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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933505

RESUMO

Dementia is one of the greatest global challenges for public health; however, the relationship between anticholinergic drugs and dementia remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the predictive roles of anticholinergic drugs in dementia risk. After pooling fourteen longitudinal and case-control studies with a total of 1,564,181 subjects, anticholinergic drug use was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Both low and high anticholinergic drug burdens were associated with dementia. Moreover, there was a dose-dependent relationship between anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia. With respect to the categories of anticholinergic drugs, antiparkinson, urological drugs, and antidepressants increased the risk for dementia; however, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal drugs played potentially protective roles. These findings underscore the importance of anticholinergic drugs as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and provide treatment priorities to optimize dementia prevention.

2.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(1): 66-70, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Caries prevention for preschool children (aged 3-6 years) was always the focus of oral public health work for children. The purpose of this study was to explore the caries prevention effect of multi-dimensional oral cleaning intervention model for regional preschool children in shanghai. METHODS: Twelve kindergartens were randomly selected and divided into control group and experimental group(each group with 300 children aged 3-4 years old) in October 2016. Children in the control group received routine oral health education, while children in the experimental group adopted multi-dimensional oral cleaning intervention model. After 2 years of follow-up, oral cleaning behavior and caries status of children were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. RESULTS: The experimental group was significantly higher than the control group in brushing frequency, brushing time, correct brushing method, fluoride toothpaste and floss using (P<0.01), and caries rate and dmft index of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group(P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: For caries prevention in preschool children, multi-dimensional oral cleaning intervention mode plays a positive and effective role in changing children's and parents' oral health knowledge, trust and practice. It also guides and monitors parents to conduct effective oral cleaning behavior in preschool children and reduce the risk of caries.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Cárie Dentária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
3.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(2): E292-E302, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844484

RESUMO

Background: Fear extinction alone does not erase the original fear memory. Interventions that enhance extinction can be beneficial for the treatment of fear-related disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to improve memory performance. The present study examined the effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) on fear extinction and the return of fear memory in humans. Methods: Ninety-one young healthy volunteers underwent 3 experiments using a randomized controlled experimental design. Participants first acquired fear conditioning, after which they received 30 Hz iTBS before and after extinction training. The iTBS was applied to 1 of 2 targets: the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the vertex (control). Fear responses were measured 24 hours later and 1 month later. Results: During the spontaneous recovery and reinstatement tests, iTBS of the left dlPFC before and after extinction significantly reduced fear response, whereas iTBS of the vertex had no effect on fear memory performance. This combined approach had a relatively long-lasting effect (i.e., at least 1 month). Limitations: We did not explore the effect of iTBS of the dlPFC on the expression of fear without extinction training. The neural mechanisms of iTBS with fear extinction to inhibit the fear response are unclear. Our results are preliminary and should be interpreted with caution. Conclusion: `The present results showed that 30 Hz iTBS of the left dlPFC enhanced retention of fear extinction. Our study introduces a new intervention for fear memory and suggests that the left dlPFC may be a treatment target for fear-related disorders.

4.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1913785, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849405

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to medical education systems and medical students. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on medical career and specialty choices among medical students. An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese medical students was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic from February to April 2020. The students' willingness to be a doctor before and after the COVID-19 pandemic and changed willingness to specialize in respiratory medicine and infectious diseases were investigated. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression was used to explore factors that were associated with changes of willingness. A total of 1,837 medical students, including 1,227 females (66.8%), with a median age of 21.0 years, were recruited. Of the participants, 10.6% and 6.9% showed increased and decreased willingness to be a doctor after the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Moreover, 11.7% showed increased willingness and 9.5% showed decreased willingness to major in respiratory medicine and infectious diseases. Students with younger age, lower household income, fewer depressive symptoms, less exposure to negative pandemic information and more satisfaction with their own major after the pandemic were associated with increased willingness to be a doctor. Students who engaged in regular exercise, were males and undergraduate level, were interested in medicine, paid more attention to positive information, were satisfied with their majors, and had increased willingness to be a doctor after the pandemic were more likely to choose to specialize in respiratory medicine and infectious disease. However, the severity of anxiety symptoms was associated with decreased willingness to work in the specialties of respiratory medicine and infectious diseases. Psychological problems and professional satisfaction appear to be independent factors that affect medial career and specialty choices. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students require further research.

