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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427271

RESUMO

Cyclobutanes are an important class of motifs present in a wide range of natural products and other biologically significant molecules. A photocatalytic [2 + 2] cycloaddition between pyridones or isoquinolones and ethenesulfonyl fluoride was achieved, providing a portal to a class of unique cyclobutane-fused pyridinyl sulfonyl fluorides with quaternary rigid rings (30 examples). Further applications of these novel sulfonyl fluoride molecules in SuFEx click chemistry were also accomplished, providing the corresponding sulfonates and sulphonamides with reasonable yields.

2.
Food Chem ; 326: 126963, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413754

RESUMO

Neat epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has low bioavailability and tuna oil (TO) is prone to oxidation. Broccoli byproducts (BBP) were used for preparing TO-BBP (25% oil, dry basis) and TO-EGCG-BBP (20% oil and 20% EGCG, dry basis) powders. The gross composition and surface fat of powders and morphology of reconstituted emulsions were characterized. Oxipres® data (80 °C, 5 bar oxygen pressure) showed that the TO-EGCG-BBP formulation was more oxidatively stable [Induction period (IP) > 100 h] than TO-BBP (IP ~ 20 h). During in vitro digestion, 90% of EGCG was recovered in the whole intestinal digesta of the TO-EGCG-BBP formulation compared to 76% for the EGCG-BBP formulation and 66% for the neat EGCG. The use of BBP for co-delivering EGCG and TO increases oxidative stability of TO and improves EGCG stability during in vitro digestion. This study highlights the potential for formulating functional ingredient with BBP and contribute to food waste reduction.

3.
Food Res Int ; 132: 109050, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331678

RESUMO

Matcha-tuna oil and matcha-maltodextrin-tuna oil emulsions (25% oil, dry basis), formulated to have protein: carbohydrate ratios of 1:1.1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, were spray dried. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed effective emulsification of oil in all emulsions. All powders had low surface fat (2.9-4.2%). The addition of maltodextrin enhanced the bulk density and flowability of powders. Water sorption isotherms indicated that addition of maltodextrin increased water uptake of powders. The oxidative stability of the powders under accelerated conditions in an Oxipres® was highest for the matcha-tuna oil powder. Increasing amounts of added maltodextrin decreased oxidative stability. A comparison of levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neat oil and tuna oil powders over 12 weeks at 40 °C, demonstrated that % remaining EPA and DHA were higher for all spray dried powders compared to neat oil. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between the amount of the loss of tea catechins and % remaining EPA and DHA after 12 weeks at 40 °C, suggesting that the catechins had a major role in protecting the tuna oil against oxidation. This study has demonstrated the potential of using a whole biomass (matcha) as the single encapsulant for protection and delivery of omega-3 oils.

4.
Food Chem ; 321: 126703, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247890

RESUMO

The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically controlled by fungicides. Here, we report DON detoxification using enzymes from the highly active Devosia strain D6-9 which degraded DON at 2.5 µg/min/108 cells. Strain D6-9 catabolized DON to 3-keto-DON and 3-epi-DON, completely removing DON in wheat. Genome analysis of three Devosia strains (D6-9, D17, and D13584), with strain D6-9 transcriptomes, identified three genes responsible for DON epimerization. One gene encodes a quinone-dependent DON dehydrogenase QDDH which oxidized DON into 3-keto-DON. Two genes encode the NADPH-dependent aldo/keto reductases AKR13B2 and AKR6D1 that convert 3-keto-DON into 3-epi-DON. Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli efficiently degraded DON in wheat grains. Molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that residues S497, E499, and E535 function in QDDH's DON-oxidizing activity. These results advance potential microbial and enzymatic elimination of DON in agricultural samples and lend insight into the underlying mechanisms and molecular evolution of DON detoxification.

5.
Cell Cycle ; : 1-10, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324084

RESUMO

Ring1 and Yin Yang 1-Binding Protein (RYBP) is a member of non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 to mediate monoubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119. It plays an important role in development, but its role in reproduction remains illusive. In this study, we used Rybp conditional knockout mouse model to genetically ablate Rybp in male germ cells. We found that Rybp deficiency during spermatogenesis led to smaller testes, loss of germline cells, disturbed meiosis, increased apoptosis of spermatocytes, decreased sperm motility, and reduced global H3K9me3, without impacting retrotransposon expression. Meanwhile, we depleted Rybp during oogenesis, but oocyte maturation and preimplantation development were normal. Our findings demonstrate that RYBP plays important roles in spermatogenesis through regulating meiosis and sperm motility.

