Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Int ; 137: 105521, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007688

RESUMO

The lung has been reported to be one of the target organs of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) in many toxicological studies. While the associations between PCDD/Fs exposure and lung function levels have not been investigated thoroughly. This study aimed to explore these associations and the potential mediating role of oxidative stress. In this study, 201 foundry workers and 222 non-exposed general residents were recruited from central China, and their lung function parameters were measured. Air and food samples were collected to determine the PCDD/Fs levels for individual PCDD/Fs exposure estimation. Serum PCDD/Fs levels were determined in a subgroup of individuals randomly selected from the study population to reflect the body burden. It was found that each 1-unit increase in ln-transformed concentration of PCDD/Fs exposure (fg TEQ/bw/day) was associated with a 0.47 L decrease in FVC and a 0.25 L decrease in FEV1. Each 1-unit increase in ln-transformed concentration of serum PCDD/Fs (fg TEQ/g lipid) was associated with a 0.36 L decrease in FVC and a 0.24 L decrease in FEV1. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was not only positively related to PCDD/Fs exposure, but also inversely associated with FVC and FEV1 are FVC (ß = -0.15, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.08) and FEV1 (ß = -0.07, 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.02). Mediation analysis revealed that urinary 8-OHdG mediated 12.22% of the associations of external PCDD/Fs exposure with FVC levels, 28.61% and 27.87% of the associations of serum PCDD/Fs with FVC and FEV1 levels respectively. Our findings suggested that PCDD/Fs exposure was associated with decreased lung function levels by a mechanism partly involving oxidatively generated damage to DNA.

2.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124898, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557644

RESUMO

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, biomarkers of internal PAH exposure, are commonly used to explore the effects of PAH on human health. However, the correlation between environmental PAH exposure and the species or levels of urinary PAH metabolites remains unclear. We collected detailed information on PAH exposure sources, including cigarette smoking, cooking, traffic and diet habits via structured questionnaires, and determined 12 urinary monohydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) among 4092 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Linear mixed models and generalized linear models were conducted to explore the associations of urinary metabolite levels with single or multiple PAH exposure sources. We also calculated the standardized regression coefficients to further compare the contributions of different sources to urinary OH-PAH levels. Our results showed that increasing levels of urinary 1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (1-, 2- OHNa) and 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHFlu) were significantly correlated with tobacco smoking (all P < 0.01). The concentrations of 1-, 2- OHNa and 9-hydroxyfluorene (9-OHFlu) were positively correlated with dietary intake (all P < 0.05). Individuals who spent a long time in traffic showed elevated levels of 9-OHFlu and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPh) compared with individuals who spent a short time in traffic (all P < 0.05). Self-cooking was associated only with elevated 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Moreover, good kitchen ventilation resulted in significantly decreased urinary low-molecular-weight OH-PAH levels. These findings suggested that cigarette smoking, self-cooking, high dietary PAH intake and a long time spent in traffic were associated with increased levels of specific urinary PAH metabolites, and good kitchen ventilation effectively reduced the exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in self-cooking participants.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fluorenos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Naftóis , Fenantrenos
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 313: 178-187, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284023

RESUMO

Long-term inhalation of crystalline silica particles leads to silicosis characterized by pulmonary inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. The growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine receptor Mer have been implicated to involve in the regulation of inflammation, innate immunity and tissue repair. However, the role of Gas6 or Mer in silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis has not been investigated previously. In this study, we observed a remarkable increase of Gas6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from wild-type C57BL/6 mice after silica intratracheal administration. Then, we investigated whether genetic loss of Gas6 or Mer could attenuate silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Our results showed that Gas6-/- and Mer-/- mice exhibited reduced lung inflammation response from days 7 to 84 after silica exposure. We also uncovered an overexpression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1 in silica-treated deficient mice. Moreover, Gas6 or Mer deficiency attenuated silica-induced collagen deposition by inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor-ß. We conclude that gene absence of Gas6 or Mer is protective against silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice. Targeting Gas6/Mer pathway may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat pulmonary fibrosis in patients with silicosis.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/deficiência , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Silicose/prevenção & controle , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/deficiência , Animais , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pneumonia/enzimologia , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/enzimologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Silicose/enzimologia , Silicose/genética , Silicose/patologia , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/genética
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 458-465, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154218

