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1.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608386

RESUMO

Cancer genotyping has identified a large number of putative tumor suppressor genes. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process, however the importance and specific roles of many of these genes during tumor initiation, growth and progression remain unknown. Here we use a multiplexed mouse model of oncogenic KRAS-driven lung cancer to quantify the impact of forty-eight known and putative tumor suppressor genes on diverse aspects of carcinogenesis at an unprecedented scale and resolution. We uncover many previously understudied functional tumor suppressors that constrain cancer in vivo. Inactivation of some genes substantially increased growth, while the inactivation of others increases tumor initiation and/or the emergence of exceptionally large tumors. These functional in vivo analyses revealed an unexpectedly complex landscape of tumor suppression that has implications for understanding cancer evolution, interpreting clinical cancer genome sequencing data, and directing approaches to limit tumor initiation and progression.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586215

RESUMO

In vitro culture of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of mature oocytes and it could offer a novel option of assisted reproductive technologies. Here we described a 2-dimensional follicular serum-free culture system with 3-dimensional effect that can make secondary follicles develop into antral follicles (78.52%), generating developmentally mature oocytes in vitro (66.45%). The oocytes in this serum-free system completed the first meiosis; spindle assembly and chromosome congression in most oocytes matured from follicular culture were normal. However, these oocytes showed significantly lower activation and embryonic development rates, and their ability to produce Ca2+ oscillations was also lower in response to parthenogenetic activation, after which a 2-cell embryonic developmental block occurred. Oocytes matured from follicular culture displayed increased abnormal mitochondrial distribution and increased reactive oxygen species levels when compared to in vivo matured oocytes. These data are important for understanding the reasons for reduced developmental potential of oocytes matured from follicular culture, and for further improving the cultivation system.

3.
Malar J ; 20(1): 92, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous infection with multiple malaria parasite strains is common in high transmission areas. Quantifying the number of strains per host, or the multiplicity of infection (MOI), provides additional parasite indices for assessing transmission levels but it is challenging to measure accurately with current tools. This paper presents new laboratory and analytical methods for estimating the MOI of Plasmodium falciparum. METHODS: Based on 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified as stable, unlinked targets across 12 of the 14 chromosomes within P. falciparum genome, three multiplex PCRs of short target regions and subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of the amplicons were developed. A bioinformatics pipeline including B4Screening pathway removed spurious amplicons to ensure consistent frequency calls at each SNP location, compiled amplicons by SNP site diversity, and performed algorithmic haplotype and strain reconstruction. The pipeline was validated by 108 samples generated from cultured-laboratory strain mixtures in different proportions and concentrations, with and without pre-amplification, and using whole blood and dried blood spots (DBS). The pipeline was applied to 273 smear-positive samples from surveys conducted in western Kenya, then providing results into StrainRecon Thresholding for Infection Multiplicity (STIM), a novel MOI estimator. RESULTS: The 24 barcode SNPs were successfully identified uniformly across the 12 chromosomes of P. falciparum in a sample using the pipeline. Pre-amplification and parasite concentration, while non-linearly associated with SNP read depth, did not influence the SNP frequency calls. Based on consistent SNP frequency calls at targeted locations, the algorithmic strain reconstruction for each laboratory-mixed sample had 98.5% accuracy in dominant strains. STIM detected up to 5 strains in field samples from western Kenya and showed declining MOI over time (q < 0.02), from 4.32 strains per infected person in 1996 to 4.01, 3.56 and 3.35 in 2001, 2007 and 2012, and a reduction in the proportion of samples with 5 strains from 57% in 1996 to 18% in 2012. CONCLUSION: The combined approach of new multiplex PCRs and NGS, the unique bioinformatics pipeline and STIM could identify 24 barcode SNPs of P. falciparum correctly and consistently. The methodology could be applied to field samples to reliably measure temporal changes in MOI.