6.
Theor Biol Med Model ; 17(1): 3, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CpGs, the major methylation sites in vertebrate genomes, exhibit a high mutation rate from the methylated form of CpG to TpG/CpA and, therefore, influence the evolution of genome composition. However, the quantitative effects of CpG to TpG/CpA mutations on the evolution of genome composition in terms of the dinucleotide frequencies/proportions remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Based on the neutral theory of molecular evolution, we propose a methylation-driven model (MDM) that allows predicting the changes in frequencies/proportions of the 16 dinucleotides and in the GC content of a genome given the known number of CpG to TpG/CpA mutations. The application of MDM to the 10 published vertebrate genomes shows that, for most of the 16 dinucleotides and the GC content, a good consistency is achieved between the predicted and observed trends of changes in the frequencies and content relative to the assumed initial values, and that the model performs better on the mammalian genomes than it does on the lower-vertebrate genomes. The model's performance depends on the genome composition characteristics, the assumed initial state of the genome, and the estimated parameters, one or more of which are responsible for the different application effects on the mammalian and lower-vertebrate genomes and for the large deviations of the predicted frequencies of a few dinucleotides from their observed frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite certain limitations of the current model, the successful application to the higher-vertebrate (mammalian) genomes witnesses its potential for facilitating studies aimed at understanding the role of methylation in driving the evolution of genome dinucleotide composition.

7.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 116, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empathy is an essential quality for physicians and medical trainees. This study aimed to examine the associations of emotional intelligence (EI) and gratitude with empathy in medical students. METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional study at three medical schools in China. A pack of self-reported questionnaires, consisting of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6), and demographic section were distributed to the students. RESULTS: A pool of 1392 students became the final participants. After adjustment for the demographics, trait EI and gratitude were positively related to Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern, accounting for 33.1 and 22.7% of their variance, respectively. While trait EI was strongly and negatively associated with Personal Distress, gratitude was modestly and positively associated with it, and they collectively explained 29.1% of its variance. CONCLUSIONS: Trait EI and gratitude could be vital psychological constructs for understanding empathy in medical students. The positive roles they may play could be considered when intervention strategies and programs are designed to enhance the professional competencies in medical students.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(536)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213628

RESUMO

Despite high metabolic activity, the retina and optic nerve head lack traditional lymphatic drainage. We here identified an ocular glymphatic clearance route for fluid and wastes via the proximal optic nerve in rodents. ß-amyloid (Aß) was cleared from the retina and vitreous via a pathway dependent on glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and driven by the ocular-cranial pressure difference. After traversing the lamina barrier, intra-axonal Aß was cleared via the perivenous space and subsequently drained to lymphatic vessels. Light-induced pupil constriction enhanced efflux, whereas atropine or raising intracranial pressure blocked efflux. In two distinct murine models of glaucoma, Aß leaked from the eye via defects in the lamina barrier instead of directional axonal efflux. The results suggest that, in rodents, the removal of fluid and metabolites from the intraocular space occurs through a glymphatic pathway that might be impaired in glaucoma.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 394: 122540, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203718

RESUMO

Catalytic oxidation of CO at ambient temperature is an important reaction for many environmental applications. Here, we employed a defect engineering strategy to design an extraordinarily effective Sn-doped Co3O4 nanorods (NRs) catalyst for CO oxidation. Our combined theoretical and experimental data demonstrated that Co2+ in the lattice of Co3O4 were substituted by Sn4+. Based on a variety of characterizations and kinetic studies, this catalyst was found to combine the advantages of the nanorod-like morphology for largely exposing catalytically active Co3+ sites and the promotional effect of Sn dopant for adjusting the textural/redox properties. Additionally, the Sn-substituted Co3O4 NRs can be further activated via heat treatment to achieve low-temperature CO oxidation (T100 ∼ -100 °C) with excellent stability at ambient temperature. This study reveals the importance of Sn-substitution of inactive Co2+ in Co3O4 and provides an ultra-efficient catalyst for CO oxidation, making this robust material one of the most powerful catalysts available up to now.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19349, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176056

