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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113939, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578266

RESUMO

A high-sensitivity and -selectivity mass spectrometry derivatization reagent, (R)-(5-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-oxopentyl) triphenylphosphonium (NCS-OTPP), was developed for the enantiomeric separation of chiral thiol compounds as prospectively important diagnostic markers for oxidative stress-related diseases. Complete separation of GSH, DL-Cys, and DL-Hcy was achieved. The parent ions of all derivatives had a fragment of m/z 473.18 and a structure of m/z 75.95 (R-S = C-S-R'), conducive to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes (R2≥ 0.9995). The intra-day and inter-day precision were 0.82-5.16 % and 1.02-4.18 % in saliva, and 0.81-3.45 % and 0.99-6.47 % in urine, with mean recoveries of 83.31-105.66 % and 84.09-101.11 %, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 19.20-57.60 nM. Free and total GSH, DL-Cys, and DL-Hcy were detected simultaneously in saliva and urine from 10 volunteers in the normal, stressed, and stable states by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS. The thiol compounds were quantitatively related to oxidative stress state changes.

2.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1865670, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537171

RESUMO

Somatic mutations of STK11 or KEAP1 are associated with poor clinical outcomes for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. Which treatment regimens work better for STK11 or KEAP1 mutated (SKmut) aNSCLC patients is unknown. In this study, the efficacy of atezolizumab versus docetaxel in SKmut aNSCLC was compared. A total of 157 SKmut aNSCLC patients were identified from POPLAR and OAK trials, who were tested by blood-based FoundationOne next-generation sequencing assay. Detailed clinical data and genetic alterations were collected. Two independent cohorts were used for biomarker validation (n = 30 and 20, respectively). Median overall survival was 7.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8 to 9.9) in the atezolizumab group versus 5.8 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 7.2) in the docetaxel group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for death, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.99; P = .042). Among atezolizumab-treated patients, objective response rate, disease control rate, and durable clinical benefit were higher when blood tumor mutation burden (bTMB) and PD-L1 being higher (biomarker 1, n = 61) or with FAT3 mutation-positive tumors (biomarker 2, n = 83) than otherwise. The interactions for survival between these two biomarkers and treatments were significant, which were further validated in two independent cohorts. In SKmut patients with aNSCLC, atezolizumab was associated with significantly longer overall survival in comparison to docetaxel. Having FAT3 mutation or high TMB and PD-L1 expression potentially predict favorable response in SKmut patients receiving atezolizumab.

3.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586697

RESUMO

Meiosis is an essential step in gametogenesis which is the key process in sexually reproducing organisms as meiotic aberrations may result in infertility. In meiosis, programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is one of the fundamental processes that are essential for maintaining homolog interactions and correcting segregation of chromosomes. Although the number and distribution of meiotic DSBs are tightly regulated, still abnormalities in DSB formation are known to cause meiotic arrest and infertility. This review is a detailed account of molecular bases of meiotic DSB formation, its evolutionary conservation, and variations in different species. We further reviewed the mutations of DSB formation genes in association with human infertility and also proposed the future directions and strategies about the study of meiotic DSB formation.

4.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546519

RESUMO

Metabolic disorders of the circulatory system of animals (e.g., hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia) can significantly affect immune function; however, since there is currently no reliable animal model for hyperproteinemia, its effects on immunity remain unclear. In this study, we established an animal model for hyperproteinemia in an invertebrate silkworm model, with a controllable plasma protein concentration (PPC) and no primary disease effects. We evaluated the influence of hyperproteinemia on innate immunity. The results showed that high PPC enhanced hemolymph phagocytosis via inducing a rapid increase in granulocytes. Moreover, while oenocytoids increased, the plasmacytes quickly dwindled. High PPC inhibited hemolymph melanization due to decreased phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the hemolymph via inhibiting the expression of the prophenoloxidase-encoding genes, PPO1 and PPO2. High PPC upregulated the gene expression of antimicrobial peptides via differential activation of the Toll and Imd signaling pathways associated with NF-κB signaling, followed by an induction of inconsistent antibacterial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an animal model of high PPC. Therefore, high PPC has multiple significant effects on the innate immune function of the silkworm circulatory system.

