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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638971

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common liver malignancy with high morbidity and poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in crucial biological processes of tumorigenesis and progression, and play four major regulatory roles, namely signal, decoy, guide, and scaffold, to regulate gene expression. Through these processes, lncRNAs can target microRNAs (miRNAs) to form lncRNA and miRNA networks, which regulate cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, drug resistance, and the tumor microenvironment. Here, we summarize the multifaceted functions of lncRNA and miRNA networks in the pathogenesis of HCC, the potential use of diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and novel therapeutic targets in HCC. This review also highlights the regulatory effects of lncRNA and miRNA networks in the tumor microenvironment of HCC.

2.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620055

RESUMO

Mitophagy plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial quality and cell homeostasis through the degradation of damaged, aged, and dysfunctional mitochondria and misfolded proteins. Many human diseases, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, are related to disorders of mitochondrial phagocytosis. Exploring the regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy is of great significance for revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying the related diseases. Herein, we summarize the major mechanisms of mitophagy, the relationship of mitophagy with human diseases, and the role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in mitophagy. These discussions enhance our knowledge of mitophagy and its potential therapeutic targets using TCM.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1057, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some children hospitalized for severe pertussis need intensive care; moreover, some children die because of deterioration alone or in combination with other complications. The purpose of this study was to identify the mortality risk factors among hospitalized children with severe pertussis. METHODS: This study evaluated the medical records of 144 hospitalized children with severe pertussis at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Centre between January 2016 and December 2019. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 2 months (IQR 1-4 months), with 90.3% of the patients aged < 6 months and 56.9% of the patients aged < 3 months. A total of 38 patients were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), 13 patients died, and the mortality of severe pertussis was 34.2%, with patients younger than 6 weeks accounting for 76.9% of the deaths. On the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for death were WBC > 70.0 × 109/L (odds ratio [OR], 230.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.16-10,319.09 P = 0.005) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) (OR 323.29; 95% CI 16.01-6529.42; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Severe pertussis mainly occurred in children aged < 3 months. The mortality of severe pertussis was 34.2%, with patients younger than 6 weeks accounting for the majority of the deaths. We recommend the first dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) should be advanced to the age of 2 months or even 6 weeks. The presence of a WBC > 70.0 × 109/L and PH were the prognostic independent variables associated with death.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Coqueluche/complicações , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
4.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476502

RESUMO

Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a major cause of community­acquired pneumonia in children. In some cases, M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) can develop into refractory MPP (RMPP), which shows no clinical or radiological response to macrolides, and can progress to severe and complicated pneumonia. However, the pathogenesis of RMPP remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to identify target genes that could be used as biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of early­stage RMPP through high­throughput sequencing technology. The differences in long non­coding (lnc)RNAs, mRNAs and circular (circ)RNAs were examined between whole­blood samples from two patients with non­refractory MPP (NRMPP), two patients with RMPP and three healthy children using ribosomal (r)RNA­depleted RNA­sequencing techniques and an integrated mRNA/circRNA analysis. A total of 17 lncRNAs (four upregulated and 13 downregulated), 18 mRNAs (six upregulated and 12 downregulated) and 24 circRNAs (12 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were the most significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05) between the NRMPP and RMPP groups. Upon functional analysis, the significantly differentially expressed genes encoded by the targeting mRNAs (prostaglandin­endoperoxide synthase 2, IL­8 and fos­like antigen 1) were screened and identified to be enriched in the 'IL­17 signaling pathway'. Furthermore, the key circRNAs in the NRMPP and RMPP comparative groups were primarily enriched in 'herpes simplex virus 1 infection', 'viral carcinogenesis' and 'RNA transport'. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the differences between the NRMPP and RMPP cases was performed based on rRNA­depleted RNA­sequencing techniques, and the selected genes and circRNAs may be closely associated with the complex pathogenesis of RMPP.

