cultivars were investigated using non-targeted metabolomics approach. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that flag leaf metabolomes varied significantly depending on both species and developmental stage. Only a few of the metabolites in flag leaves displayed the same change pattern across the four tested cultivars along the process of seed development. Further association analysis found that levels of 45 metabolites in seeds that are associated with human nutrition and health correlated significantly with their levels in flag leaves. Comparison of metabolomics of flag leaves and seeds revealed that some flavonoids were specific or much higher in flag leaves while some lipid metabolites such as phospholipids were much higher in seeds. This reflected not only the function of the tissue specific metabolism but also the different physiological properties and metabolic adaptive features of these two tissues.

4.
Plant Physiol ; 182(2): 962-976, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772077

RESUMO

The timely programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum, the innermost somatic anther cell layer in flowering plants, is critical for pollen development, including the deposition and patterning of the pollen wall. Although several genes involved in tapetal PCD and pollen wall development have been characterized, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains elusive. Here we report that PERSISTENT TAPETAL CELL2 (PTC2), which encodes an AT-hook nuclear localized protein in rice (Oryza sativa), is required for normal tapetal PCD and pollen wall development. The mutant ptc2 showed persistent tapetal cells and abnormal pollen wall patterning including absent nexine, collapsed bacula, and disordered tectum. The defective tapetal PCD phenotype of ptc2 was similar to that of a PCD delayed mutant, ptc1, in rice, while the abnormal pollen wall patterning resembled that of a pollen wall defective mutant, Transposable Element Silencing Via AT-Hook, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Levels of anther cutin monomers in ptc2 anthers were significantly reduced, as was expression of a series of lipid biosynthetic genes. PTC2 transcript and protein were shown to be present in the anther after meiosis, consistent with the observed phenotype. Based on these data, we propose a model explaining how PTC2 affects anther and pollen development. The characterization of PTC2 in tapetal PCD and pollen wall patterning expands our understanding of the regulatory network of male reproductive development in rice and will aid future breeding approaches.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 419-430, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

6.
New Phytol ; 225(2): 807-822, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486533

RESUMO

In flowering plants, pollen wall is a specialized extracellular cell-wall matrix surrounding male gametophytes and acts as a natural protector of pollen grains against various environmental and biological stresses. The formation of pollen wall is a complex but well-regulated process, which involves the action of many different genes. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel rice male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall3 (dpw3), which displays smaller and paler anthers with aborted pollen grains. DPW3 encodes a novel membrane-associated alpha integrin-like protein conserved in land plants. DPW3 is ubiquitously expressed in anther developmental stages and its protein is localized to the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Anthers of dpw3 plants exhibited unbalanced anther cuticular profile, abnormal Ubisch bodies, disrupted callose deposition, defective pollen wall formation such as abnormal microspore plasma membrane undulation and defective primexine formation, resulting in pollen abortion and complete male sterility. Our findings revealed a novel and vital role of alpha integrin-like proteins in plant male reproduction.

7.
Cancer Med ; 9(2): 797-806, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral microbiota may be related to pancreatic cancer risk because periodontal disease, a condition linked to multiple specific microbes, has been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the association between oral microbiota and pancreatic cancer in Iran. METHODS: A total of 273 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 285 controls recruited from tertiary hospitals and a specialty clinic in Tehran, Iran provided saliva samples and filled out a questionnaire regarding demographics and lifestyle characteristics. DNA was extracted from saliva and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the MiSeq. The sequencing data were processed using the DADA2 plugin in QIIME 2 and taxonomy was assigned against the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Logistic regression and MiRKAT models were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: No association was observed for alpha diversity with an average of 91.11 (standard deviation [SD] 2.59) sequence variants for cases and 89.42 (SD 2.58) for controls. However, there was evidence for an association between beta diversity and case status. The association between the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and pancreatic cancer was particularly strong with a MiRKAT P-value of .000142 and specific principal coordinate vectors had strong associations with cancer risk. Several specific taxa were also associated with case status after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: The overall microbial community appeared to differ between pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Whether these reflect differences evident before development of pancreatic cancer will need to be evaluated in prospective studies.

8.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 356-375, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433495

RESUMO

Degeneration of apical spikelets and reduced panicle fertility are common reasons for low seed-setting rate in rice (Oryza sativa). However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we report a novel degenerated panicle and partial sterility 1 (dps1) mutant that showed panicle apical degeneration and reduced fertility in middle spikelets. dps1 plants were characterized by small whitish anthers with altered cuticle morphology and absence of pollen grains. Amounts of cuticular wax and cutin were significantly reduced in dps1 anthers. Panicles of dps1 plants showed an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lower antioxidant activity, and increased programmed cell death. Map-based cloning revealed that DPS1 encodes a mitochondrial-localized protein containing a cystathionine ß-synthase domain that showed the highest expression in panicles and anthers. DPS1 physically interacted with mitochondrial thioredoxin proteins Trx1 and Trx20, and it participated in ROS scavenging. Global gene expression analysis in dps1 revealed that biological processes related to fatty acid metabolism and ROS homeostasis were significantly affected, and the expression of key genes involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis were downregulated. These results suggest that DPS1 plays a vital role in regulating ROS homeostasis, anther cuticle formation, and panicle development in rice.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 147, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity of immune gene expression patterns of luminal breast cancer (BC), which is clinically heterogeneous and overall considered as low immunogenic, has not been well studied especially in non-European populations. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immune gene expression profile of luminal BC in an Asian population and associating it with patient characteristics and tumor genomic features. METHODS: We performed immune gene expression profiling of tumor and adjacent normal tissue in 92 luminal BC patients from Hong Kong using RNA-sequencing data and used unsupervised consensus clustering to stratify tumors. We then used luminal patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, N = 564) and a Korean breast cancer study (KBC, N = 112) as replication datasets. RESULTS: Based on the expression of 130 immune-related genes, luminal tumors were stratified into three distinct immune subtypes. Tumors in one subtype showed higher level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), characterized by T cell gene activation, higher expression of immune checkpoint genes, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden, and higher APOBEC-signature mutations, compared with other luminal tumors. The high-TIL subtype was also associated with lower ESR1/ESR2 expression ratio and increasing body mass index. The comparison of the immune profile in tumor and matched normal tissue suggested a tumor-derived activation of specific immune responses, which was only seen in high-TIL patients. Tumors in a second subtype were characterized by increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and enrichment for TP53 somatic mutations. The presence of three immune subtypes within luminal BC was replicated in TCGA and KBC, although the pattern was more similar in Asian populations. The germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism, which is prevalent in East Asian populations and was previously linked to immune activation, was not associated with immune subtypes in our study. This result does not support the hypothesis that the germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism is the driving force for immune activation in breast tumors in Asian populations. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that immune gene expression and associated genomic features could be useful to further stratify luminal BC beyond the current luminal A/B classification and a subset of luminal BC patients may benefit from checkpoint immunotherapy, at least in Asian populations.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224757, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738775

RESUMO

The gut microbiome likely plays a role in the etiology of multiple health conditions, especially those affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Little consensus exists as to the best, standard methods to collect fecal samples for future microbiome analysis. We evaluated three distinct populations (N = 132 participants) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data to investigate the reproducibility, stability, and accuracy of microbial profiles in fecal samples collected and stored via fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards, fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) tubes, 70% and 95% ethanol, RNAlater, or with no solution. For each collection method, based on relative abundance of select phyla and genera, two alpha diversity metrics, and four beta diversity metrics, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to estimate reproducibility and stability, and Spearman correlation coefficients (SCCs) to estimate accuracy of the fecal microbial profile. Comparing duplicate samples, reproducibility ICCs for all collection methods were excellent (ICCs ≥75%). After 4-7 days at ambient temperature, ICCs for microbial profile stability were excellent (≥75%) for most collection methods, except those collected via no-solution and 70% ethanol. SCCs comparing each collection method to immediately-frozen no-solution samples ranged from fair to excellent for most methods; however, accuracy of genus-level relative abundances differed by collection method. Our findings, taken together with previous studies and feasibility considerations, indicated that FOBT/FTA cards, FIT tubes, 95% ethanol, and RNAlater are excellent choices for fecal sample collection methods in future microbiome studies. Furthermore, establishing standard collection methods across studies is highly desirable.

11.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008490, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730655

RESUMO

Despite genetics being accepted as the primary cause of familial aggregation for most diseases, it is still unclear whether afflicted families are likely to share a single highly penetrant rare variant, many minimally penetrant common variants, or a combination of the two types of variants. We therefore use recent estimates of SNP heritability and the liability threshold model to estimate the proportion of afflicted families likely to carry a rare, causal variant. We then show that Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) may be useful for identifying families likely to carry such a rare variant and therefore for prioritizing families to include in sequencing studies with that aim. Specifically, we introduce a new statistic that estimates the proportion of individuals carrying causal rare variants based on the family structure, disease pattern, and PRS of genotyped individuals. Finally, we consider data from the MelaNostrum consortium and show that, despite an estimated PRS heritability of only 0.05 for melanoma, families carrying putative causal variants had a statistically significantly lower PRS, supporting the idea that PRS prioritization may be a useful future tool. However, it will be important to evaluate whether the presence of rare mendelian variants are generally associated with the proposed test statistic or lower PRS in future and larger studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Melanoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Alelos , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781265

RESUMO

Background: Kang-bai-ling (KBL), a Chinese patent medicine, has been demonstrated as an effective therapy for vitiligo in China. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of KBL have not been completely elucidated. Methods: In this study, the potential multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway mechanism of KBL against vitiligo was clarified by using network pharmacology-based strategy. In brief, potential targets of KBL were collected based on TCMSP databases, followed by network establishment concerning the interactions of potential targets of KBL with well-known therapeutic targets of vitiligo by using protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. As a result, key nodes with higher level of seven topological parameters, including "degree centrality (DC)," "betweenness centrality (BC)," "closeness centrality (CC)," "eigenvector centrality (EC)," "network centrality (NC)," and "local average connectivity (LAC)" were identified as the main targets in the network, followed by subsequent incorporation into the ClueGO for GO and KEGG signaling pathway enrichment analysis. Results: In accordance with the topological importance, a total of 23 potential targets of KBL on vitiligo were identified as main hubs. Additionally, enrichment analysis suggested that targets of KBL on vitiligo were mainly clustered into multiple biological processes (associated with DNA translation, lymphocyte differentiation and activation, steroid biosynthesis, autoimmune and systemic inflammatory reaction, neuron apoptosis, and vitamin deficiency) and related pathways (TNF, JAK-STAT, ILs, TLRs, prolactin, and NF-κB), indicating the underlying mechanisms of KBL on vitiligo. Conclusion: In this work, we successfully illuminated the "multicompounds, multitargets" therapeutic action of KBL on vitiligo by using network pharmacology. Moreover, our present outcomes might shed light on the further clinical application of KBL on vitiligo treatment.

13.
RNA Biol ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607216

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs occupy a significant fraction of the human genome. Their biological significance is backed up by a plethora of emerging evidence. One of the most robust approaches to demonstrate non-coding RNA's biological relevance is through their prognostic value. Using the rich gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA), we designed Advanced Expression Survival Analysis (AESA), a web tool which provides several novel survival analysis approaches not offered by previous tools. In addition to the common single-gene approach, AESA computes the gene expression composite score of a set of genes for survival analysis and utilizes permutation test or cross-validation to assess the significance of log-rank statistic and the degree of over-fitting. AESA offers survival feature selection with post-selection inference and utilizes expanded TCGA clinical data including overall, disease-specific, disease-free, and progression-free survival information. Users can analyse either protein-coding or non-coding regions of the transcriptome. We demonstrated the effectiveness of AESA using several empirical examples. Our analyses showed that non-coding RNAs perform as well as messenger RNAs in predicting survival of cancer patients. These results reinforce the potential prognostic value of non-coding RNAs. AESA is developed as a module in the freely accessible analysis suite MutEx. Abbreviation: ACC: Adrenocortical Carcinoma (n = 92); BLCA: Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma (n = 412); BRCA: Breast Invasive Carcinoma (n = 1098); CESC: Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma (n = 307); CHOL: Cholangiocarcinoma (n = 51); COAD: Colon Adenocarcinoma (n = 461); DLBC: Lymphoid Neoplasm Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (n = 58); ESCA: Oesophageal Carcinoma (n = 185); GBM: Glioblastoma Multiforme (n = 617); HNSC: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (n = 528); KICH: Kidney Chromophobe (n = 113); KIRC: Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (n = 537); KIRP: Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma (n = 291); LAML: Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (n = 200); LGG: Brain Lower Grade Glioma (n = 516); LIHC: Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (n = 377); LUAD: Lung Adenocarcinoma (n = 585); LUSC: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma (n = 504); MESO: Mesothelioma (n = 87); OV: Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma (n = 608) PAAD: Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (n = 185); PCPG: Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (n = 179); PRAD: Prostate Adenocarcinoma (n = 500); READ: Rectum Adenocarcinoma (n = 172); SARC: Sarcoma (n = 261); SKCM: Skin Cutaneous Melanoma (n = 470); STAD: Stomach Adenocarcinoma (n = 443); TGCT: Testicular Germ Cell Tumours (n = 150); THCA: Thyroid Carcinoma (n = 507) THYM: Thymoma (n = 124); UCEC: Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (n = 560); UCS: Uterine Carcinosarcoma (n = 57); UVM: Uveal Melanoma (n = 80).

14.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(9): 694-702, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256331

RESUMO

Molecular characteristics including information of insertion site, flanking sequence, and copy numbers are the base for the safety assessment and subsequent monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which has to be revealed thoroughly in a case-by-case manner. Although both polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches are proven to be effective in the molecular characterization of most of GM events, they often fail to work with GM maize events, mainly due to the genome complexity. In this study, by using NGS, we successfully identified the 3' end T-DNA insertion site and flanking sequence of a GM maize event IE09S034, which were confirmed by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. Notably, insertions of unintended exogenous elements were revealed in this event although the single copy of target exogenous genes was also confirmed by digital PCR. The output of this study provides novel and important genetic evidence for the safety assessment and monitoring of GM maize event IE09S034.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , Genoma de Planta , Mutagênese Insercional , Zea mays/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast density, as estimated by mammography, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women, but the determinants of breast density have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess if urinary estrogens or gut microbiota alterations are associated with mammographic density in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Among 54 cancer-free, postmenopausal controls in the Breast and Colon Health study, we classified low- versus high-density women with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS, 5th edition) mammographic screening data, then assessed associations with urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry), and fecal microbiota alpha and beta diversity (using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons). RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression revealed no significant association between breast density and fecal microbiota metrics (PD_tree P-value = 0.82; un-weighted and weighted UniFrac P = 0.92 and 0.83, respectively, both by MiRKAT). In contrast, total urinary estrogens (and all 15 estrogens/estrogen metabolites) were strongly and inversely associated with breast density (P = 0.01) after adjustment for age and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Mammographic density was not associated with the gut microbiota, but it was inversely associated with urinary estrogen levels. IMPACT: The finding of an inverse association between urinary estrogens and breast density in cancer-free women adds to the growing breast cancer literature on understanding the relationship between endogenous estrogens and mammographic density.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Estrogênios/urina , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/urina , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(23): 21004-21009, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074954