5.
Inflammation ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548006

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic autoimmune disease featured by synovial inflammation. miR-496 is closely involved in various pathologic conditions. However, its role in RA has not yet been elucidated. Expression of miR-496 and MMP10 was determined based on the clinical samples with RA retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. In vitro model of RA was constructed in MH7A cells stimulated by IL-1ß (10 ng/mL). Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry experiments were implemented to investigate the cell viability and apoptosis rate of MH7A cells. TargetScan was applied to identify the targets of miR-496, and the regulation of miR-496 on MMP10 expression was validated by a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. qRT-PCR and western blot analyses were conducted to examine the expression. miR-496 expression was decreased in RA tissues and MH7A cells after IL-1ß treatment. Overexpression of miR-496 significantly inhibited IL-1ß-treated MH7A cell viability. MMP10 was identified as a target of miR-496 and its expression was negatively regulated by miR-496. The effects of miR-496 on MH7A cell proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by MMP10. The activity of NF-κB pathway was associated with the miR-496/MMP10 axis in IL-1ß-stimulated MH7A cells. To summarize, this study demonstrated that miR-496 can impair the proliferative ability and facilitate the apoptosis of IL-1ß-treated MH7A through regulating MMP10 expression and NF-κB signaling pathway.

6.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538750

RESUMO

Based on the widely studied poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are brittle in their fully crystalline form, this Letter shows that they can be made to be super ductile, heat resistant and optically clear by creating nano-sized crystals while preserving the entanglement network. Atomic force microscopic images confirm the perceived nano-confined crystallization. Time-resolved X-ray scattering/diffraction measurements reveal the emergence of cold crystallization during either stress relaxation from large stepwise melt-stretching or annealing of pre-melt-stretched PLLA and PET above Tg. Mechanical tests show that these polymers in such a new state are rigid even well above Tg, e.g., at 100 °C.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590039

RESUMO

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful gene-silencing tool that has been intensively applied in plants. To data, the application of VIGS in rubber tree has not yet been reported. In this study, we described the efficient gene silencing in rubber tree by VIGS. The gene encoding Hevea brasiliensis phytoene desaturase (HbPDS) was identified in rubber tree genome. Small interfering RNAs from HbPDS and the silencing gene fragment were predicted and a length of 399 bp was selected to be tested. We showed that the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-VIGS could induce effective HbPDS silencing in rubber tree. This study was the first to report VIGS in rubber tree. The present TRV-VIGS method could be used to perform reverse genetic approaches to identify unknown gene functions and might be further applied to produce gene silenced rubber tree plants, to advance functional gene of rubber tree.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590602

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the clinical factors and factors that affect the decisions regarding storage of cryopreserved embryos obtained using assisted reproductive technology. METHODS: Clinical characteristics affecting the decisions regarding cryopreserved embryos were analyzed in 5724 Japanese couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra-cytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) and embryo transfer over 4 years since April 2015 at our clinic. Statistical analysis was carried out using JMP software. RESULTS: The number of oocytes retrievals and embryos stored, outcomes and number of children, and age of the female patients and male partners were related to the decision-making regarding cryopreserved embryos. Childbearing and no wish for another child were the major reasons for discontinuing embryo storage. The number of oocytes retrievals and embryos in storage, age of the female patients, and sex of the child were independently associated with this decision-making in 2682 patients with a single child. Women with male children were more likely to choose discontinuation of embryo storage than those with female children. CONCLUSION: Already having a child and not wishing for further treatment due to age along with the presence of a male child affect the decision to continue or discontinue embryo storage in Japanese patients with infertility.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555869