4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113001, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493900

RESUMO

Amplification-based nucleic acid detection is widely employed in food safety, medical diagnosis and environment monitoring. However, conventional nucleic acid analysis has to be carried out in laboratories because of requiring expensive instruments and trained personnel. If people could do nucleic acid detection at home by themselves, the application of nucleic acid detection would be greatly accelerated. We herein reported a polypropylene (PP) bag-based method for convenient detection of nucleic acids in the oil-sealed space. The PP bag has three chambers which are responsible for lysis, washing and amplification/detection, respectively. After adding sample, nucleic acids are adsorbed on magnetic particles (MPs) and moved into these three chambers successively through immiscible oil channel by an external magnet. Combined with isothermal amplification, the PP bag can be incubated in a water bath or milk warmer and acted as a reaction tube. With highly specific CRISPR technology, Salmonella typhimurium (St) and SARS-CoV-2 can be visually detected in these PP bags within 1 h, indicating its potential household application. To further improve the reliability of nucleic acid testing at home, a logic decision method is introduced by detecting both target and endogenous reference gene. Positive/negative/invalid detection result can be obtained by chronologically adding the CRISPR reagents of target and endogenous reference gene. We anticipate that this PP bag can provide a novel toolkit for nucleic acid detection in people's daily life.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400532

RESUMO

Four novel isopolymolybdate-based coordination polymers (CPs), constructed from 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridine (btp), 1,3-bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzene (btb), and 3,5-bis(1-imidazolium)pyridine (bip), have been synthesized under a hydrothermal method: {[Co(btp)(H2O)2(ß-Mo8O26)0.5]·3H2O}n (1), [Ni(btp)(H4Mo6O22)0.5]n (2), [Co(btb)(H2O)(ß-Mo8O26)0.5]n (3), and {[Co(Hbip)2(H2O)2(γ-Mo8O26)]·6H2O}n (4). Complex 1 exhibits one 3D framework with an unexpected 3-nodal 2,4,6-c net topology containing the 1D {ß-Mo8O26}n chains, 6-connected CoII centers, and V-type coordinated btp ligands. The neighboring [Mo6O22]4- anions of complex 2 are bridged by the NiII centers to build one 2D {Ni2(Mo6O22)} network, which is arranged into the 3D framework through the weak π···π stacking interactions. In compound 3, one 3D framework is formed by the adjacent 1D {Co2(btp)2}n chains connected by {ß-Mo8O26}n units, which demonstrates a rare 4,6-c fsc topology. In complex 4, one 2D {Co(Hbip)2(γ-Mo8O26)} layer with a (4, 4) network is connected to one 3D hydrogen-bonding framework via N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds. Magnetic data indicate that complexes 1 and 4 exhibit antiferromagnetic behaviors, whereas complexes 2 and 3 reveal spin-canting magnetic behavior and metamagnetic behavior, respectively. In addition, the proton conductivity of complexes 3 and 4 was investigated, showing that compound 4 has good proton conductivity at 85 °C and a relative humidity of 98% RH.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 273: 116494, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486247

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been widely distributed and posed ecotoxicological risks in the aquatic environment. This study aims to evaluate the toxic effects after chronic exposure to PPCPs mixture at the environment relevant concentrations (ERCs). Our results indicated that PPCPs induced serious metabolic effects by disturbing the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism pathways. Chronic exposure caused a significant reduction in the hepatosomatic index (HSI), the gut weight ratios, and histological alterations in liver and gut tissues. Further, exposure to the combined PPCPs disrupted the carbohydrate metabolism via significant upregulation of hk1, gk, pck1, and insr genes. The lipid metabolism was affected with higher ppars expression levels that increased the fatty acid ß-oxidation and ultimately decreased the lipidogenesis. Moreover, the altered responses of the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway more in male gut tissue than that of female revealed sex-dependent disturbance in the gut homeostasis induced by PPCPs mixture. In conclusion, chronic exposure to PPCPs mixtures at ERCs can induce developmental effects and metabolic dysfunction in both male and female fish. The consumption and environmental disposal of these PPCPs should be regulated to ensure ecological health and environmental safety.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123604, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781281

