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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171662

RESUMO

The lethal chronic airway infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is predisposed by colonization of specific CF-philic pathogens or the CF microbiomes, but key processes and reasons of the microbiome settlement in the patients are yet to be fully understood, especially their survival and metabolic dynamics from normal to diseased status under treatment. Here, we report our meta-analysis results on CF airway microbiomes based on metabolic networks reconstructed from genome information at species level. The microbiomes of CF patients appear to engage much more redox-related activities than those of controls, and by constructing a large dataset of anti-oxidative stress (anti-OS) genes, our quantitative evaluation of the anti-OS capacity of each bacterial species in the CF microbiomes confirms strong conservation of the anti-OS responses within genera and also shows that the CF pathogens have significantly higher anti-OS capacity than commensals and other typical respiratory pathogens. In addition, the anti-OS capacity of a relevant species correlates with its relative fitness for the airways of CF patients over that for the airways of controls. Moreover, the total anti-OS capacity of the respiratory microbiome of CF patients is collectively higher than that of controls, which increases with disease progression, especially after episodes of acute exacerbation and antibiotic treatment. According to these results, we propose that the increased OS in the airways of CF patients may play an important role in reshaping airway microbiomes to a more resistant status that favors the pre-infection colonization of the CF pathogens for a higher anti-OS capacity.

2.
Exp Gerontol ; 133: 110885, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088397

RESUMO

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid catabolized initially to kynurenine (kyn), an immunomodulatory metabolite that we have previously shown to promote bone loss. Kyn levels increase with aging and have also been associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Picolinic acid (PA) is another tryptophan metabolite downstream of kyn. However, in contrast to kyn, PA is reported to be neuroprotective and further, to promote osteogenesis in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that PA might be osteoprotective in vivo. In an IACUC-approved protocol, we fed PA to aged (23-month-old) C57BL/6 mice for eight weeks. In an effort to determine potential interactions of PA with dietary protein we also fed PA in a low-protein diet (8%). The mice were divided into four groups: Control (18% dietary protein), +PA (700 ppm); Low-protein (8%), +PA (700 ppm). The PA feedings had no impact on mouse weight, body composition or bone density. At sacrifice bone and stem cells were collected for analysis, including µCT and RT-qPCR. Addition of PA to the diet had no impact on trabecular bone parameters. However, marrow adiposity was significantly increased in PA-fed mice, and in bone marrow stromal cells isolated from these mice increases in the expression of the lipid storage genes, Plin1 and Cidec, were observed. Thus, as a downstream metabolite of kyn, PA no longer showed kyn's detrimental effects on bone but instead appears to impact energy balance.

3.
Exp Gerontol ; 130: 110805, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812582

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is an age-related deterioration in bone health that is, at least in part, a stem cell disease. The different mechanisms and signaling pathways that change with age and contribute to the development of osteoporosis are being identified. One key upstream mechanism that appears to target a number of osteogenic pathways with age is kynurenine, a tryptophan metabolite and an endogenous Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. The AhR signaling pathway has been reported to promote aging phenotypes across species and in different tissues. We previously found that kynurenine accumulates with age in the plasma and various tissues including bone and induces bone loss and osteoporosis in mice. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are responsible for osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and overall bone regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of kynurenine on BMSCs, with a focus on autophagy and senescence as two cellular processes that control BMSCs proliferation and differentiation capacity. We found that physiological levels of kynurenine (10 and 100 µM) disrupted autophagic flux as evidenced by the reduction of LC3B-II, and autophagolysosomal production, as well as a significant increase of p62 protein level. Additionally, kynurenine also induced a senescent phenotype in BMSCs as shown by the increased expression of several senescence markers including senescence associated ß-galactosidase in BMSCs. Additionally, western blotting reveals that levels of p21, another marker of senescence, also increased in kynurenine-treated BMSCs, while senescent-associated aggregation of nuclear H3K9me3 also showed a significant increase in response to kynurenine treatment. To validate that these effects are in fact due to AhR signaling pathway, we utilized two known AhR antagonists: CH-223191, and 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone to try to block AhR signaling and rescue kynurenine /AhR mediated effects. Indeed, AhR inhibition restored kynurenine-suppressed autophagy levels as shown by levels of LC3B-II, p62 and autophagolysosomal formation demonstrating a rescuing of autophagic flux. Furthermore, inhibition of AhR signaling prevented the kynurenine-induced increase in senescence associated ß-galactosidase and p21 levels, as well as blocking aggregation of nuclear H3K9me3. Taken together, our results suggest that kynurenine inhibits autophagy and induces senescence in BMSCs via AhR signaling, and that this may be a novel target to prevent or reduce age-associated bone loss and osteoporosis.