RESUMO

The development of earth-abundant electrocatalysts with high intrinsic activity, abundant active sites, and good electrical conductivity is of vital importance for the market penetration of clean energy technologies. We herein report a facile synthesis of a self-supported Co2N/CoN/Co2Mo3O8 heterostructured catalyst on cobalt foam (CF) by a hydrothermal process followed by nitridation treatment. Our first-principles calculations revealed that Co2Mo3O8 and Co2N could work in concert to provide active sites for an alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The hierarchical and nanoporous architecture of the Co2N/CoN/Co2Mo3O8 catalyst ensured an abundance of accessible active sites. The direct growth of metalloid CoxN nanoparticles on the defective Co2Mo3O8 substrate endowed the catalyst with good electrical conductivity. As a consequence, the Co2N/CoN/Co2Mo3O8/CF catalyst showed extraordinarily high activity and good stability toward the alkaline HER, outperforming most existing non-precious electrocatalysts. In particular, it exhibited a comparable catalytic performance to the commercial Pt/C catalyst at a current density of 100 mA cm-2.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454442

RESUMO

Concentration of uric acid (UA) in serum is one of the markers used to diagnose gout and hyperuricemia. However, serum treatment and storage are cumbersome, and wounds are susceptible to infection. Therefore, a new sampling and analysis method using noninvasive biological samples has been developed, called the dried spot method of UA in human saliva (DSM-UHS). Saliva (5 µL) was dropped on filter paper (a spot with a diameter of 5 mm) containing hypoxanthine (IS) (5 µL) and dried at room temperature for 30 min. The filter paper was immersed in 200 µL of lithium carbonate solution and shaken in a block bath shaker for 5 min at 30 °C. Afterward, the extraction was concentrated and reconstituted with 100 µL of lithium carbonate solution analyzed by HPLC-UV. When comparing the concentration of UA in the human saliva of hyperuricemia patients (HPs) and with that of healthy volunteers (HVs), we observed the concentration of UA was higher in the HPs than in the HVs (p < 0.0001). In addition, the results showed a significant linear relationship between the content of UA in saliva and the content of UA in the serum (r = 0.6243). The content of UA in human saliva could indirectly reflect the content of UA in human serum. Then DSM-UHS could be used to determine the content of UA in the saliva of HVs and HPs. This study provides a new research method and strategy for the determination of human UA content and the clinical prewiring of hyperuricemia.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 411, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462214

RESUMO

Shape-morphing uses a single actuation source for complex-task-oriented multiple patterns generation, showing a more promising way than reconfiguration, especially for microrobots, where multiple actuators are typically hardly available. Environmental stimuli can induce additional causes of shape transformation to compensate the insufficient space for actuators and sensors, which enriches the shape-morphing and thereby enhances the function and intelligence as well. Here, making use of the ionic sensitivity of alginate hydrogel microstructures, we present a shape-morphing strategy for microrobotic end-effectors made from them to adapt to different physiochemical environments. Pre-programmed hydrogel crosslinks were embedded in different patterns within the alginate microstructures in an electric field using different electrode configurations. These microstructures were designed for accomplishing tasks such as targeting, releasing and sampling under the control of a magnetic field and environmental ionic stimuli. In addition to structural flexibility and environmental ion sensitivity, these end-effectors are also characterized by their complete biodegradability and versatile actuation modes. The latter includes global locomotion of the whole end-effector by self-trapping magnetic microspheres as a hitch-hiker and the local opening and closing of the jaws using encapsulated nanoparticles based on local ionic density or pH values. The versatility was demonstrated experimentally in both in vitro environments and ex vivo in a gastrointestinal tract. Global locomotion was programmable and the local opening and closing was achieved by changing the ionic density or pH values. This 'structural intelligence' will enable strategies for shape-morphing and functionalization, which have attracted growing interest for applications in minimally invasive medicine, soft robotics, and smart materials.