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been associated with lung function decline, but impact of PM2.5 constituents especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lung function is unclear among community population. We enrolled 224 Chinese participants who participated in two study periods (2014-2015 and 2017-2018) of the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort as a panel, and quantified the associations of personal PM2.5 and sixteen PM2.5-bound PAHs with lung function levels as well as lung function change in three years by linear mixed models. Diagnostic ratios were calculated to identify potential sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs in Wuhan and Zhuhai separately. In single-constituent models, we found that each one interquartile-range increase of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluoranthene and pyrene were associated with 26.82, 60.99, 45.25 and 23.37 mL decline in FVC respectively; while fluoranthene and pyrene were associated with 27.43 and 15.49 mL decline in FEV1 respectively. Similar results were observed in consitituent-PM2.5 joint models and single-constituent residual models. Persistently long-term high levels of three HMW-PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene) were associated with 214.65, 226.13, and 265.00 mL decline in FVC decline in three years, compared with persistently low exposure level groups. The associations were different between Wuhan and Zhuhai. The results of diagnostic ratios suggested the differences in PAH emissions between two cities. Our findings provide evidence that both short- and long-term PM2.5-bound PAH exposures might affect lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória
5.
Chemosphere ; 227: 237-246, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991198

RESUMO

Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, but the dose-response relationships have not been explored in molecular epidemiological studies. In this study, a total of 602 participants were recruited, comprising of 215 foundry workers, 171 incineration workers and 216 residents living more than 5 km away from the plants as the reference group. Individual PCDD/Fs exposures were estimated according to PCDD/Fs levels of working and living ambient air and daily foods. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-isoPGF2α) were determined to reflect oxidatively generated damage to DNA and lipid. Generalized linear models were used to access the associations between PCDD/Fs exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers. We found that PCDD/Fs exposure and urinary oxidative stress biomarkers of workers were all higher than those of the reference group. Significantly positive exposure-response relationships between individual PCDD/Fs exposures and urinary 8-oxodG and 8-iso-PGF2α were found. Each 1-unit increase in ln-transformed levels of PCDD/Fs exposure generated a 0.78 nmol/mmol creatinine increase in ln-transformed 8-oxodG and a 0.50 ng/mmol creatinine increase in ln-transformed 8-isoPGF2α in foundry workers, a 0.49 nmol/mmol creatinine increase in ln-transformed 8-oxodG and a 0.26 ng/mmol creatinine increase in ln-transformed 8-isoPGF2α in incineration workers, compared with the reference group. And such associations were not modified by tobacco use. Our findings could help to understand the dose-response relationships between PCDD/Fs and oxidatively generated damage to DNA and lipid, and provide an epidemiologic basis for conducting research on the carcinogenesis and other toxicity mechanisms of PCDD/Fs.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Incineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(10): 5957-5965, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013428