RESUMO

The visual system was reported to be affected in over half of patients with preeclampsia (PE), though fundus examination was performed only among patients complaining of visual symptoms. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of PE-related retinopathy may lead to permanent visual impairment. Therefore, we hypothesize that some clinical or laboratory parameters could predict severity of retinal damage.The aim of the study was to explore the risk factors for retinopathy in severe preeclampsia (sPE) and investigate pregnancy outcomes with different degrees of retinopathy.This retrospective cohort study included women with sPE who underwent ophthalmoscopy and delivered after admission to West China Second University Hospital, between June 2013 and December 2016. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were retrieved from medical records. Patients confirmed with retinopathy were followed up with telephones. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of PE-related retinopathy.Five hundred thirty-four patients were included, of which 17.6% having stage-1/2 retinopathy, 14.6% having stage-3/4 retinopathy, and 67.8% having normal retina. Compared with patients without retinopathy, patients with stage 3/4 retinopathy were more likely to have preterm-birth and low-birth-weight babies. Significant risk factors for stage 3/4 retinopathy in sPE included severe hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-4.56), elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.35), decreased platelet counts (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.07-4.48), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration of >800 IU/L (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 1.05-5.06), low hemoglobin (HGB) concentrations of <110 g/L (OR 3.73, 95% CI: 1.21-11.47), 24-hour proteinuria of 2 to 5 g (OR 6.39, 95% CI: 2.84-14.39), and >5 g (OR 8.66, 95% CI: 3.67-20.44).This study confirms the association between retinopathy and preterm-birth and low-birth weight in sPE. The risk factors for severe PE-related retinopathy, including severe hypertension, platelet and WBC count, HGB and LDH concentration, and proteinuria, are associated with the development of retinopathy. Routine and repeated fundus examination is recommended for maternal monitoring in sPE.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Doenças Retinianas/epidemiologia , Retinoscopia/métodos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Ocul Surf ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study is to investigate the potential effect of aqueous humor on already formed lymphatic vessels of the ocular surface including the conjunctiva and the cornea. METHODS: Aqueous humor harvested from fresh bovine or murine eyeballs were used in the study. It was injected into the subconjunctival space of Prox-1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) transgenic mice. Pre-existing conjunctival lymphatics were observed in vivo using our advanced live imaging system. Additionally, ex vivo tissue cultures were performed in aqueous humor with normal conjunctival tissues or inflamed corneas with newly formed lymphatic vessels. Time lapse images were taken by an advanced live cell imaging system with an incubator. Moreover, human primary microdermal lymphatic endothelial cell culture system was employed to evaluate the effect of aqueous humor on lymphatic tube regression in vitro. RESULTS: Aqueous humor induced lymphatic regression in both normal conjunctiva and inflamed corneas. It also led to the regression of formed lymphatic tubes by the lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first direct and real time live imaging evidence showing that aqueous humor induces lymphatic regression. Further investigation promises for divulging new mechanisms and therapeutic strategies to treat lymphatic diseases that occur both inside and outside the eye.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137382, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114228

RESUMO

Low birth weight (LBW) is accompanied by metabolic dysfunction, chronic inflammation and gut microbiota perturbation in piglets during early life. Regulating gut microbiota structure can indirectly or directly affect gut health and the host's metabolism. However, whether gut microbiota dysbiosis impact lipid metabolism and inflammation progression in the LBW pigs later in life is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of gut microbiota on homeostasis in organisms using young pigs as a model. The plasma concentrations of High-density lipoproteins (HDLC) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 18 (IL-18) were increased in LBW pigs. The bacterial composition was modified dramatically in LBW group in association with an increase in propionate, butyrate and Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the ileal digesta. LBW impaired intestine results in damaged Fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP2) and Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressions, and the inhibition of Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) and G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) expressions, causing inefficient SCFAs absorption. Meanwhile, the physical barrier and chemical barrier related to functional gene expressions of Occludin, Claudin-1, Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Mucin 2 (MUC2) in both ileum and colon were decreased in the LBW pigs. The genera of Blautia, Bifidobacterium, Subdoligranulum and Coprococcus 3 in the ileum were correlated positively with lipid metabolic dysfunction and pro-inflammatory response in LBW pigs. Collectively, the gut microbiota is critical for perturbation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory progression in LBW pigs, which suggests the interventions for modulating bacterial communities may be therapeutically beneficial for metabolic diseases and chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Envelhecimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Inflamação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G , Suínos
13.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119868