12.
Theranostics ; 11(2): 715-730, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391501

RESUMO

Rationale: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF) is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. However, the role of proBDNF in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. Methods: Peripheral blood and post-mortem brain and spinal cord specimens were obtained from multiple sclerosis patients to analyze proBDNF expression in peripheral lymphocytes and infiltrating immune cells in the lesion site. The proBDNF expression profile was also examined in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, and polyclonal and monoclonal anti-proBDNF antibodies were used to explore their therapeutic effect in EAE. Finally, the role of proBDNF in the inflammatory immune activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was verified in vitro experiments. Results: High proBDNF expression was detected in the circulating lymphocytes and infiltrated inflammatory cells at the lesion sites of the brain and spinal cord in MS patients. In the EAE mouse model, proBDNF was upregulated in CNS and in circulating and splenic lymphocytes. Systemic but not intracranial administration of anti-proBDNF blocking antibodies attenuated clinical scores, limited demyelination, and inhibited proinflammatory cytokines in EAE mice. Immuno-stimulants treatment increased the proBDNF release and upregulated the expression of p75 neurotrophic receptors (p75NTR) in lymphocytes. The monoclonal antibody against proBDNF inhibited the inflammatory response of PBMCs upon stimulations. Conclusion: The findings suggest that proBDNF from immune cells promotes the immunopathogenesis of MS. Monoclonal Ab-proB may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating MS.

13.
Lupus ; : 961203320980531, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for Adverse pregnancy outcome (APOs) in patients with new-onset SLE during pregnancy. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with new-onset SLE during pregnancy were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for different APOs (pregnancy loss, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and eclampsia/preeclampsia). A two-sided p-value below 0.05 was considered significant, and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated that renal involvement (aOR: 7.356; 95%CI:1.516,35.692) and greater SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) grade (aOR:5.947;95%CI: 1.586,22.294) increased the risk for composite APO, and that use of heparin therapy (aOR: 0.081; 95%CI: 0.012, 0.532) was a protective factor. Advanced gestational age at disease onset (aOR: 0.879; 95%CI: 0.819,0.943) and high serum albumin level (aOR: 0.908,95%CI: 0.831,0.992) protected against pregnancy loss. Renal involvement increased the risk for preterm birth (aOR: 2.272; 95%CI: 1.030,7.222) and fetal growth restriction (aOR: 9.070; 95%CI: 1.131,72.743). Hypertension (aOR: 19.185; 95%CI: 3.921,93.868), renal involvement (aOR: 8.380, 95%CI: 1.944,74.376) increased the risk for eclampsia/preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: New onset SLE during pregnancy increased the risk for multiple APOs. Timely management of the risk factors identified here may help to improve pregnancy outcomes in these patients.

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1): 1, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179084

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most prevalent and observed type of cancer in Xuanwei County, Yunnan, South China. Lung cancer in this area is called Xuanwei lung cancer. However, its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To date, a number of studies have shown that microRNA (miR)­218 functions as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer. However, the role of miR­218 and its regulatory gene network in Xuanwei lung cancer have yet to be investigated. The current study identified that the expression levels of miR­218 in XWLC­05 cells were markedly lower compared with those in immortalized lung epithelial BEAS­2B cells. The present study also demonstrated that overexpression of miR­218 could decrease cell proliferation, invasion, viability and migration in Xuanwei lung cancer cell line XWLC­05 and NSCLC cell line NCI­H157. Additionally, the results revealed that overexpression of miR­218 could induce XWLC­05 and NCI­H157 cell apoptosis by arresting the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Finally, the present study demonstrated that overexpression of miR­218 could lead to a significant increase in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and YY1 transcription factor (YY1), and a decrease in B­cell lymphoma 2 (BCL­2) and BMI1 proto­oncogene, polycomb ring finger (BMI­1) at the mRNA and protein level in XWLC­05 and NCI­H157 cell lines. However, we did not observe any remarkable difference in the roles of miR­218 and miR­218­mediated regulation of BCL­2, BMI­1, PTEN and YY1 expression in the progression of Xuanwei lung cancer. In conclusion, miR­218 could simultaneously suppress cell proliferation and tumor invasiveness and induce cell apoptosis by increasing PTEN and YY1 expression, while decreasing BCL­2 and BMI­1 in Xuanwei lung cancer. The results demonstrated that miR­218 might serve a vital role in tumorigenesis and progression of Xuanwei lung cancer and overexpression of miR­218 may be a novel approach for the treatment of Xuanwei lung cancer.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(5): 623-626, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346288