5.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 183, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The undergraduate program of psychiatry has been widely established in recent years to improve the education and recruitment of psychiatrists in China. We aim to investigate the career choice of medical students majoring in psychiatry in China and the influential factors. METHOD: This multicenter study was conducted in 26 medical schools in China from May to October of 2019. Participants included 4610 medical students majoring in psychiatry and 3857 medical students majoring in clinical medicine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the influential factors of students' choices of psychiatry at matriculation and as a career. RESULTS: 44.08% of psychiatry majored students gave psychiatry as a first choice at matriculation, and 56.67% of them would choose psychiatry as a career, which was in sharp contrast to the proportion of clinical medicine majored students who would choose psychiatry as a career (0.69%). Personal interest (59.61%), suggestions from family members (27.96%), and experiencing mental problems (23.19%) were main reasons for choosing psychiatry major at matriculation. Personal interest (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87-2.40), experiencing a psychiatry clerkship (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.28-3.08), being female (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30-1.68), experiencing mental problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.28-1.56), and suggestions from family members (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.46) correlated positively with students' choice of psychiatry as career. Students who lacked psychiatry knowledge (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) or chose psychiatry because of lower admission scores (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97) were less likely to choose psychiatry as a career. CONCLUSION: More than half of psychiatry majored medical school students planned to choose psychiatry as their career, whereas very few students in the clinic medicine major would make this choice. Increasing students' interest in psychiatry, strengthening psychiatry clerkships, and popularizing psychiatric knowledge are modifiable factors to increase the psychiatry career intention. The extent to which medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry can be changed through medical school education and greater exposure to psychiatry will need further investigation.

6.
Nanoscale ; 13(11): 5757-5764, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704340

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) graphtetrayne (G4) with intrinsic pattern triangular nanopores has been predicted to be an excellent candidate for next-generation proton exchange membranes due to its superior proton conductivity and selectivity. However, it is technically challenging to prepare a large area single-layer intact 2D material. A multi-layer stacked 2D material is a much more suitable choice, and the stacking can effectively shield the undesired defects and tears. In this work, we investigate the aqueous proton penetration behavior across multilayer-stacked two-dimensional G4 using extensive ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the G4 layers prefer a slightly misplaced stacking pattern which would cause only a slight reduction in the pore size. Detailed analyses indicate that the "water wires" across G4 remain continuous and can provide a low-barrier path for proton penetration until the number of stacking layers increases to three. In triple-layer G4, the "water wires" no longer exist and the aqueous phase will be separated by a wide vacuum area, thus significantly impeding the proton penetration behavior. Based on these results, we suggest that when serving as a proton exchange membrane, the number of stacking G4 layers should be fewer than three to achieve satisfactory conductivity. Our work provides guidance for the fabrication of next-generation proton exchange membranes based on nanoporous 2D materials.

7.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14107, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is gaining popularity in treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although its efficacy was shown in recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs), it is rarely compared with antispasmodics to confirm its effectiveness. We aimed to resolve this uncertainty through a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for RCTs that compared CHM or antispasmodics with placebo or one of them in the treatment of IBS. The primary outcomes were adequate relief of global IBS symptoms and abdominal pain. The data were pooled using a random-effects model. The effect size measure was pooled relative risk (RR), and treatments were ranked according to their P-scores. KEY RESULTS: We included 57 RCTs (n = 8869). After completion of treatment, drotaverine, individual CHM, otilonium, cimetropium, standard CHM, and pinaverium were efficacious in adequate relief of global IBS symptoms, and drotaverine ranked the first (RR, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.31-4.14], P-score =0.91); no difference was found between these treatments. After completion of treatment, drotaverine, standard CHM, pinaverium, and individual CHM were efficacious in abdominal pain, and drotaverine ranked the first (RR, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.69-4.36], P-score =0.91); no difference was found between these treatments. Standard CHM had significantly more adverse events than placebo (RR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.12-2.94]) and other treatments. CONCLUSIONS: CHM and antispasmodics were efficacious for improvement of global IBS symptoms and abdominal pain. The adverse events of CHM were higher than antispasmodics; however, the heterogeneity of CHM formulas and the very low quality of the evidence warrants further investigation.