6.
Mol Immunol ; 139: 177-183, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555693

RESUMO

The prediction of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II binding peptides plays important roles in understanding the mechanism of immune recognition and developing effective epitope-based vaccines. In this work, gated recurrent unit (GRU)-based recurrent neural network (RNN) was successfully employed to establish a pan-specific prediction model of HLA-II-binding peptides by using only the HLA and peptide sequence information. In comparison with the existing pan-specific models of HLA-II-binding peptides, the GRU-based RNN model covered a broad spectrum of HLA-II molecules including 50 HLA-DR, 47 HLA-DQ, and 19 HLA-DP molecules with peptide lengths varying from 8 to 43 mers. The results demonstrated strong discriminant capabilities of the GRU-based RNN model, of which the AUC values were 0.92, 0.88, and 0.88 for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively. Also, the GRU-based model showed state-of-the-art performances in predicting the binding peptides with the length ranging from 8-32 mers, which provides an efficient method for predicting HLA-II-binding peptides of longer lengths in comparison with the available methods. Overall, taking the advantages of the RNN architecture, the established pan-specific GRU model can be used for predicting accurately the HLA-II-binding peptides in a simple and direct manner.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5616, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556670

RESUMO

Coptis chinensis is an ancient Chinese herb treating diabetes in China for thousands of years. However, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the effects of its main active component, berberine (BBR), on stimulating insulin secretion. In mice with hyperglycemia induced by a high-fat diet, BBR significantly increases insulin secretion and reduced blood glucose levels. However, in mice with hyperglycemia induced by global or pancreatic islet ß-cell-specific Kcnh6 knockout, BBR does not exert beneficial effects. BBR directly binds KCNH6 potassium channels, significantly accelerates channel closure, and subsequently reduces KCNH6 currents. Consequently, blocking KCNH6 currents prolongs high glucose-dependent cell membrane depolarization and increases insulin secretion. Finally, to assess the effect of BBR on insulin secretion in humans, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover, single-dose, phase 1 clinical trial (NCT03972215) including 15 healthy men receiving a 160-min hyperglycemic clamp experiment is performed. The pre-specified primary outcomes are assessment of the differences of serum insulin and C-peptide levels between BBR and placebo treatment groups during the hyperglycemic clamp study. BBR significantly promotes insulin secretion under hyperglycemic state comparing with placebo treatment, while does not affect basal insulin secretion in humans. All subjects tolerate BBR well, and we observe no side effects in the 14-day follow up period. In this study, we identify BBR as a glucose-dependent insulin secretagogue for treating diabetes without causing hypoglycemia that targets KCNH6 channels.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4689-4696, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581077

RESUMO

The sustainable use of medicinal plants is the foundation of the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and the acquisition of information on medicinal plants is the basis for the development of TCM. The traditional methods of investigating medicinal plant resources are disadvantageous in strong subjectivity and poor timeliness, making it difficult to real-time monitor medicinal plant resources. In recent years, remote sensing technology has become an important means of obtaining information on medicinal plants. The application of this technology has made up for the shortcomings of traditional methods. The open-access remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution satellites provide an opportunity for extracting information on medicinal plant resources. This study firstly introduced the principles of remote sensing technology, summarized the satellites and the parameters commonly used in the field of medicinal plant resources, and compared the survey methods of remote sensing technology with traditional methods. Secondly, it reviewed the applications of remote sensing technology in the extraction of information on the cultivation of medicinal plants and the common methods for extracting the planting structure information of medicinal plants based on remote sensing technology. Thirdly, the applications of remote sensing technology in the investigation and monitoring of medicinal plants were further analyzed with the research objects divided into wild and cultivated medicinal plants according to the characteristics of the habitats. Finally, it pointed out the key unsolved technical problems in the remote sensing monitoring of medicinal plant resources, and proposed solutions for the intelligent information processing of medicinal plants based on remote sensing big data, which is expected to provide references for the development of remote sensing technology in derivative application in medicinal plant resources.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112092, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a common global chronic liver disease. Jiuzhuan Huangjing Pills (JHP) have been used for the treatment of human disease for over a thousand years, but their efficacy and underlying mechanism(s) of action against MAFLD are unknown. We investigated the alleviating effects of JHP on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MAFLD. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo methods were used to evaluate the effects of JHP on MAFLD. L02 adipocyte models were induced by fat emulsion and adipocytes were treated with JHP for 24 h. MAFLD rat models were induced by HFD-feeding and were intragastrically administered JHP for 12 weeks. Changes in fat accumulation, L02 cell damage, body weight, food intake, histological parameters, organ indexes, biochemical parameters, and mitochondrial indicators including ultrastructure, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism were investigated. RESULTS: JHP attenuated the increase in levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels, and significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol. JHP up-regulated levels of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and down-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA). JHP afforded protection to the mitochondrial ultrastructure, and inhibited the HFD-induced increase in MDA and the reduction of SOD, GSH, ATP synthase, and complex I and II, in liver mitochondria. JHP regulated the expression of ß-oxidation genes, including acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, cyl-CoA dehydrogenase long chain, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α and peroxide proliferator activated receptor α. CONCLUSION: JHP alleviates HFD-induced MAFLD through the protection of mitochondrial function.