4.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(2): 251-258, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250189

RESUMO

RtcB, a highly conserved RNA ligase, is found in all three domains of life, and demonstrated to be an essential tRNA splicing component in archaea and metazoans. However, the biological functions of RtcB in bacteria, where there is no splicing, remains to be clarified. We first performed bioinformatics analysis which revealed highly conserved structures and presumably conserved functions of RtcB in bacteria. However, its orthologs only occur in ∼ 0.5% of bacterial species across diverse phyla with significant signals of frequent horizontal transfer, highlighting its non-essential role in bacteria. Next, by constructing an rtcB-knockout strain, we find that the removal of antibiotic stress induces a significant impact on rtcB expression in wild-type strain, and furthermore the depletion of RtcB (ARtcB strain) delays the recovery process. Our transcriptomic analysis, comprising the 3'-end labeling of RNAs, highlights a significant increase in unmapped reads and cleaved rRNAs in the Δ RtcB strain, particularly during recovery. Our observations suggest that the conserved RNA ligase RtcB, repairs damaged rRNAs following stress, which potentially saves energy and accelerates recovery of its host. We propose that acquisition of RtcB by diverse bacterial taxa provides a competitive advantage under stressful conditions.

5.
Ecol Evol ; 9(21): 12332-12338, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832164

RESUMO

Mythimna separata (Walker) moths captured in light traps were monitored in Luohe, central-northern China, from 1980 to 2016. Annual average temperature recorded an increase of 0.298°C/10 years in this region in the period. Our results indicate that a rising April and May average temperature and earlier occurrences of days recording the highest day temperature (30°C) caused an advanced peak and increasing proportion of high ovarian development levels of first-generation females in earlier summers. Results using Johnson's formulation of "oogenesis-flight syndrome" indicate that increasing sexual maturity proportion has resulted in more emigrant individuals in the local first-generation moth becoming residents, and then increased individuals rapidly in the local second-generation moth since 2006. Consequences of this action have a boom in corn damage since 2007 in this region. Advanced peak dates of the first and second-generation moth revealed the same response to increasing average monthly temperatures in the monitoring period. Increasing temperatures, the average May temperature exceeds or equal to 22°C, during the early 2000's may represent a physiological threshold for M. separata development. Our results suggest that climate warming may impact M. separata migratory status and cause a problem of crop production in this region.

6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(11): 5057-5065, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854574

RESUMO

To understand the relationship between nitrogen and carbon removal performance and the microbial community during start-up of simultaneous ANAMMOX and denitrification (SAD), nitrogen and carbon removal performance and microbial community change were studied by gradually increasing the influent COD concentration. The results showed that with the increase of the influent COD concentration, NH4+-N and NO2--N effluent remained stable, and the average removal rate was more than 98%. The removal rate of TN increased gradually, and the rate was 95.6% in the third stage, which was 6.8% higher than that of ANAMMOX in theory. ΔNO3--N/ΔNH4+-N decreased significantly from 0.15-0.17 to 0.03-0.07. The contribution rate of ANAMMOX to nitrogen removal decreased gradually, denitrification for nitrogen removal increased gradually, and the COD removal rate increased. Sludge activity analysis showed that the denitrification activity of sludge increased significantly and the ANAMMOX activity decreased slightly after the start-up of SAD. High throughput sequencing results showed that the dominant phyla of microorganisms in the reactor were Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Armatimonadetes, and Proteobacteria. The characteristics of the microbial community in the reactor were closely related to the performance of SAD in nitrogen and carbon removal. The main functional microorganisms related to nitrogen and carbon removal were ANAMMOX bacteria, anaerobic digestive bacteria, and denitrifying bacteria. The abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria decreased after the start-up of SAD, and the anaerobic digestive bacteria and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria increased significantly.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Microbiota , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(47): 44837-44843, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680512

RESUMO

Charge transfer is of particular importance in manipulating the interface physics in transition-metal oxide heterostructures. In this work, we have fabricated epitaxial bilayers composed of polar 3d LaMnO3 and nonpolar 5d SrIrO3. Systematic magnetic measurements reveal an unexpectedly large exchange bias effect in the bilayer, together with a dramatic enhancement of the coercivity of LaMnO3. Based on first-principle calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements, such a strong interfacial magnetic coupling is found closely associated with the polar nature of LaMnO3 and the strong spin-orbit interaction in SrIrO3, which collectively drive an asymmetric interfacial charge transfer and lead to the emergence of an interfacial reentrant spin/superspin glass state. Our study provides a new insight into the charge transfer in transition-metal oxide heterostructures and offers a novel means to tune the interfacial exchange coupling for a variety of device applications.

8.
mSystems ; 4(6)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744906

RESUMO

The microbiome in fermentation has direct impacts on the quality of fermented foods and is of great scientific and commercial interest. Despite considerable effort to explain the microbial metabolism associated with food fermentation, the role of the microbiome in pu-erh tea fermentation remains unknown. Here, we applied integrated meta-omics approaches to characterize the microbiome in two repeated fermentations of pu-erh tea. Metabarcoding analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed a decrease in the proportion of Proteobacteria and an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes during fermentation. Metabarcoding analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence demonstrated that Rasamsonia, Thermomyces, and Aspergillus were dominant at the intermediate stage, whereas Aspergillus was dominant at other stages in fermentation. Metaproteomics analysis assigned primary microbial metabolic activity to metabolism and identified microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in the degradation of polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, pectin, starch, lignin, galactomannan, and chitin. Metabolomics and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that levels of phenolic compounds, including gallates, decreased whereas contents of gallic acid and ellagic acid significantly increased after fermentation (P < 0.05). The changes in levels of gallates and gallic acid were associated with the hydrolysis of tannase. Glycoside hydrolases, phenol 2-monooxygenase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase, salicylate 1-monooxygenase, catechol O-methyltransferase, catechol dioxygenase, and quercetin 2,3-dioxygenases were hypothesized to be related to oxidation, conversion, or degradation of phenolic compounds. We demonstrated microbiota in fermentation and their function in the production of enzymes related to the degradation of polysaccharides, and metabolism of phenolic compounds, resulting in changes in metabolite contents and the quality of pu-erh tea.IMPORTANCE Fermented foods play important roles in diets worldwide and account for approximately one-third of all foods and beverages consumed. To date, traditional fermentation has used spontaneous fermentation. The microbiome in fermentation has direct impacts on the quality and safety of fermented foods and contributes to the preservation of traditional methods. Here, we used an integrated meta-omics approach to study the microbiome in the fermentation of pu-erh tea, which is a well-known Chinese fermented food with a special flavor and healthful benefits. This study advanced the knowledge of microbiota, metabolites, and enzymes in the fermentation of pu-erh tea. These novel insights shed light onto the complex microbiome in pu-erh fermentation and highlight the power of integrated meta-omics approaches in understanding the microbiome in food fermentation ecosystems.