RESUMO

Free-standing Pt-Ni nanowires were fabricated by a one-pot solvothermal method. Nanowires with an optimal Pt/Ni ratio of 1.86 exhibited a high activity and a 100% H2 selectivity for hydrous hydrazine decomposition at mild temperatures, which are comparable to the levels of supported catalysts. Our study reveals for the first time that basic support is not a prerequisite for achieving favorable catalytic performance and provides a renewed perspective for the design of advanced catalysts for on-demand H2 generation from hydrous hydrazine.

16.
Org Lett ; 23(1): 60-65, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351641

RESUMO

The use of the unprecedented annulating reagents methyl N-(tert-butylsulfinyl)-4-chlorobutanimidate and methyl N-(tert-butylsulfinyl)-5-bromopentanimidate enables the diastereoselective preparation of 5- and 6-membered carbocycles bearing three contiguous stereocenters. These synthons undergo cycloaddition with a variety of Michael acceptors to form cyclopentane/cyclohexane rings with excellent stereochemical control, generating only one of the eight possible diastereomers. This novel methodology has enabled the highly enantioselective and high yielding synthesis of novel chemotypes of pharmacological relevance.

17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 617, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by fifth-stage larvae of the nematode (roundworm) Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is mainly attributed to the contribution of eosinophils to tissue inflammatory responses in helminthic infections. Eosinophils are associated with the killing of helminths via peroxidative oxidation and hydrogen peroxide generated by the dismutation of superoxide produced during respiratory bursts. In contrast, when residing in the host with high level of eosinophils, helminthic worms have evolved to attenuate eosinophil-mediated tissue inflammatory responses for their survival in the hosts. In a previous study we demonstrated that the expression of the A. cantonensis RPS 30 gene (Acan-rps-30) was significantly downregulated in A. cantonensis L5 roundworms residing in cerebrospinal fluid with a high level of eosinophils. Acan-RPS-30 is a protein homologous to the human Fau protein that plays a pro-apoptotic regulatory role and may function in protecting worms from oxidative stress. METHODS: The isolation and structural characterization of Acan-RPS-30 were performed using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), genome walking and bioinformatics. Quantitative real-time-PCR and microinjection were used to detect the expression patterns of Acan-rps-30. Feeding RNA interference (RNAi) was used to knockdown the apoptosis gene ced-3. Microinjection was performed to construct transgenic worms. An oxidative stress assay was used to determine the functions of Acan-RPS-30. RESULTS: Our results showed that Acan-RPS-30 consisted of 130 amino acids. It was grouped into clade V with C. elegans in the phylogenetic analysis. It was expressed ubiquitously in worms and was downregulated in both L5 larvae and adult A. cantonensis. Worms expressing pCe-rps30::Acan-rps-30::rfp, with the refractile "button-like" apoptotic corpses, were susceptible to oxidative stress. Apoptosis genes ced-3 and ced-4 were both upregulated in the transgenic worms. The phenotype susceptible to oxidative stress could be converted with a ced-3 defective mutation and RNAi. rps-30-/- mutant worms were resistant to oxidative stress, with ced-3 and ced-4 both downregulated. The oxidative stress-resistant phenotype could be rescued and inhibited by through the expression of pCe-rps30::Acan-rps-30::rfp in rps-3-/- mutant worms. CONCLUSION: In C. elegans worms, downregulated RPS-30 plays a defensive role against damage due to oxidative stress, facilitating worm survival by regulating downregulated ced-3. This observation may indicate the mechanism by which A. cantonensis L5 worms, with downregulated Acan-RPS-30, survive in the central nervous system of humans from the immune response of eosinophils.