10.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 19: 22808000211014724, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of flushing at different temperatures on the preparation ability of rotary nickel-titanium files was investigated to provide guideline for clinical application. METHODS: Sixty ProTaper Universal F1 rotary nickel-titanium files were randomly divided into three groups treated by flushing at 6°C, 23°C, and 40°C. Root canal preparation was conducted by step-by-step method on standardized nickel-titanium instrument fracture models. During preparation, the thrust force was set as 10 N, and water was continuously flushed. The motor speed was 350 rpm (rounds per minute), and the torque was 3.0 N cm. When the set torque was reached, the motor automatically rotated in the reverse direction and was pulled out. RESULTS: Root canal preparation was performed using ProTaper Universal F1 rotary nickel-titanium files treated by flushing. The numbers of rotations before the device was fracture were 429.33 ± 214.68, 821.92 ± 410.43, and 1304.92 ± 297.81, respectively. When each root canal was completed, the numbers of instrument rotations were 272.15 ± 88.30, 188.85 ± 34.36, and 163.41 ± 16.18, respectively. Rank sum test and analysis of variance were performed by IBM SPSS Statistics v21.0 software, and both of them were p < 0.01, indicating that the number of cycles to failure (NCF) and the number of instrument rotations for each root tube were statistically different at the three temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: The self-made resin-simulated curved root canal can replace the real root canal to complete the root canal preparation experiment. The group of nickel-titanium files treated by flushing at 23°C can prepare more root canals and prolong the life of nickel-titanium files than at 6°C. When flushing was done at 40°C, the number of root canals prepared by nickel-titanium files was the highest, and it was not easy to damage the instrument, but lateral perforation occurred easily during root canal preparation.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(30): 16341-16348, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318827

RESUMO

The structures of hybrid two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase-layered halide perovskite (BA)2CsPb2Br7 in the temperature range of 100 to 450 K were constructed and systematically investigated by first-principles calculations. The results showed that the perovskite materials were thermodynamically stable and exhibited the properties of direct band gap semiconductors in the temperature range of 100 to 400 K. However, a first-order phase transition occurred when the temperature was raised to 450 K, causing transformation of the orthorhombic to tetragonal space group. The absorption spectra and transition dipole moments of (BA)2CsPb2Br7 were discussed at the temperature range of 300 to 450 K. A large dipole transition matrix element P2 is observed at 300 K, which implies that the emissive property of the 2D RP phase-layered perovskite (BA)2CsPb2Br7 is less affected by thermal quenching at room temperature. This highlights the potential of 2D layered halide perovskites for large-area and low-cost light-emitting diodes.

12.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021: 5527315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222135

RESUMO

Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a multifactorial systemic disorder that occurs in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. The disease is characterized by fatty degeneration and fat accumulation in liver parenchymal cells, the incidence of which is increasing annually, particularly in younger adults. MAFLD is caused by genetic and metabolism related disorders, of which mitochondrial dysfunction is the major contributor. Natural products can relieve MAFLD through restoring mitochondrial function. In this article, we describe the relationship between mitochondria and MAFLD and discuss the beneficial effects of natural products as a future anti-MAFLD strategy. Significance Statement. We herein propose that the development of mitochondrial regulators/nutrients from natural products can remedy mitochondrial dysfunction which represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of MAFLD. Furthermore, the mitochondrial regulation of natural products can provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms of action of natural products used for future MAFLD therapeutics.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2451-2460, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195923

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with transmitted drug-resistance (TDR) limits the therapeutic options available for treatment-naive HIV patients. This study aimed to further our understanding of the prevalence and transmission characteristics of HIV with TDR for the application of first-line antiretroviral regimens. A total of 6578 HIV-1 protease/reverse-transcriptase sequences from treatment-naive individuals in China between 2000 and 2016 were obtained from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database and were analyzed for TDR. Transmission networks were constructed to determine genetic relationships. The spreading routes of large TDR clusters were identified using a Bayesian phylogeographic framework. TDR mutations were detected in 274 (4.51%) individuals, with 1.40% associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 1.52% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 1.87% to protease inhibitors. The most frequent mutation was M46L (58, 0.89%), followed by K103N (36, 0.55%), M46I (36, 0.55%), and M184V (26, 0.40%). The prevalence of total TDR initially decreased between 2000 and 2010 (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95) and then increased thereafter (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.13-1.97). The proportion of sequences in a cluster (clustering rate) among HIV isolates with TDR sequences was lower than that of sequences without TDR (40.5% vs. 48.8%, P = 0.023) and increased from 27.3% in 2005-2006 to 63.6% in 2015-2016 (P < 0.001). While most TDR mutations were associated with reduced relative transmission fitness, mutation M46I was associated with higher relative transmission fitness than the wild-type strain. This study identified a low-level prevalence of TDR HIV in China during the last two decades. However, the increasing TDR HIV rate since 2010, the persistent circulation of drug resistance mutations, and the expansion of self-sustaining drug resistance reservoirs may compromise the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy programs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevalência , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Filogenia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299246

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), an aggressive malignancy, is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. It is associated with dismal 5-year postoperative survival rates, generating an urgent need for prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that are associated with cancer regulation, including modulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis, autophagy, therapy resistance, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Several miRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in CCA and are associated with CCA-related risk factors. Accumulating studies have indicated that the expression of altered miRNAs could act as oncogenic or suppressor miRNAs in the development and progression of CCA and contribute to clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction as potential biomarkers. Furthermore, miRNAs and their target genes also contribute to targeted therapy development and aid in the determination of drug resistance mechanisms. This review aims to summarize the roles of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of CCA, their potential use as biomarkers of diagnosis and prognosis, and their utilization as novel therapeutic targets in CCA.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13778, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075596