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been linked to decreased semen quality, but the associations between PM2.5 constituent exposures and semen quality remain unknown. We enrolled 1081 men whose partners underwent assisted reproductive technology procedures in Wuhan, China in 2014-2015, and examined their semen quality. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5 constituents including 10 metals/metalloid elements and 4 water-soluble ions were continuously determined for 1 week per month at 2 fixed monitoring stations. Linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of exposures to PM2.5 and its constituents with semen quality. Each interquartile range (36.5 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with 8.5% (95% CI: 2.3%, 14.4%) and 8.1% (95% CI: 0.7%, 15.0%) decrease in sperm concentration and total sperm number, respectively. Antimony, cadmium, lead, manganese, and nickel exposures were significantly associated with decreased sperm concentration, whereas manganese exposure was also significantly associated with decreased total motility. Nonsmokers were more susceptible to PM2.5 constituent exposures, especially for antimony and cadmium (all P for effect modification <0.05). These findings suggest that PM2.5 and certain constituents may adversely affect semen quality, especially sperm concentration, and provide new evidence to formulate pollution abatement strategies for male reproductive health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , China , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides
7.
Environ Pollut ; 245: 419-426, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many cities in China are currently experiencing severe air pollution due to modernization. Previous studies investigating the effects of air pollutants exposure were particularly conducted in severe air polluted area and studies in low pollution areas were sparse. METHODS: To quantitatively assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) on outpatient visits in low pollution area, we conducted a time-series analysis from Jan 1, 2015 to Dec 31, 2016 in Shennongjia, China. Generalized additive model (GAM) was used to evaluate the influence of PM2.5 on daily hospital outpatient visits with different lag structures. We also conducted stratified analysis to explore the association between PM2.5 concentration and outpatient visits in different seasons. RESULTS: In the present study, per IQR increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO and O3 were related with 1.92% (0.76%-3.09%), 1.92% (0.77%-3.07%), 2.74% (95% CI: 1.65%-3.83%), 1.89% (95% CI: 0.68%-3.10%) and 2.30% (95% CI: 0.65%-3.95%) increase on respiratory outpatient visits. Significant associations were found between PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and respiratory outpatient visits at lag0:1, lag0:2 days. The effects of PM2.5 were more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that short-term exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO and O3 were related with increased risk of outpatient visits of respiratory diseases, and highlighted the adverse effect of air pollutants exposure, especially PM2.5 exposure in cool season on health in low pollution area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , China , Temperatura Baixa , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Mudança Social
8.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 214, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential effects of pulmonary dysfunction on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are receiving attention. We aimed to investigate and quantify the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between lung function and overall cardiovascular risk among Chinese general population. METHODS: We studied 4019 participants from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort, with a follow-up of 3 years. A multivariable risk algorithm generated from the Framingham study was used to calculate individuals' overall cardiovascular risk i.e. 10-Year CVD Risk, which was further classified into 2 categories: low (< 10%) and high (≥10%) CVD risk. General linear model and logistic regression model were separately used to assess the associations of lung function with continuous and dichotomous 10-Year CVD Risk. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, each 5% decrease in FEV1/FVC was associated with a 0.47% increase in 10-Year CVD Risk (P < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the prevalence of high CVD risk (10-Year CVD Risk≥10%) was 1.12 (1.07, 1.17) corresponding to each 5% decrease in FEV1/FVC. The OR (95% CI) for high CVD risk in the lowest group of FEV1/FVC (< 70% i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) was 2.37 (1.43, 3.91) when compared with the highest group. Longitudinally, the adjusted risk ratio (RR) (95% CI) for the incidence of high CVD risk was 1.14 (1.03, 1.25) with each 5% decrease in baseline FEV1/FVC. Compared with the highest group of FEV1/FVC, the RR (95% CI) for high CVD risk in the lowest group (COPD) was 4.06 (1.46, 11.26). Analyses of 10-Year CVD Risk with FVC or FEV1 showed similar trends and significant associations (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduced lung function was cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with increased cardiovascular risk in Chinese general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