8.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e18, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major threat to the public. However, the comprehensive profile of suicidal ideation among the general population has not been systematically investigated in a large sample in the age of COVID-19. METHODS: A national online cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 28, 2020 and March 11, 2020 in a representative sample of Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its risk factors was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 56,679 participants (27,149 males and 29,530 females) were included. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation was 16.4%, including 10.9% seldom, 4.1% often, and 1.4% always suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher in males (19.1%) and individuals aged 18-24 years (24.7%) than in females (14.0%) and those aged 45 years and older (11.9%). Suicidal ideation was more prevalent in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection (63.0%), frontline workers (19.2%), and people with pre-existing mental disorders (41.6%). Experience of quarantine, unemployed, and increased psychological stress during the pandemic were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and its severity. However, paying more attention to and gaining a better understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, especially information about psychological interventions, could reduce the risk. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of suicidal ideation among the general population in China during COVID-19 was significant. The findings will be important for improving suicide prevention strategies during COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5412-5421, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784453

RESUMO

Prussian blue hexacyanoferrate (HCF) materials, such as copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) and nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF), can produce higher salt removal capacities than purely capacitive materials when used as electrode materials during electrochemical water deionization due to cation intercalation into the HCF structure. One factor limiting the application of HCF materials is their decay in deionization performance over multiple cycles. By examining the performance of CuHCF and NiHCF electrodes at three different pH values (2.5, 6.3, and 10.2) in multiple-cycle deionization tests, losses in capacity (up to 73% for CuHCF and 39% for NiHCF) were shown to be tied to different redox-active centers through analysis of dissolution of electrode metals. Both copper and iron functioned as active centers for Na+ removal in CuHCF, while iron was mainly the active center in NiHCF. This interaction of Na+ and active centers was demonstrated by correlating the decrease in performance to the concentration of these metal ions in the effluent solutions collected over multiple cycles at different pHs (up to 0.86 ± 0.14 mg/L for iron and 0.42 ± 0.17 mg/L for copper in CuHCF and 0.38 ± 0.05 mg/L for iron in NiHCF). Both materials were more stable (<11% decay for CuHCF and no decay for NiHCF) when the appropriate metal salt (copper or nickel) was added to the feed solutions to inhibit electrode dissolution. At a pH of 2.5, there was an increased competition between protons and Na+ ions, which decreased the Na+ removal amount and lowered the thermodynamic energy efficiency for deionization for both electrode materials. Therefore, while an acidic pH provided the most stable performance, a circumneutral pH would be useful to produce a better balance between performance and longevity.


Assuntos
Cobre , Níquel , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Íons
10.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 220-227, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still spreading worldwide and posing a threat to individuals' physical and mental health including problematic internet use (PIU). A potentially high-risk group for PIU are those with symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD symptoms), because of restrictions in their physical activity levels and engagement in computer diversions requiring only short attention spans. METHODS: We used convenience sampling in a cross-sectional survey of university students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We assessed PIU using the Internet Addiction Test and ADHD symptoms using the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Screening Scale. Using logistic regression and linear regression analyses we adjusted for demographic, epidemic-related and psychological covariates in models of the association between ADHD symptoms and PIU. RESULTS: Among 11,254 participants, we found a 28.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-29.2%) prevalence of PIU, relatively higher than before the pandemic. In our final logistic regression model, participants with ADHD symptoms had approximately two times the risk for PIU (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89-2.83). Similarly, individuals with depression, anxiety, insomnia, PTSD symptoms and feeling stress during the pandemic had a higher risk of PIU, while those exercising regularly during the pandemic had a lower risk. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design and reliance on internet based self-reports for ADHD symptoms and PIU assessments, without direct structured interviews for validation, are limitations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PIU was high during COVID-19, and those people with ADHD symptoms and other mental illness symptoms appear to be at higher risk of PIU. Regular exercise may reduce that PIU risk and hence should be recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Aditivo , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Estudantes , Universidades
11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542468