RESUMO

Recently, insects have aroused the interest of researchers as potential therapeutic resources against malignant diseases such as cancer. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts from mysore thorn borer (MTB) (Anoplophora chinensis) and mealworm larvae (MWL) (Tenebrio molitor) against cancer cells were investigated. MWL aqueous extract showed higher antiproliferative effects against Caco-2 and HepG2 cells compared to MTB. The IC50 (48 hr) of MWL aqueous extract were 11.44 and 20 mg/ml for Caco-2 and HepG2 respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that MWL aqueous extract induced apoptosis in Caco-2 and HepG2 increasing from 2.06% to 74.34% and from 0.04% to 42.14% after 24 hr respectively. Caspase activity assay showed that apoptosis was mediated via death receptor pathway mediated by caspase-8 and -9 followed by the activation of caspase-3; caspase-3 may have induced DNA damage and cell death. These effects may be correlated to its free amino acids. The results of this study demonstrate the potentials of MWL in the development of natural anticancer therapeutics in the future. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Natural nutraceuticals from insects might be useful for the treatment and prevention of cancers such as colorectal and liver cancer. In recent years, edible insects have caught the attention of researchers, because of their potential as an alternative source of food and nutraceuticals. The results of our study showed that MWL extract might provide important anticancer compounds against colon and liver cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Tenebrio , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Larva , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 92: 79-85, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) has been and remained a puzzling heterogeneous entity. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a quantitative and specific index for the assessment of microvascular function. However, the role of IMR in MINOCA has not yet been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of coronary microvascular function, as assessed by coronary angiography­derived index of microvascular resistance (caIMR) in MINOCA patients. METHOD: This study included 109 MINOCA patients. Microvascular function was assessed by caIMR and was analyzed in 280 coronary arteries. The primary endpoint of the study was MACE, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, heart failure, stroke and angina rehospitalization. The best cut-off of caIMR was derived from ROC analysis based on MACE prediction. RESULTS: The patients were classified into high caIMR (caIMR>43U) and low caIMR (caIMR≤43U) based on a caIMR cut-off value of 43U. High caIMR was observed in 55 (50.5%) patients. A total of 27 MACE occurred during the 2 years of follow-up. MACE rate was significantly higher in patients with high caIMR than in patients with low caIMR (36.4% vs 13.0%, P=0.005). The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly increased risk of MACE in patients with high caIMR (log-rank P=0.001). Cox multivariate analysis showed that caIMR>43 was a highly independent predictor of MACE (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.13 - 8.35; P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: caIMR is a strong predictor of clinical outcome among MINOCA patients. The evaluation of IMR can provide an objective risk stratification method for patients with MINOCA.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e042843, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and variations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) among children and adolescents (CADs) and young adults (YADs). DESIGN: A population-based observational study. SETTING: Annual cases and prevalence of NAFLD/NASH from 1990 to 2017, by sex, region and country were collected from the Global Burden of Disease database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The estimated annual percentage change, which was calculated by a regression line, was used to quantify the temporal trends in NAFLD/NASH burden among young people at the global, regional and national levels. RESULTS: Globally, NAFLD/NASH incidence increased from 19.34 million in 1990 to 29.49 million in 2017 among CADs, with an annual increase of 1.35%. Additionally, in YADs, the number of cases and NAFLD/NASH prevalence significantly increased during this period, independent of sex and region. The greatest NAFLD/NASH increase was in North Africa and the Middle East. Almost all countries showed an increasing trend from 1990 to 2017, with the most pronounced increase observed in the developed regions. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of NAFLD/NASH in young people has changed considerably over the last three decades. Both the prevalence and number of cases have increased irrespective of sex, age and region. This phenomenon can result in a predictable increase in chronic liver disease burden in the near future. Understanding the prevalence of NAFLD/NASH and its variations is of paramount importance to develop strategies to implement public health policy.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adolescente , África do Norte , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Oriente Médio , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Tissue Cell ; 72: 101532, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823340