9.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 46, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both cigarette smoking and long-term exposure to crystalline silica dust were reported to be associated with increased mortality. However, the combined effect of both factors has not been well evaluated. METHODS: We investigated a retro-prospective cohort of 7,665 workers from one Chinese iron mine with a median follow-up of 42.8 years. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated for each worker by linking work histories with a job-exposure matrix. Cigarette smoking information was collected through face-to-face questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) for total and cause-specific mortality due to silica exposure and smoking were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 2,814 deaths occurred during 315,772.9 person-years of follow-up. Significantly elevated mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer was observed among silica-exposed workers, while elevated mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer was observed among smokers. Combined exposure to silica dust and cigarette smoking elevated the proportion of mortality and accounted for 21.2, 76.0, 35.7 and 81.4% of all causes, non-malignant respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and lung cancer, respectively. Significant additive joint effects of silica exposure and cigarette smoking on mortality from lung cancer (HR 1.893, 95% CI 0.628 to 3.441) and pneumoconiosis (6.457, 0.725 to 39.114), together with a significant multiplicative joint effect from all causes (1.002, 1.000 to 1.004) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicated that silica exposure in combination with cigarette smoking accounted for a fraction of extra deaths in our cohort. Our research showed the urgent need for smoking cessation and silica control among iron miners.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Poeira , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mineração , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Int ; 111: 109-116, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with lung function decline. However, the underlying mechanisms for the association remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To explore potential role of a lung epithelial biomarker, Club cell secretory protein (CC16), in associations between PAH exposures and lung function decline. METHODS: We investigated 3384 adults from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort, and followed up at three years after first examination. Linear mixed models was used to quantify dose-response relationships between urinary monohydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) and lung function, as well as OH-PAHs and plasma CC16. Mediation analysis was conducted to investigate role of CC16 in the association between OH-PAHs and lung function. We also estimated the relationships between OH-PAHs and lung function change in three years among participants with different levels of CC16. RESULTS: Each 1-unit increase of log-transformed total urinary high and low molecular weight OH-PAHs (∑HMW OH-PAH and ∑LMW OH-PAHs) were associated with a 22.59 and 25.25ml reduction of FEV1 respectively, while∑HMW OH-PAH was associated with a 30.38ml reduction of FVC. Moreover, these negative associations between OH-PAHs and lung function levels were significant only among low CC16 group (<15.83ng/ml). CC16 concentration decreased monotonically with increased high molecular weight OH-PAHs (∑HMW OH-PAHs) when ∑HMW OH-PAH concentration was over 0.67µg/mmol Cr. CC16 mediated 22.13% of the association between ∑HMW OH-PAH and FVC among individuals with higher ∑HMW OH-PAH. After three years of follow-up, subjects with low level of plasma CC16 had a significant decline of FVC when exposed to high level of ∑HMW OH-PAH. CONCLUSIONS: CC16 play an important role in the association between high molecular weight PAHs and FVC. Individuals with low plasma CC16 level might suffer a decline in lung function when exposed to high level of high molecular weight PAHs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Pulmão/fisiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Uteroglobina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Capacidade Vital
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(21): 12806-12814, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937752