9.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 12(10): 1582-1588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637194

RESUMO

AIM: To explore an improved procedure involving incomplete fluid-air exchange for idiopathic macular hole (IMH), and the closure rate, visual function, and the visual field of macular holes (MHs) were evaluated. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study, included 40 eyes of 40 patients with IMH who were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and peeling of the internal limiting membrane. They were grouped by random digital table. Twenty-one eyes underwent incomplete fluid-air exchange (IFA) and 19 eyes underwent traditional complete fluid-air exchange (CFA) as the control group. Outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, and optical coherence tomography, light adaptive electroretinography, and visual field evaluations. RESULTS: All MHs <400 µm were successfully closed. BCVAs before and 6mo after surgery were 0.82±0.41 logMAR and 0.28±0.17 logMAR in IFA group and 0.86±0.34 logMAR and 0.34±0.23 logMAR in CFA group, respectively. The electroretinogram analysis of patients in IFA group revealed increases in b-wave amplitudes at 1, 3, and 6mo after surgery. Additionally, patients in IFA group showed an amplitude increase of 28.6% from baseline at 6mo (P<0.05), while no obvious improvements were noted in CFA group. Although there were no statistically significant improvements in either group, the IFA group showed a slight increase in mean sensitivity (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: IFA is a reliable method that offers comparable closure rate to CFA and facilitates improvements in visual function.

10.
J Vis Exp ; (152)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657790

RESUMO

Computational tools based on density-functional theory (DFT) enable the exploration of the qualitatively new, experimentally attainable nanoscale compounds for a targeted application. Theoretical simulations provide a profound understanding of the intrinsic electronic properties of functional materials. The goal of this protocol is to search for photocatalyst candidates by computational dissection. Photocatalytic applications require suitable band gaps, appropriate band edge positions relative to the redox potentials. Hybrid functionals can provide accurate values of these properties but are computationally expensive, whereas the results at the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional level could be effective for suggesting strategies for band structure engineering via electric field and tensile strain aiming to enhance the photocatalytic performance. To illustrate this, in the present manuscript, the DFT based simulation tool VASP is used to investigate the band alignment of nanocomposites in combinations of nanotubes and nanoribbons in the ground state. To address the lifetime of photogenerated holes and electrons in the excited state, nonadiabatic dynamics calculations are needed.

11.
Clin Chim Acta ; 499: 54-63, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476302

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterized as renal dysfunction, is recognized as a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Unfortunately, there are no obvious clinical symptoms in early stage disease until severe damage has occurred. Further complicating early diagnosis and treatment is the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers. As such, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. Metabolomics has shown an increasing potential for identifying underlying disease mechanisms, facilitating clinical diagnosis and developing pharmaceutical treatments for CKD. Recent advances in metabolomics revealed that CKD was closely associated with the dysregulation of numerous metabolites, such as amino acids, lipids, nucleotides and glycoses, that might be exploited as potential biomarkers. In this review, we summarize recent metabolomic applications based on animal model studies and in patients with CKD and highlight several biomarkers that may play important roles in diagnosis, intervention and development of new therapeutic strategies.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1291-1299, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495287

RESUMO

To investigate the composition of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in anogenital warts (AGWs), viral nucleic acid in 110 AGWs, pooled into 11 specimen pools, were subjected to viral metagenomic analysis. After finding HPV7 in AGWs, conventional PCR screening was performed for HPV7 in other 190 individual AGW specimens. Viral metagenomic results indicated that 29 different types of HPV were recovered, with HPV11 and HPV6 showing the highest proportion of sequence reads. HPV7 was detected in 7 of 11 pools, 5 of which contained abundant HPV7 sequence reads. 24 complete genomes of HPV were acquired in viral metagenomic analysis, including 5 HPV7 genomes, based on which phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparison were conducted. PCR screening for HPV7 in other 190 individual AGW specimens revealed 25 positive cases (13.16%), of which the amplified fragments were sequenced and confirmed to be HPV7 sequences. Although HPV7 was generally found in hand warts and recently also in warts in toe webs, our data suggested that the role of HPV7 in AGW should be considered in the future clinical test and vaccine development for AGWs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Ânus/virologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Verrugas/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Endocrinol ; 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370004

RESUMO

Excess fat within bone marrow is associated with lower bone density. Metabolic stressors such as chronic caloric restriction (CR) can exacerbate marrow adiposity, and increased glucocorticoid signaling and adrenergic signaling are implicated in this phenotype. The current study tested the role of glucocorticoid signaling in CR-induced stress by conditionally deleting the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in bone marrow osteoprogenitors (Osx1-Cre) of mice subjected to CR and ad libitum diets. Conditional knockout of the GR (GR-CKO) reduced cortical and trabecular bone mass as compared to wildtype (WT) mice under both ad libitum and CR conditions. No interaction was detected between genotype and diet, suggesting that the GR is not required for CR-induced skeletal changes. The lower bone mass in GR-CKO mice, and the further suppression of bone by CR, resulted from suppressed bone formation. Interestingly, treatment with the -adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol mildly but selectively improved metrics of cortical bone mass in GR-CKO mice during CR, suggesting interaction between adrenergic and glucocorticoid signaling pathways that affects cortical bone. GR-CKO mice dramatically increased marrow fat under both ad libitum and CR-fed conditions, and surprisingly propranolol treatment was unable to rescue CR-induced marrow fat in either WT or GR-CKO mice. Additionally, serum corticosterone levels were selectively elevated in GR-CKO mice with CR, suggesting the possibility of bone-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal crosstalk during metabolic stress. This work highlights the complexities of glucocorticoid and ß-adrenergic signaling in stress-induced changes in bone mass, and the importance of GR function in suppressing marrow adipogenesis while maintaining healthy bone mass.

14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(4): 565-570, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410500

RESUMO

Nowadays rare earth elements (REEs) are widely applied in high-technology and clean energy products, but their environmental risks are still largely unknown. To estimate the ecological risk of REEs, soil samples were collected from REE mine tailings with and without phytoremediation. The results showed that the tailings had rather low organic matter and high total REE concentrations, up to 808.5 mg/kg. The 10% effective concentration (EC10) of neodymium (Nd) and yttrium (Y) were calculated based on the toxicity tests of seed germination and root growth. For both wheat and mung bean, the EC10 of Nd and Y in soils were in the range of 1053.1-1300.1 mg/kg. The average hazard quotient of mine tailing soil without phytoremediation was higher than that with phytoremediation. All the hazard quotient of Nd and Y were less than 1, indicating that Nd or Y alone was unlikely to cause adverse ecological effects. Given to the coexistence of REEs on mine sites, the ecological risk of REE mixture could be potentially high towards local soil environments, even for soils with phytoremdiation.


Assuntos
Mineração , Neodímio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Ítrio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Medição de Risco , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/química , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Dalton Trans ; 48(34): 13094-13100, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411187

RESUMO

Analyses of the structural information of molecular fragments from the mass spectra of the solid-state products and their reaction solutions allow for the understanding of their formation and of their diverse properties. The reaction of CuCl2 and (1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-yl)methanol (HL) led only to crystals containing molecular dimers of [Cu2(L)2Cl2] (Cu2). The CuII-CuII distance and Cu-OR-Cu angle in the structure are 3.044 Å and 104.8°, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility (3-400 K) is characterized by a very strong intradimer antiferromagnetic interaction of J = -465 and interdimer zj = -0.83 cm-1. But mass spectrometry of a dissolved single crystal in different source energies identifies both its fragmentation and oligomerization to [Cu] and [Cu]. DFT calculations give the relative stabilization energies of the fragments observed in ESI-MS to provide a formation process.

16.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(6): 412-8, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of acupuncture on behavior changes and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome C, cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases-3 (caspase-3), apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS), so as to provide experimental evidence for the prevention and treatment of depression. METHODS: Thirty two male SD rats were equally randomized into control, model, acupuncture and medication (Fluoxetine) groups according to the random number table. The depression model was established by chronic psychological stress stimulation (fasting, water deprivation, chronic restraint combined with solitary raising for 28 days). Manual acupuncture stimulation (2 circles/s) was applied to "Baihui" (GV20), "Yintang" (GV29) and bilateral "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) for 2 min, followed by retaining the needles for 20 min. Rats in the medication group were treated by gavage of Fluoxetine (0.18 mg/mL, 1 mL/100 g body weight). The treatment was conducted once daily for 28 days. The depression-like behavior was evaluated by using open-field test, sucrose preference test, and body weight. The content of ROS of the right hippocampus tissue was detected by using dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay, and the expression levels of cytochrome C, caspase-3 and AIF proteins of hippocampus were determined by using Western blot. RESULTS: After 28 days' stress procedure, the depression rats in the model group showed a significant decrease in the numbers of crossing and rearing of open-field test, sucrose preference index and the body weight compared to the control group (P<0.01). The content of ROS and expression levels of cytochrome C, caspase-3 and AIF in the hippocampus of the model group were significantly increased relevant to the control group (all P<0.01). After the intervention and compared with the model group, the decreased levels of the numbers of crossing and rearing, body weight and sucrose preference index, and the up-regulated levels of content of ROS and expression of cytochrome C, caspase-3 and AIF proteins were all reversed in both acupuncture and medication groups (P<0.01,P<0.05), displaying an anti-depressant effect. The effect of acupuncture was significantly superior to that of medication in up-regulating the numbers of crossing and rearing (P<0.01, P<0.05), and in down-regulating the expression of caspase-3 (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between the medication and acupuncture groups in increasing the body weight and sucrose preference index, and in down-regulating the expression of cytochrome C and AIF proteins (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture intervention can significantly reduce ROS content and expression level of cytochrome C, caspase-3 and AIF proteins in the hippocampus possibly by inhibiting the chronic psychological stress-hippocampal oxidative stress-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in psychological stress-induced depression rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving depression.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Depressão , Animais , Apoptose , Comportamento Animal , Hipocampo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico
17.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(39): 395501, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207586

RESUMO

Discovering highly in-plane anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with multiple superior properties (good stability, widely tunable bandgap and high mobility) are of great interest for fundamental studies and for developments of novel (opto)electronic devices. By means of state-of-the-art first-principles calculations, herein we present a thorough investigation on the stability, electronic properties and promising applications of previously unexplored 2D semiconductors-gold-selenium (ß-AuSe) with strong in-plane anisotropy, whose layered bulk counterpart was synthesized fifty years ago. We show that they have stable structures, widely tunable bandgap varying from 1.66 eV in monolayer to 0.70 eV in five-layer, strong light absorption coefficient (~105 cm-1) within the whole visible light range, and high/ultrahigh carrier mobility (103-105 cm2 V -1 s -1). More importantly, they show highly in-pane anisotropic behaviors in absorption coefficients, photoconductance and carrier mobility. Especially, the anisotropic ratio of carrier mobility is much higher than the literature reported ones. The above findings show that the in-plane anisotropic 2D ß-AuSe are promising candidates for developing polarization-sensitive photodetectors, synaptic devices and micro digital inverters based on multiple superior properties and highly anisotropic behaviors. Besides, few-layer ß-AuSe systems can serve as channel materials in field-effect transistors with high mobility or be applied in solar cells with strong light absorption. Our findings demonstrate that few-layer 2D ß-AuSe have great potential for multifunctional applications and thus stimulate immediately experimental interests.

18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(9): 2317-2332, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102786

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of CKD patients at risk for microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria could facilitate clinical outcomes and long-term survival. Considering the few and limited efficacy of current biomarkers in early detection, we aim to discover plasma lipids that effectively predict the development of CKD paitents with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. A total of 380 healthy controls and 1156 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 were stratified by urine albumin-creatinine ratio as microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/g). Fasting plasma samples were determined by UPLC-HDMS based on lipidomics. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were used to validate the lipid metabolism-associated pathways. Pathway analysis demonstrated that these lipids were closely associated with PPARγ, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels and RAS signaling, which were intimately involved in activated NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways. We further carried out pathway validation and demonstrated that NF-κB pathway was activated in patients with macroalbuminuria compared with CKD patients with microalbuminuria, while Nrf2-associated protein expression was downregulated, which was accompanied by the up-regulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Four lipids including DTA, 5,8-TDA, GGD3 and DHA that showed great potential in the discrimination of CKD patients with microalbuminuria and healthy controls were selected by logistic regression analysis. Additionally, six lipid species including CDCA, glucosylceramide, GGD2, TTA, DHA and EDA that contributed to the discrimination of CKD patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were selected by logistic LASSO regression Gangliosides were first identified and might be promising therapeutic targets for CKD patients with the different degree of albuminuria. Collectively, this study first demonstrates the association of plasma inflammation, oxidative stress, Wnt/ß-catenin and lipid metabolism in CKD patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria.

19.
mSystems ; 4(4)2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117025

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of airway microbiomes has been found in various respiratory diseases, but its molecular details in terms of taxonomic profile, metabolic characteristics, defensive function, and inhabit adaption are far from clear. Shotgun metagenome sequencing provides detailed information for microbes, whereas its application is rather limited in airways due to host DNA contaminants that overwhelm a minute amount of microbial content. Here, we describe a microfluidics-based enrichment device and an emulsion-based whole-genome amplification procedure (MEEA) for the preparation of DNA from sputa for shotgun sequencing in a metagenomics study. The two protocols coupled in MEEA are first separately assayed with mock samples and are both promising in efficiency and bias. The efficiency and consistency of MEEA are further evaluated in six clinical sputum samples against direct sequencing without enrichment, and MEEA enables 2 to 14 times enrichment for microbial reads, which take 14.68% to 33.52% of total reads. The dominant pathogens detected in MEEA are in excellent agreement with those from clinical etiological tests. Meanwhile, MEEA presents much more microbiome complexity and genome information at a strain level than direct sequencing, exhibiting high sensitivity for identifying prophages and DNA viruses. MEEA provides better microbiome profiling than direct sequencing without a preference for specific microorganisms. The more detailed functional and taxonomic characterization of their species constituents, including both bacterium and virus, facilitates metagenomics studies on the pathogenesis of respiratory microbiomes.IMPORTANCE The airway microbial community, which takes important pathogenic roles for respiratory diseases, is far from clear in terms of taxonomy and gene functions. One of the critical reasons is the heavy contamination of host cell/DNA in airway samples, which hinders the subsequent sequencing of the whole genomic contents of the microbial community-the metagenome. Here, we describe a protocol for airway sample preparation which couples a microbe enrichment microfluidic device and a DNA amplification method performed in numerous droplets. When evaluated with mock and clinical sputum samples, the microfluidics-based enrichment device and emulsion-based whole-genome amplification (MEEA) procedure efficiently removes host cells, amplifies the microbial genome, and shows no obvious bias among microbes. The efficiency of MEEA makes it a promising method in research of respiratory microbial communities and their roles in diseases.

20.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(6): e8132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141088

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to elucidate the concise effects of a traditional herb pair, Curcumae rhizoma-Sparganii rhizoma (CRSR), on uterine leiomyoma (UL) by analyzing transcriptional profiling. The UL rat model was made by intramuscular injection of progesterone and gavage administration of diethylstilbestrol. From 11 weeks of the establishment of the model, rats of the UL+CRSR group were gavaged daily with CRSR (6.67 g/kg). The serum concentrations of progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay, the uterine index was measured by caliper measurement, and the pathological status was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain. Gene expression profiling was checked by NimbleGen Rat Gene Expression Microarrays. The results indicated that the uterine mass of UL+CRSR rats was significantly shrunk and serum P and E2 levels significantly reduced compared to UL animals and nearly to the level of normal rats. Results of microarrays displayed the extensive inhibition of CRSR upon the expression of proliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, and significantly regulated a wide range of metabolism disorders. Furthermore, CRSR extensively regulated key pathways of the UL process, such as MAPK, PPAR, Notch, and TGF-ß/Smad. Regulation of the crucial pathways for the UL process and ECM metabolism may be the underlying mechanisms of CRSR treatment. Further studies will provide clear clues for effectively treating UL with CRSR.


Assuntos
Curcuma/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Leiomioma/genética , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Radioimunoensaio , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Transcrição , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo
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