RESUMO

Oridonin has significant liver-protective effects, but its effect on liver steatosis has not been reported. We investigated the effects of oridonin on liver steatosis by cell cultures. The optimal experimental concentration of oridonin was determined through cytotoxicity experiments. A simple steatosis liver cell model was induced using free fatty acids (FFA). After adding oridonin to the FFA-induced cell model for 24 h, the lipid droplets and triglyceride (TG) content in the cells were measured by Oil Red O staining and TG kits. The expressions of autophagy-related markers (cyclin dependent kinases inhibitor 1a (p21), Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I and LC3-II, protein kinase B (AKT), phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK)) were detected by Western blot. Based on the results, the cell model was further treated by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to determine the degree of steatosis and the expressions of autophagy-related factors. Oridonin at a concentration higher than 10 µmol/L caused cytotoxicity to the cells. Adding 10 µmol/L oridonin to the FFA-induced cell model effectively reduced lipid droplets and TG content in the cells. Oridonin up-regulated p21, Beclin-1 and LC3-II expressions, but down-regulated those of p62 and LC3-I. Also, oridonin increased the ratios of LC3-II/LC3-I and p-AMPK/AMPK, but reduced that of p-AKT/AKT. With the addition of 3-MA, the effect of oridonin on reducing steatosis was partially reversed, and the autophagy was inhibited. This study found that oridonin can activate autophagy, thereby preventing simple steatosis of liver cells.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 287, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is an opportunistic pathogen that infects immunodeficient children. The aim of the study is to determine the clinical features and peripheral immune state of Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) infections in children for early detection and diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 21 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with T. marneffei infections and were followed up in the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from January 2010 to January 2020. For each patient, we collected and analyzed clinical characteristics, peripheral immunological results, genetic tests, complications and prognosis. RESULTS: Common clinical features of the patients included fever (20/21, 95.24%), cough (17/21, 80.95%) and hepatomegaly (17/21, 80.95%). Severe complications included septic shock (12/21, 57.14%), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) (11/21, 52.38%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (10/21, 47.62%), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (9/21, 42.86%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (7/21, 33.33%). Eleven children (11/21, 52.38%) eventually died of T. marneffei infections. All patients were HIV negative. Seven cases revealed reduced antibody levels, especially IgG. Higher levels of IgE were detected in 9 cases with an obvious increase in two patients. Ten patients showed decreased complement C3 levels, some of whom had low C4 levels. Three patients displayed decreased absolute T lymphocyte counts, including the CD 4+ and CD 8+ subsets. A reduction in NK cells was present in most patients. No patient had positive nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) test results. Nine patients were screened for common genetic mutations. Of the cases, one case had no disease-specific gene mutation. Four children had confirmed hyperimmunoglobulin M syndrome (HIGM) with CD40LG variation, one case had severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and one case had hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). One patient was identified as having a heterozygous mutation in STAT3 gene; however, he showed no typical clinical manifestations of HIES at his age. One patient had a mutated COPA gene with uncertain pathogenic potential. Another patient was diagnosed with HIES that depended on her clinical features and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) scoring system. CONCLUSIONS: T. marneffei infections in HIV-negative children induced severe systemic complications and poor prognosis. Children with T. marneffei infections commonly exhibited abnormal immunoglobulin levels in peripheral blood, particularly decreased IgG or increased IgE levels, further suggesting possible underlying PIDs in these patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Micoses/imunologia , Criança , China , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talaromyces
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 618-628, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650372

RESUMO

Southwestern China is an important ecologically resource area and ecologically fragile area in China, which plays an important role in the national project of "Clear Waters and Green Mountains". Based on land use data set with a 1 km spatial resolution and combined with land use transfer matrix, we analyzed the characteristics and driving forces of land use change in Southwest China from 2000 to 2015. Based on the MODIS remote sensing index, we calculated the vegetation coverage in Southwest China using the dimidiate pixel model, and analyzed the changes of the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation coverage. Results showed that the main land types were woodland, cropland and grassland. The built-up land area increased by 5874 km2(55.8%), the cropland area decreased by 6211 km2, and grassland decreased by 2099 km2. From 2000 to 2015, the area that had been changed to built-up land was the largest, mainly from cropland (contributed 68.2%), woodland (contributed 19.2%) and grassland (contributed 13.1%). The transformed areas were mostly close to urban area. The area and rate for the transformation of cropland were 7079 km2 and 2.2% respectively, accounting for 46.0% of all the transferred out areas. Most of the woodland were transformed from grassland (61.8%), mainly distributed in central and southern Guizhou and western Yunnan. Both NDVI and vegetation coverage were significantly increased, indicating that the whole region was greening. NDVI of both natural vegetation and cropland increased significantly, while the NDVI of areas with expanded build-up land decreased. Therefore, natural vegetation and cropland dominated the vegetation change in this region. Results of the resi-dual analysis showed that both climate change and human activities contributed significantly to the greening trend.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Florestas , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
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