18.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(8): 713-716, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377732

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of bilateral microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy (BMSV) in patients with asthenozoospermia or oligozoospermia. METHODS: Totally 147 patients with male infertility received BMSV from January 2018 to May 2019, of whom 109 had complete data recorded. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, including the total sperm count per ejeculate, sperm concentration and sperm motility before and after surgery, and the rate of natural conception achieved during the follow-up. RESULTS: BMSV achieved a total effectiveness rate of 79.00% in improving the percentage of progressively motile sperm (a rise of ≥20%) and a marked effectiveness rate of 70.00% (a rise of ≥50%) in the 100 cases of asthenozoospermia as compared with the baseline, with a mean recovery time of (110.13 ± 37.43) days. Besides, a total effectiveness rate of 74.29% (an increase of ≥20%) and a marked effectiveness rate of 71.43% (an increase of ≥50%) were attained in the improvement of sperm concentration in the 35 cases of oligozoospermia, with a mean recovery time of (117.00 ± 48.79 ) days. A natural conception rate of 30.30% was observed during the follow-up. No severe adverse events occurred postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: BMSV is significantly effective for the treatment of asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia.


Assuntos
Astenozoospermia , Oligospermia , Varicocele , Astenozoospermia/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirurgia , Oligospermia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Resultado do Tratamento , Varicocele/cirurgia
19.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377615

RESUMO

Diallyl sulfide (DAS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS), two constituents of garlic, can inhibit quorum sensing (QS) systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the differences in the mechanism of QS inhibition between DAS and DADS, and the functional chemical groups of these sulfides that contribute in QS inhibition have not been elucidated yet. We assumed that the sulfide group might play a key role in QS inhibition. To prove this hypothesis and to clarify these unsolved problems, in this study, we synthesized diallyl ether (DAE), and compared and investigated the effects of DAS and DAE on the growth and production of virulence factors, including Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), elastase and pyocyanin, of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR were used to compare and analyse the differentially expressed genes between the different treatment groups (DAS, DAE and control). The results indicated that DAS did not affect the growth dynamics of P. aeruginosa PAO1; however, DAS inhibited transcription of most of the QS system genes, including lasR, rhlI/rhlR and pqsABCDE/pqsR; thus, biosynthesis of the signal molecules C4 -HSL (encoded by rhlI) and PQS (encoded by pqsABCDE) was inhibited. Furthermore, DAS inhibited the transcription of virulence genes regulated by the QS systems, including rhlABC, lasA, lasB, lecA and phzAB, phzDEFG, phzM and phzS that encode for rhamnolipid, exoprotease, elastase, lectin and pyocyanin biosynthesis respectively. DAS also enhanced the expression of the key genes involved in the biosynthesis of three B vitamins: folate, thiamine and riboflavin. In conclusion, DAS suppressed the production of some virulence factors toxic to the host and enhanced the production of some nutrition factors beneficial to the host. These actions of DAS may be due to its thioether group. These findings would be significant for development of an effective drug to control the virulence and pathogenesis of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided trans-scapular coil localization (TSCL) of scapula-blocked pulmonary nodules (PNs). METHODS: Between November 2015 and May 2020, 11 patients underwent preoperative CT-guided TSCL procedures owing to PN occlusion by scapula. RESULTS: A 100% technical success rate was achieved for CT-guided TSCL, with one coil being used for each PN. One patient (9.1%) developed pneumothorax. Successful video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)-guided wedge resection of these scapula-blocked PNs was conducted in all patients. CONCLUSION: CT-guided TSCL can be simply and safely used to facilitate successful VATS-guided wedge resection of scapula-blocked PNs.

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