RESUMO

Pandemics have become more frequent and more complex during the twenty-first century. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following pandemics is a significant public health concern. We sought to provide a reliable estimate of the worldwide prevalence of PTSD after large-scale pandemics as well as associated risk factors, by a systematic review and meta-analysis. We systematically searched the MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang, medRxiv, and bioRxiv databases to identify studies that were published from the inception up to August 23, 2020, and reported the prevalence of PTSD after pandemics including sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), H1N1, Poliomyelitis, Ebola, Zika, Nipah, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), H5N1, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 88 studies were included in the analysis, with 77 having prevalence information and 70 having risk factors information. The overall pooled prevalence of post-pandemic PTSD across all populations was 22.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.9-25.4%, I2: 99.7%). Healthcare workers had the highest prevalence of PTSD (26.9%; 95% CI: 20.3-33.6%), followed by infected cases (23.8%: 16.6-31.0%), and the general public (19.3%: 15.3-23.2%). However, the heterogeneity of study findings indicates that results should be interpreted cautiously. Risk factors including individual, family, and societal factors, pandemic-related factors, and specific factors in healthcare workers and patients for post-pandemic PTSD were summarized and discussed in this systematic review. Long-term monitoring and early interventions should be implemented to improve post-pandemic mental health and long-term recovery.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 998, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579914

RESUMO

Proper disposal of industrial brine has been a critical environmental challenge. Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) brine treatment holds great promise to the brine disposal, but its application is limited by the intensive energy consumption of its crystallization process. Here we propose a new strategy that employs an advanced solar crystallizer coupled with a salt crystallization inhibitor to eliminate highly concentrated waste brine. The rationally designed solar crystallizer exhibited a high water evaporation rate of 2.42 kg m-2 h-1 under one sun illumination when treating real concentrated seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine (21.6 wt%). The solar crystallizer array showed an even higher water evaporation rate of 48.0 kg m-2 per day in the outdoor field test, suggesting a great potential for practical application. The solar crystallizer design and the salt crystallization inhibition strategy proposed and confirmed in this work provide a low-cost and sustainable solution for industrial brine disposal with ZLD.

13.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(5): 558-568, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) was the primary choice for preventive treatment of chronic migraine. Topiramate and acupuncture showed promising effect for chronic migraine, but their effectiveness relative to BoNT-A was rarely studied. We aimed to perform a network meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness and acceptability between topiramate, acupuncture, and BoNT-A. METHODS: We searched OVID Medline, Embase, the Cochrane register of controlled trials (CENTRAL), the Chinese Clinical Trial Register, and clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared topiramate, acupuncture, and BoNT-A with any of them or placebo in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine. A network meta-analysis was performed by using a frequentist approach and a random-effects model. The primary outcomes were reduction in monthly headache days and monthly migraine days at week 12. Acceptability was defined as the number of dropouts owing to adverse events. RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs (n = 2545). Eleven RCTs were at low risk of bias. The network meta-analyses (n = 2061) showed that acupuncture (2061 participants; standardized mean difference [SMD] -1.61, 95% CI: -2.35 to -0.87) and topiramate (582 participants; SMD -0.4, 95% CI: -0.75 to -0.04) ranked the most effective in the reduction of monthly headache days and migraine days, respectively; but they were not significantly superior over BoNT-A. Topiramate caused the most treatment-related adverse events and the highest rate of dropouts owing to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Topiramate and acupuncture were not superior over BoNT-A; BoNT-A was still the primary preventive treatment of chronic migraine. Large-scale RCTs with direct comparison of these three treatments are warranted to verified the findings.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(4): e1552-e1558, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462619

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The associations of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels with bone mineral density and fracture risk are inconclusive in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a mendelian randomization study to assess the associations of serum IGF-1 levels with estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) and fracture. METHODS: Genetic instruments for IGF-1 were selected at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8) from a genome-wide association study including 358 072 individuals of European ancestry. Summary-level data for eBMD (426 824 individuals) and fracture (53 184 fracture cases and 373 611 noncases) were obtained from the UK Biobank study. Univariable and multivariable mendelian randomization analyses methods were used to estimate the associations of IGF-1 with eBMD and fracture. The main outcome measure included the change of eBMD and odds ratio of fracture per genetically predicted 1-SD increase of serum IGF-1 levels. RESULTS: For 1-SD increase in IGF-1, the change of eBMD levels was 0.04 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.01-0.07; P = .011) and the odds ratio of fracture was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .003). The associations persisted with similar magnitude after adjustment for height. The association was consistent for fracture but not for eBMD after excluding genetic instruments that might directly influence these outcomes. The association between IGF-1 and fracture was somewhat attenuated after adjustment for eBMD (odds ratio 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = .012). CONCLUSION: The present study supports a role for IGF-1 in preventing fracture, possibly and partly mediated by greater bone mineral density.

15.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e927421, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study explored the mechanism of action of Ephedrae Herba-Cinnamomi Ramulus couplet medicine (MGCM) at the pharmacological level in the treatment of psoriasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The active ingredients in MGCM were mined through literature retrieval and the BATMAN-TCM database, and potential targets were predicted. In addition, targets associated with psoriasis were acquired using multiple disease-related databases. Thereafter, an interaction network between candidate MGCM targets and the known psoriasis-associated targets was constructed based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, using the STRING database. Then, the topological parameter degree was determined for mining the core targets for MGCM in the treatment of psoriasis, which also represented the major hubs within the PPI network. In addition, the core networks of targets and ingredients were constructed using Cytoscape software to apply MGCM in the treatment for psoriasis. These core targets were then analyzed for Gene Ontology biological processes and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment using OmicShare. RESULTS The ingredient-target core network of MGCM for treating psoriasis was constructed; it contained 52 active ingredients and corresponded to 19 core targets. In addition, based on enrichment analysis, these core targets were majorly enriched for several biological processes (immuno-inflammatory responses, leukocyte differentiation, energy metabolism, angiogenesis, and programmed cell death) together with the relevant pathways (Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, toll-like receptors, nuclear factor kappaB, vascular endothelial growth factor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), thus identifying the possible mechanism of action of MGCM in treating psoriasis. CONCLUSIONS The present network pharmacology study indicated that MGCM alleviates various pathological factors of psoriasis through multiple compounds, multiple targets, and multiple pathways.

16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113825, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460754

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Modified Simiaowan (MSW) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula that is composed of six herbs. It has been widely used in the treatment of gouty arthritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to investigate the effect of MSW on gouty arthritis and explore the possible mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rat gouty arthritis model was established by intra-articular injection of Monosodium Urate (MSU) crystal, and then treated with MSW for 5 days. The perimeter of the knee joints was measured in a time-dependent manner and serum samples were collected for the detection of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 protein levels by ELISA. The protein expressions of MMP-3, TIMP-3, STAT3, and p-STAT3 in cartilage tissues and C28/I2 cells were detected by Western blot, and the levels of proteoglycan in primary chondrocytes and cartilage tissues were determined by toluidine blue staining. In addition, AG490 and IL-6 were used in vitro to explore the function of IL-6/STAT3 pathway in the protective effect of MSU. RESULTS: MSW reduced the joint swelling rate in gouty arthritis model and inhibited MSU induced up-regulation of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 protein levels in serum and synovial fluid. IL-1ß induced an increase in p-STAT3 and MMP-3 protein expression in C28/I2 cells, as well as a decrease in TIMP-3. MSW serum inhibited the protein expression changes induced by IL-1ß in vitro. Furthermore, inhibition of STAT3 signaling negated the effect of MSW serum on p-STAT3, MMP-3, and TIMP-3 protein levels in C28/I2 cells. MSW also increased the content of proteoglycan significantly both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that MSW protected rats from MSU-induced experimental gouty arthritis and IL-1ß/IL-6/STAT3 pathway played an essential role in the protective effect of MSU against GA.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483692

RESUMO

Quarantine and isolation measures urgently adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic might potentially have negative psychological and social effects. We conducted this cross-sectional, nationwide study to ascertain the psychological effect of quarantine and identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among population quarantined to further inform interventions of mitigating mental health risk especially for vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions. Sociodemographic data, attitudes toward the COVID-19, and mental health measurements of 56,679 participants from 34 provinces in China were collected by an online survey from February 28 to March 11, 2020. Of the 56,679 participants included in the study (mean [SD] age, 36.0 [8.2] years), 27,149 (47.9%) were male and 16,454 (29.0%) ever experienced home confinement or centralized quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak. Compared those without quarantine and adjusted for potential confounders, quarantine measures were associated with increased risk of total psychological outcomes (prevalence, 34.1% vs 27.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.28-1.39; P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that vulnerable groups of the quarantined population included those with pre-existing mental disorders or chronic physical diseases, frontline workers, those in the most severely affected areas during outbreak, infected or suspected patients, and those who are less financially well-off. Complying with quarantine, being able to take part in usual work, and having adequate understanding of information related to the outbreak were associated with less mental health issues. These results suggest that quarantine measures during COVID-19 pandemic are associated with increased risk of experiencing mental health burden, especially for vulnerable groups. Further study is needed to establish interventions to reduce mental health consequences of quarantine and empower wellbeing especially in vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions.