RESUMO

Hyperpigmentary conditions can arise when melanogenesis in the epidermis is misregulated. Understanding the pathways underlying melanogenesis is essential for the development of effective treatments. Here, we report that a group of metabolites called polyamines are important in the control of melanogenesis in human skin. Polyamines are cationic molecules present in all cells and are essential for cellular function. We report that polyamine regulator ODC1 is upregulated in melanocytes from melasma lesional skin. We report that the polyamine putrescine can promote pigmentation in human skin explants and primary normal human epidermal melanocytes through induction of tyrosinase which is rate-limiting for the synthesis of melanin. Putrescine supplementation on normal human epidermal melanocytes results in the activation of polyamine catabolism, which results in increased intracellular H2O2. Polyamine catabolism is also increased in human skin explants that have been treated with putrescine. We further report that inhibition of polyamine catabolism prevents putrescine-induced promotion of tyrosinase levels and pigmentation in normal human epidermal melanocytes, showing that polyamine catabolism is responsible for the putrescine induction of melanogenesis. Our data showing that putrescine promotes pigmentation has important consequences for hyperpigmented and hypopigmented conditions. Further understanding of how polyamines control epidermal pigmentation could open the door for the development of new therapeutics.

14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1619: 460915, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008824

RESUMO

Considering the huge difference of biological toxicity, it is extremely significant to recognize the exact content of arsenic species in actual samples. In this paper, a novel pretreatment technique for the efficient extraction of arsenic species from herbal samples is developed by dual-frequency ultrasound-assisted enzymatic digestion (DUED). The preservation of arsenic original form, reduction of the actual analysis time, environmental friendliness and free-interference in subsequent detection make this method over the traditional method such as wet digestion, ashing and some solvent extraction technologies. The combination of DUED and atomic fluorescence spectrometry realize the speciation analysis of arsenic in traditional Chinese medicine. The optimizations of experimental parameters have been achieved, and the potential mechanism is discussed. The experimental data showed that cellulase is suitable for the digestion of herbal matrix than α-amylase and papain. Ultrasound can significantly increase the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of biological molecules, especially under dual-frequency ultrasound irradiation. The highest relative extraction efficiency can be obtained by combining 40 kHz ultrasonic bath (UB) with 20 kHz ultrasonic probe (UP). Two certified reference materials [CRMs, GBW(E)090066 and GBW(E)090067] and four practical herbs were used to evaluate the accuracy and practicability of the method. Inorganic arsenic, including trivalent arsenic and pentavalent arsenic, was the main species in the four herbal samples.

15.
Cancer Med ; 9(4): 1495-1502, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891230

RESUMO

We aimed to explore the molecular substrate underlying EGFR-TKI resistance and investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on reversing EGFR-TKI resistance. In the current research, the effects of NAC in combination with gefitinib on reversing gefitinib resistance were examined using CCK-8 assay, combination index (CI) method, matrigel invasion assay, wound-healing assay, flow cytometry, western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). CCK8 assay showed that NAC plus gefitinib combination overcame EGFR-TKI resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by lowering the value of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). CI calculations demonstrated a synergistic effect between the two drugs (CI < 1). Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay demonstrated a decrease in migration and invasion ability of PC-9/GR cells after NAC and gefitinib treatment. Flow cytometry displayed enhanced apoptosis in the combination group. Western blot and qRT-PCR revealed that increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin in the combination group. When PP2 was administered with gefitinib, the same effects were seen. Our findings suggest that NAC could restore the sensitivity of gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells to gefitinib via suppressing Src activation and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

16.
Science ; 367(6480): 895-900, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974160

RESUMO

In a magnetic topological insulator, nontrivial band topology combines with magnetic order to produce exotic states of matter, such as quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulators and axion insulators. In this work, we probe quantum transport in MnBi2Te4 thin flakes-a topological insulator with intrinsic magnetic order. In this layered van der Waals crystal, the ferromagnetic layers couple antiparallel to each other; atomically thin MnBi2Te4, however, becomes ferromagnetic when the sample has an odd number of septuple layers. We observe a zero-field QAH effect in a five-septuple-layer specimen at 1.4 kelvin, and an external magnetic field further raises the quantization temperature to 6.5 kelvin by aligning all layers ferromagnetically. The results establish MnBi2Te4 as an ideal arena for further exploring various topological phenomena with a spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry.

17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(8): 756-769, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synaptic protein dyshomeostasis and functional loss is an early invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the unifying etiological pathway remains largely unknown. Knowing that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays critical roles in synaptic formation and degeneration, its phosphorylation targets were reexamined in search of candidates with direct global impacts on synaptic protein dynamics, and the associated regulatory network was also analyzed. METHODS: Quantitative phosphoproteomics and bioinformatics analyses were performed to identify top-ranked candidates. A series of biochemical assays was used to investigate the associated regulatory signaling networks. Histological, electrochemical, and behavioral assays were performed in conditional knockout, small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown, and AD-related mice models to evaluate the relevance of CDK5 to synaptic homeostasis and functions. RESULTS: Among candidates with known implications in synaptic modulations, BAG3 ranked the highest. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation on S297/S291 (mouse/human) destabilized BAG3. Loss of BAG3 unleashed the selective protein degradative function of the HSP70 machinery. In neurons, this resulted in enhanced degradation of a number of glutamatergic synaptic proteins. Conditional neuronal knockout of Bag3 in vivo led to impairment of learning and memory functions. In human AD and related mouse models, aberrant CDK5-mediated loss of BAG3 yielded similar effects on synaptic homeostasis. Detrimental effects of BAG3 loss on learning and memory functions were confirmed in these mice, and such effects were reversed by ectopic BAG3 reexpression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight that the neuronal CDK5-BAG3-HSP70 signaling axis plays a critical role in modulating synaptic homeostasis. Dysregulation of the signaling pathway directly contributes to synaptic dysfunction and AD pathogenesis.

18.
Food Chem ; 311: 125894, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787396

RESUMO

This work aims to use defatted rice bran albumin (RBA) for delivering epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg). The mode of RBA particle size shifted from 142 nm to 164 nm upon interaction with EGCg. Hydrophobic interaction is the major force between EGCg and RBA resulted in the formation of EGCg-RBA complex based on fluorescence quenching. Upon incorporation into RBA, the recovery of EGCg in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was elevated by 2 folds. The recovery of EGCg in EGCg-RBA was 18.9% after 2 h intestinal digestion, being higher than 7.6% of native EGCg. The pretreatments of HT-29 cells with EGCg, RBA and EGCg-RBA significantly repressed the transcriptional activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14, nuclear transcription factor-κB, and activators of transcription 3 as stimulated with interleukin-1ß afterwards, leading to attenuated expressions of corresponding downstream genes. Antioxidant ability importantly functioned in anti-inflammation. RBA is a promising vehicle with inherent anti-inflammatory property for stabilizing and delivering EGCg.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109820, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670242

RESUMO

Huge amounts of fly ash (FA) can be annually produced in power plants. Fly ash always contains high levels of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) due to the preconcentration of these two elements during coal combustion process. It would be much concerned to screen their fractions and potential environmental behaviors in fly ash for beneficial use and treatment. Fast and practical methods for this purpose are urgently needed. Two fast and effective microwave-assisted sequential extraction schemes (MASE) were developed for fast screening As and Se fractions in fly ash for the first time. The extraction parameters including microwave irradiation time, temperature and power energy were optimized by comparing the results from MASE and the conventional scheme (Wenzel method). The results indicate that the extraction efficiency of As and Se in various fractions can be significantly accelerated by microwave irradiation. The whole procedure operation time can be significantly reduced from 24.5 h to 44 min by microwave assistance compared with the conventional shaking schemes. The recoveries of As and Se in the various extracted fractions were all above 80% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The developed methods were further confirmed by the validation of the certified reference material GBW08401 and fly ash samples from six power plants. The developed MASE methods are practical and effective for fast screening arsenic and selenium fractions in fly ash samples.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Micro-Ondas , Selênio/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Centrais Elétricas
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4720-4727, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872670

RESUMO

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry(UPLC-QtrapMS) method was established to identify the metabolites in rat plasma,bile,urine and feces after oral administration of Cinnamomi Cortex(CC) aqueous extract. Several survey experiments,such as enhanced mass spectrum scan(EMS),precursor ion scan(PI),neutral loss scan(NL) and multiple ions monitoring(MIM) were applied to search target components,and two separate enhanced product ion(EPI) scans were triggered via information-dependent acquisition(IDA) method to generate the MS/MS spectra. According to the mass spectrometric data collected from reference standards and reported literature,the structures of metabolites were deduced. A total of76 metabolites and 5 original compounds were tentatively identified in rats after oral administration of CC aqueous extract. Deglycosylation,methylation,sulfonation,and glucuronidation were observed as the primary metabolic pathways for the chemical constituents of CC. These data are able to benefit the clarification of the therapeutic material basis,the clinical usage and further R&D of CC.


Assuntos
Bile , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Administração Oral , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fezes , Ratos
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