RESUMO

Evidence concerning the association between ambient gaseous air pollutant exposures and semen quality is sparse, and findings in previous studies remain largely inconsistent. We enrolled 1759 men and performed 2184 semen examinations at a large reproductive medical center in Wuhan, China, between 2013 and 2015. Inverse distance weighting interpolation was performed to estimate individual exposures to SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 during the entire period (lag 0-90 days) and key periods (lag 0-9, 10-14, 70-90 days) of sperm development. Linear mixed models were used to analyze exposure-response relationships. SO2 exposure with 0-90 days lag was significantly associated with monotonically decreased sperm concentration (ß for each interquartile range increase of exposure: -0.14; 95% CI: -0.23, -0.05), sperm count (-0.21; -0.30, -0.12) and total motile sperm count (-0.16; -0.25, -0.08). Significant associations were observed for total and progressive motility only when SO2 exposure was at the highest quintile (all Ptrend < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for SO2 exposure with 70-90 days lag. NO2, CO, or O3 exposure was not significantly associated with semen quality. Our results suggest that ambient SO2 exposure adversely affects semen quality and highlight the potential to improve semen quality by reducing ambient SO2 exposure during early stages of sperm development.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar , China , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(4): 481-490, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830080

RESUMO

The association between low-level crystalline silica (silica) exposure and mortality risk is not well understood. We investigated a cohort of 44,807 Chinese workers who had worked in metal mines or pottery factories for at least 1 year from January 1, 1960, to December 31, 1974, and were followed through 2003. Low-level silica exposure was defined as having a lifetime highest annual mean silica exposure at or under a permissible exposure limit (PEL). We considered 3 widely used PELs, including 0.05 mg/m3, 0.10 mg/m3, and 0.35 mg/m3. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated by linking a job exposure matrix with each participant's work history. For the 0.10-mg/m3 exposure level, Cox proportional hazards models showed significantly increased risk of mortality from all diseases (for each 1-ln mg/m3-years increase in logged cumulative silica exposure, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.07), malignant neoplasms (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.09), lung cancer (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14), ischemic heart disease (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16), pulmonary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16), and respiratory disease (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26). The 0.05-mg/m3 and 0.35-mg/m3 exposure levels yielded similar associations. Long-term exposure to low levels (PELs ≤0.05 mg/m3, ≤0.10 mg/m3, or ≤0.35 mg/m3) of silica is associated with increased total and certain cause-specific mortality risk. Control of ambient silica levels and use of personal protective equipment should be emphasized in practice.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(22): 17976-17984, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616740

RESUMO

The previous studies estimated the association between PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm) exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, only considered and highlighted the hazard effects of high levels of air pollutant exposure, and underestimated that low levels of pollutant exposure might also affect pregnancy outcome. We conducted a meta-analysis of 11 cohort studies, a total of more than 1,500,000 subjects. The results of these studies were pooled by exposure levels and study periods. PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was positively associated with preterm birth (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.07-1.23), and during the first trimester of pregnancy, low levels of PM2.5 exposure were also positively associated with preterm birth (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30). It is important to protect pregnant women from PM2.5 exposures, especially during their first trimester of pregnancy even when the ambient PM2.5 concentration is relatively low. More relevant health policy should be carried out to prevent hazard effect of air pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente
14.
Environ Pollut ; 227: 116-124, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458242

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with pediatric hospital admissions and emergency room visits for certain respiratory diseases; however, there is limited evidence on the association between short-term air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases. We conducted a time-series study in Yichang city, China between Jan 1, 2014 and Dec 31, 2015. Daily counts of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits were collected from 3 large hospitals, and then linked with air pollution data from 5 air quality monitoring stations by date. We used generalized additive Poisson models to conduct linear and nonlinear exposure-response analyses between air pollutant exposures and pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, adjusting for seasonality, day of week, public holiday, temperature, and relative humidity. Each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 (lag 0), PM10 (lag 0), NO2 (lag 0), CO (lag 0), and O3 (lag 4) concentrations was significantly associated with a 1.91% (95% CI: 0.60%, 3.23%), 2.46% (1.09%, 3.85%), 1.88% (0.49%, 3.29%), 2.00% (0.43%, 3.59%), and 1.91% (0.45%, 3.39%) increase of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, respectively. Similarly, the nonlinear exposure-response analyses showed monotonic increases of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits by increasing air pollutant exposures, though the associations for NO2 and CO attenuated at higher concentrations. These associations were unlikely modified by season. We did not observe significant association for SO2 exposure. Our results suggest that short-term exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 may account for increased risk of pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, and emphasize the needs for reduction of air pollutant exposures for children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Environ Int ; 98: 219-228, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) on male reproductive health remain unclear. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of PM2.5 or PM10 exposure on semen quality, and the results were largely inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively assess the exposure-response association between PM exposure and semen quality in Chinese men who were exposed to a wide concentration range of PM. METHODS: We investigated 1759 men from Wuhan, China, who were partners of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedures, and had semen examined at least once between 2013 and 2015. Individual PM2.5 and PM10 exposures during 0-90, 0-9, 10-14 and 70-90days before each semen examination (corresponding to the entire and three key periods of sperm development, respectively) were retrospectively estimated by inverse distance weighting interpolation. Linear mixed models were used to assess exposure-response relations of PM exposure with sperm concentration, count and motility. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure during 0-90 lag days ranged from 27.3 to 172.4µg/m3. It was linearly and inversely associated with sperm concentration (ß: -0.20; 95% CI: -0.34, -0.07) and count (-0.22; -0.35, -0.08). For the three key exposure periods, only PM2.5 exposure during the 70-90 lag days was significantly associated with sperm concentration (-0.12; -0.22, -0.03) and count (-0.12; -0.21, -0.02). Sensitivity analyses for a subgroup (n=1146) excluding subjects with abnormal sperm concentration, count or motility yielded similar results. Compared with PM2.5, we found generally similar associations for PM10 exposure in relation to sperm concentration and count, except that the associations appeared to be nonlinear with inverted J-shaped relationships. Neither PM2.5 nor PM10 exposure was significantly associated with sperm motility (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ambient PM exposure during sperm development adversely affects semen quality, in particular sperm concentration and count.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34947, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734830