18.
Gene ; 765: 145120, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gout is an inflammatory arthritis resulting from precipitation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and surrounding tissues. However, the mechanism underlying high levels of uric acid inducing gouty arthritis has not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to investigate the role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the development of gouty arthritis from hyperuricemia. METHOD: MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis model and chondrocytes were used to evaluate changes of MMP-3 levels. Western blot, qPCR and ELISA were performed to detect MMP-3, Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4) expressions in rabbit chondrocytes. Expression of proteoglycan was determined through toluidine blue staining. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycan, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in chondrocytes were assessed via ELISA kits. Concentration of uric acid in supernate was tested by Automatic Analyzer. RESULTS: MMP-3 was significantly increased in rat serum, synovial fluid, cartilages and chondrocytes treated with high-level uric acid. Increased concentration of glycosaminoglycancould be observed in chondrocytes incubated with MMP-3, as well as the remarkable downregulation of proteoglycan expression. Furthermore, high-level uric acid contributed to the degradation of proteoglycan via the activation of MMP-3. IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α concentrations were increased significantly in 35 °C compared to 37 °C with MMP-3 and high-level uric acid. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that MMP-3 was enhanced by high levels of uric acid, which promoted proteoglycan degradation, and induced MSU crystallization in turn. A low temperature environment is an important factor in the development of gout.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Gotosa/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Gotosa/patologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/fisiologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
19.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129177, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310519

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to arsenic, a widely distributed environmental toxicant, may result in damage to various organs, including the liver. Mice exposed chronically to arsenite developed hepatic damage, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as increased levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. The levels of miR-21 and HIF-1α were also enhanced in primary hepatocytes and L-02 cells exposed to arsenite. The culture media from these cells induced the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as demonstrated by up-regulation of the protein levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen1A2 (COL1A2) and by increased activity in gel contractility assays. For L-02 cells, knockdown of miR-21 blocked the arsenite-induced up-regulation of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which prevented the activation of LX-2 cells induced by medium from arsenite-exposed L-02 cells. However, these effects were reversed by down-regulation of von Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL). In arsenite-treated L-02 cells, miR-21 knockdown elevated the levels of ubiquitination and accelerated the degradation of HIF-1α via pVHL. In the livers of miR-21-/- mice exposed chronically to arsenite, there were less hepatic damage, lower fibrosis, lower levels of HIF-1α and VEGF, and higher levels of pVHL than for wild-type mice. In summary, we propose that miR-21, acting via the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway, is involved in arsenite-induced hepatic fibrosis through mediating aberrant cross-talk of hepatocytes and HSCs. The findings provide evidence relating to the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis induced by exposure to arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsenitos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Hepatócitos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
20.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000797, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296142

RESUMO

SCOPE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia in the aging population; however, no effective therapy has been established. We previously demonstrated that daily intake of hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol in olive oil, at a daily dietary level mildly improves cognition in AD mice. In the present study, we tested whether hydroxytyrosol acetate (HT-ac), which is a natural derivative of HT in olive oil that exhibits better bioactivity than HT improves cognition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We orally administered HT-ac to APP/PS1 transgenic mice and used Aß-treated neuronal cultures to explore the neuroprotective effects of HT-ac in preventing AD progression. We found that HT-ac remarkably improved the escape latency, escape distance and the number of platform crossings of AD mice in the water maze test by ameliorating neuronal apoptosis and decreasing inflammatory cytokine levels. We further demonstrated that HT-ac stimulated the transcription of ERß and enhanced neuronal viability and electrophysiological activity in primary neurons but that these beneficial effects of HT-ac were abolished upon ERß deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that as the bioactive component of olive oil, HT-ac is a promising neuroprotective nutrient that may be used to alleviate AD-related cognitive dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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