RESUMO

One of prospective ways for boosting efficiency of luminescent materials is their combination with noble metal nanoparticles. Collective, so-called plasmon, oscillations of surface electrons in a nanoparticle can resonantly interact with incident or fluorescent light and cause an increase in the light absorption cross section or radiative rate for an adjacent emitter. Plasmonic inorganic phosphors require gentle host crystallization at which added noble nanoparticles will not suffer from aggregation or oxidation. The prospective plasmonic Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ phosphor containing core@shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles is prepared here by spare low-temperature annealing of a sol-gel host precursor. It is revealed that Mn4+ luminescence nonmonotonously depends on the size and concentration of 40 and 70 nm silver nanoparticles. It is demonstrated that luminescence of the Mg2TiO4:Mn4+ phosphor can be up to a 1.5 times increase when Mn4+ excitation is supported by localized surface plasmon resonance in Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles.

18.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 60(7): 617-623, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942501

RESUMO

We previously reported that bacterial diversity in sputum samples from never-smoking women in rural China varied by lung cancer status and household air pollution (HAP) exposure type. Here, we expand on our associations between environmental exposures and respiratory tract microbiota with an additional 90 never-smoking women from Xuanwei, China. DNA from sputum samples of cases (n = 45) and controls (n = 45) was extracted using a multistep enzymatic and physical lysis, followed by a standardized clean up. V1-V2 regions of 16S rRNA genes were Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified. Purified amplicons were sequenced by 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing and high-quality sequences were evaluated for diversity and taxonomic membership. In our population of never-smokers, increased risk of lung cancer was associated with lower alpha diversity compared to higher alpha diversity (Shannon: ORhigh = 1.00 [reference], ORmedium = 3.84 [1.02-14.48], ORlow = 3.78 [1.03-13.82]; observed species: ORhigh = 1.00 [reference], ORmedium = 2.37 [0.67-8.48], ORlow = 2.01 [0.58-6.97]; Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) whole tree: ORhigh = 1.00 [reference], ORmedium = 3.04 [0.85-10.92], ORlow = 2.53 [0.72-8.96]), as well as a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria (ORhigh = 1.00 [reference], ORmedium = 1.24 [0.42-3.66], ORlow = 2.01 [0.63-6.44], ptrend = 0.03). Increasing alpha diversity was associated with smoky coal use compared to clean fuel use among all subjects (observed species, P = 0.001; PD whole tree, P = 0.006; Shannon, P = 0.0002), as well as cases (observed species, P = 0.02; PD whole tree, P = 0.03; Shannon, P = 0.03) and controls (observed species, P = 0.01; PD whole tree, P = 0.05; Shannon, P = 0.002). Increased diversity was also associated with presence of livestock (observed species, P = 0.02; PD whole tree, P = 0.02; Shannon, P = 0.03) in the home for cases. Our study is the first to report that decreased microbial diversity is associated with risk of lung cancer. Larger studies are necessary to elucidate the direct and indirect effects attributed to the disease-specific, HAP-specific, and animal-specific associations. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 104, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During pollen wall formation in flowering plants, a conserved metabolon consisting of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACOS), polyketide synthase (PKS) and tetraketide α-pyrone reductase (TKPR), is required for sporopollenin synthesis. Despite this, the precise function of each of these components in different species remains unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized the function of OsTKPR1, a rice orthologue of Arabidopsis TKPR1. Loss of function of OsTKPR1 delayed tapetum degradation, reduced the levels of anther cuticular lipids, and impaired Ubisch body and pollen exine formation, resulting in complete male sterility. In addition, the phenylpropanoid pathway in mutant anthers was remarkably altered. Localization studies suggest that OsTKPR1 accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum, while specific accumulation of OsTKPR1 mRNA in the anther tapetum and microspores is consistent with its function in anther and pollen wall development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that OsTKPR1 is indispensable for anther cuticle development and pollen wall formation in rice, providing new insights into the biochemical mechanisms of the conserved sporopollenin metabolon in flowering plants.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mutação , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Fenótipo
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