RESUMO

Short-term exposures to outdoor air pollutants have been associated with lower lung function, but the results are inconsistence. The effects of different pollutant levels on lung function changes are still unclear. We quantified the effects of outdoor air pollution exposure (NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5) on lung function among 1,694 female non-smokers from the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort in China by using linear mixed model. We further investigated the associations in the two cities with different air quality levels separately to quantify the effects of different pollutant level exposure on lung function. We found the moving averages of NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly associated with reduced FVC. In city at high pollutant level, the moving average of NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5 exposures were significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 reductions. In the low-level air pollution city, PM10 (Lag03-Lag05) and O3 concentrations (Lag01-Lag03) were significantly associated with reduced FVC, while PM10 (Lag03-Lag05), O3 (Lag0-Lag03), and PM2.5 (Lag04-Lag06) exposure were significantly associated with reduced FEV1. Our results suggest that outdoor air pollution is associated with short-term adverse effects on lung function among female non-smokers. The adverse effects may persist for longer durations within 7 days at higher air pollutant levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumar , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Toxicol ; 90(2): 247-58, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25388157

RESUMO

Current epidemiological studies suggest that crystalline silica exposure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease; however, the potential pathological damage of the heart and kidney and its underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. This study tried to investigate the silica-induced inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the heart and kidney and evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-1 beta (ß) in silica-induced cardiac and renal damage. In this study, a silica-exposed model was generated by intratracheally instilling silica dust in mice. The anti-IL-1ß monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to neutralise IL-1ß in the pulmonary alveolus and serum. The real-time PCR studies showed that (1) inhalational silica induced inflammatory responses in the heart and kidney by elevated mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1; (2) early fibrotic responses in the heart were observed as elevated mRNA levels of collagen I and fibronectin. What is more, fibrosis of the kidney was demonstrated by pathological results and significantly increased mRNA levels of TGF-ß, collagen I, collagen III and fibronectin. Further studies showed that usage of anti-IL-1ß mAb decreased the inflammatory response of the heart and kidney induced by inhalational silica and also attenuated fibrosis in the mouse kidney. In conclusion, this study found that inhaled silica induced inflammatory and early fibrotic responses in the mouse heart and inflammatory response and fibrosis in the mouse kidney. Neutralisation of IL-1ß attenuated the silica-induced inflammatory response of the heart and kidney and decreased fibrosis in the mouse kidney.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fibrose/induzido quimicamente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Miocardite/patologia , Nefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite/patologia , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem
18.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128719, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational hearing loss is an increasingly prevalent occupational condition worldwide, and has been reported to occur in a wide range of workplaces; however, its prevalence among workers from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) remains less clear. This study aimed to investigate the occupational hearing loss among Chinese MSWL workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 247 workers from 4 Chinese MSWLs was conducted. Noise and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) levels at worksites were determined. We conducted hearing examinations to determine hearing thresholds. A worker was identified as having hearing loss if the mean threshold at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear was equal to or greater than 25 dB. Prevalence of occupational hearing loss was then evaluated. Using unconditional Logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of MSWL work associated with hearing loss. RESULTS: According to the job title for each worker, the study subjects were divided into 3 groups, including group 1 of 63 workers without MSWL occupational hazards exposure (control group), group 2 of 84 workers with a few or short-period MSWL occupational hazards exposure, and group 3 of 100 workers with continuous MSWL occupational hazards exposure. Both noise and TVOCs levels were significantly higher at worksites for group 3. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz were found in group 3, compared with that in group 1 and group 2. The overall prevalence rate of hearing loss was 23.5%, with the highest in group 3 (36.0%). The OR of MSWL work associated with hearing loss was 3.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-8.96). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss among MSWL workers. Further studies are needed to explore possible exposure-response relationship between MSWL occupational hazards exposure and hearing loss.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cidades , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Resíduos Sólidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Adulto , Audiometria , China , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25876964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the aspiratory resistance, filtration penetration and their influence factors of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators used widely in China. METHODS: The total of 6 brands and 21 models of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators which are certified and big sales on the market. The aspiratory resistance and filtration efficiency filter penetration were measured while air pump ran from 10 L/min to 100 L/min using differential pressure gauge and the PortaCount, respectively. RESULTS: The filtration penetrations for 2 of the 21 models were lower than 95%, and the qualified rate for all models was 90.47%. The filtration penetrations gradually decreased when ventilation flow of air pump increased. The negative correlation was observed between filtration penetration and ventilation flow (r(2) = 0.711, P < 0.05). The resistances of all 21 models of N95 respirators met the requirements of the national standard. The aspiratory resistance started to elevate with the increasing of ventilation flow, and a positive correlation between both (r(2) = 0.878, P < 0.05). Significant differences of filtration penetration and aspiratory resistance were observed among between different brands (P < 0.05) although no differences of filtration penetration existed among different models of one brand (P > 0.05). But the differences of the aspiratory resistance among different models of one brand were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The aspiratory resistances of all N95 filtering-facepiece respirators used in this study met the requirements of the national standard. And the qualified ratio of filtration penetration of all models was higher than 90%. The influencing factors of aspiratory resistance included materials, size and ventilation flow. And influencing factors for filtration penetration were materials and ventilation flow.


Assuntos
Filtração/instrumentação , Teste de Materiais , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , China , Desenho de Equipamento , Máscaras/normas
20.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci ; 35(2): 188-191, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877350

RESUMO

A new, simple and sensitive method was developed for the determination of silicon tetrahydride in the air of workplace in this study. The alkaline resin-based spherical activated carbon was used to collect sample of silicon tetrahydride at workplace. Silicon tetrahydride was then desorbed from active carbon in 100°C hot water. After reacting with ammonium molybdate, oxalic acid and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene alpha-naphthol amino sulfonic acid under acid condition, silicon tetrahydride was transformed into silicon molybdenum blue. The absorbance of silicon molybdenum blue was quantitatively measured at the wavelength of 680 nm. The results showed that the average sampling efficiency and desorption efficiency were 97.53% and 94.94%, respectively by this method. Detection limits were 0.054 µg/mL for the spectrophotometric method and 0.14 mg/m(3) for the determination of silicon tetrahydride in the air of workplace (sampling volume was 7.5 L). The conversion rate of silicon tetrahydride gradually decreased when storage time of samples was extended. The descent rate of sample was less than 10% when the sample was sealed for 7 days in the room temperature. It was concluded that this spectrophotometric method can be successfully used to determine silicon tetrahydride in the worksites.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Silanos/análise , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA