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1.
J Med Chem ; 55(21): 9208-23, 2012 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23030502

RESUMO

This report describes the discovery and optimization of a BACE-1 inhibitor series containing an unusual acyl guanidine chemotype that was originally synthesized as part of a 6041-membered solid-phase library. The synthesis of multiple follow-up solid- and solution-phase libraries facilitated the optimization of the original micromolar hit into a single-digit nanomolar BACE-1 inhibitor in both radioligand binding and cell-based functional assay formats. The X-ray structure of representative inhibitors bound to BACE-1 revealed a number of key ligand:protein interactions, including a hydrogen bond between the side chain amide of flap residue Gln73 and the acyl guanidine carbonyl group, and a cation-π interaction between Arg235 and the isothiazole 4-methoxyphenyl substituent. Following subcutaneous administration in rats, an acyl guanidine inhibitor with single-digit nanomolar activity in cells afforded good plasma exposures and a dose-dependent reduction in plasma Aß levels, but poor brain exposure was observed (likely due to Pgp-mediated efflux), and significant reductions in brain Aß levels were not obtained.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Guanidinas/síntese química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/química , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/química , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Guanidinas/farmacocinética , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Isoxazóis/síntese química , Isoxazóis/farmacocinética , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Mutação , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida , Soluções , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
J Med Chem ; 54(19): 6548-62, 2011 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21882820

RESUMO

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) catalyze the dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues, a process that involves a conserved tryptophan-proline-aspartate (WPD) loop in catalysis. In previously determined structures of PTPs, the WPD-loop has been observed in either an "open" conformation or a "closed" conformation. In the current work, X-ray structures of the catalytic domain of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase γ (RPTPγ) revealed a ligand-induced "superopen" conformation not previously reported for PTPs. In the superopen conformation, the ligand acts as an apparent competitive inhibitor and binds in a small hydrophobic pocket adjacent to, but distinct from, the active site. In the open and closed WPD-loop conformations of RPTPγ, the side chain of Trp1026 partially occupies this pocket. In the superopen conformation, Trp1026 is displaced allowing a 3,4-dichlorobenzyl substituent to occupy this site. The bound ligand prevents closure of the WPD-loop over the active site and disrupts the catalytic cycle of the enzyme.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiofenos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ligantes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/síntese química
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(37): 15366-71, 2011 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21896751

RESUMO

Influenza nucleoprotein (NP) plays multiple roles in the virus life cycle, including an essential function in viral replication as an integral component of the ribonucleoprotein complex, associating with viral RNA and polymerase within the viral core. The multifunctional nature of NP makes it an attractive target for antiviral intervention, and inhibitors targeting this protein have recently been reported. In a parallel effort, we discovered a structurally similar series of influenza replication inhibitors and show that they interfere with NP-dependent processes via formation of higher-order NP oligomers. Support for this unique mechanism is provided by site-directed mutagenesis studies, biophysical characterization of the oligomeric ligand:NP complex, and an X-ray cocrystal structure of an NP dimer of trimers (or hexamer) comprising three NP_A:NP_B dimeric subunits. Each NP_A:NP_B dimeric subunit contains two ligands that bridge two composite, protein-spanning binding sites in an antiparallel orientation to form a stable quaternary complex. Optimization of the initial screening hit produced an analog that protects mice from influenza-induced weight loss and mortality by reducing viral titers to undetectable levels throughout the course of treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Nucleoproteínas/química , Nucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Hidrodinâmica , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Nucleoproteínas/ultraestrutura , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico , Soluções
4.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 19(22): 6477-80, 2009 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19804972

RESUMO

The solid-phase synthesis of a library based on an unusual biphenyl-containing trypsin-like serine protease inhibitor is described. Key to this effort was the synthesis of a highly functionalized aryl boronic acid reagent which required the development of a novel and efficient method to convert a triflate to a pinacolboronate in large scale.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Aspártico/farmacologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Mastócitos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(18): 5083-6, 2008 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18722770

RESUMO

The discovery and optimization of a novel series of prolinol-derived GHSR agonists is described. This series emerged from a 11,520-member solid-phase library targeting the GPCR protein superfamily, and the rapid optimization of low micromolar hits into single-digit nanomolar leads can be attributed to the solid-phase synthesis of matrix libraries, which revealed multiple non-additive structure-activity relationships. In addition, the separation of potent diastereomers highlighted the influence of the alpha-methyl stereochemistry of the phenoxyacetamide sidechain on GHSR activity.


Assuntos
Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Estrutura Molecular , Pirrolidinas/química , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 15(18): 4151-4, 2005 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16005213

RESUMO

The solid-phase synthesis of a library based on the natural product anisomycin is described. The resulting library was tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal targets, and active compounds were identified in a Staphylococcus aureus whole-cell assay and an efflux-deficient fungal whole-cell assay.


Assuntos
Anisomicina/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Linhagem Celular , Fungos/citologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/citologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
J Comb Chem ; 4(5): 536-9, 2002 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12217028

RESUMO

Alkyl aryl ether formation is a frequently employed reaction in organic synthesis. Ullmann condensation is an alternative method to the widely used Mitsunobu reaction and is very useful in situations where application of the Mitsunobu reaction is limited. By application of this reaction to solid-phase synthesis of a series of alkyl aryl ethers, reaction conditions (catalyst, solvent, temperature, time, etc.) for a sterically hindered class of alcohols were investigated and optimized. A range of aryl halides was used to explore the scope of the reaction in solid phase.

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