RESUMO

The toxicity of Cr(VI) was widely investigated, but the defense mechanism against Cr(III) in bacteria are seldom reported. Here, we found that Cr(III) inhibited bacterial growth and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). After exposure to Cr(III), loss of sodA not only led to the excessive generation of ROS, but also enhanced the level of lipid peroxidation and reduced the GSH level, indicating that the deficiency of Mn-SOD decreased the bacterial resistance ability against Cr(III). The adverse effects of oxidative stress caused by Cr(III) could be recovered by the rescue of Mn-SOD in the sodA-deficient strain. Besides the oxidative stress, Cr(III) could cause the bacterial morphology variation, which was distinct between the wild-type and the sodA-deficient strains due to the differential expressions of Z-ring division genes. Moreover, Mn-SOD might prevent Cr(III) from oxidation on the bacterial surface by combining with Cr(III). Taken together, our results indicated that the Mn-SOD played a vital role in regulating the stress resistance, expression of cell division-related genes, bacterial morphology, and chemistry valence state of Cr. Our findings firstly provided a more in-depth understanding of Cr(III) toxicity and bacterial defense mechanism against Cr(III).

8.
Front Neurol ; 11: 586905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281724

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a fatal subtype of stroke, and effective interventions to improve the functional outcomes are still lacking. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) plays critical roles in the inflammatory response by negatively regulating cytokine-Jak-Stat signaling. However, the role of SOCS3 in the regulation of macrophage polarization is highly controversial and the fine regulation exerted by SOCS3 needs further understanding. In this study, rat ICH models were established by infusion of collagenase into the caudate nucleus. To decrease SOCS3 expression into microglia/macrophages in the hemorrhagic lesion area, we injected lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shSOCS3) (Lenti-shSOCS3) into the hematoma cavity at 24 h following ICH. We found that the number of iNOS-positive cells (M1 phenotype) was significantly reduced, whereas arginase-1-positive cells (M2 phenotype) were markedly elevated in animals that received Lenti-shSOCS3 injections compared with those in the Lenti-EGFP and saline groups. The increase in arginase-1-positive cells was associated with a significantly lower pro-inflammatory microenvironment, which included the downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α] and concurrent upregulation of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) mediators. In addition, this marked shift toward the M2 phenotype was associated with suppressed NF-κB activation. Furthermore, these changes notably enhanced the neuroprotective effects and functional recovery in Lenti-shSOCS3-injected animals. Our findings indicated that reduction in SOCS3 expression caused a marked bias toward the M2 phenotype and ameliorated the inflammatory microenvironment, which enhanced neuroprotective effects and resulted in notable improvement in functional recovery after ICH.

9.
J Drug Target ; : 1-38, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269623

RESUMO

Vascular remodeling refers to abnormal changes in the structure and function of blood vessel walls caused by injury, and is the main pathological basis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension. Among them, the neointimal hyperplasia caused by abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) can release vasoactive substances to target VSMCs and regulate the pathological process of vascular remodeling. Specifically, PVAT can promote the conversion of VSMCs phenotype from contraction to synthesis by secreting visfatin, leptin, and resistin, and participate in the development of vascular remodeling-related diseases. Conversely, it can also inhibit the growth of VSMCs by secreting adiponectin and omentin to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and alleviate vascular remodeling. Therefore, exploring and developing new drugs or other treatments that facilitate the beneficial effects of PVAT on VSMCs is a potential strategy for prevention or treatment of vascular remodeling-related cardiovascular diseases.

10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(14): 15, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320168

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the changes in choroidal thickness (ChT) after 6 months of 1% or 0.01% atropine treatment and the independent factors associated with eye elongation. Methods: A total of 207 myopic children aged 6 to 12 years were recruited and randomly assigned to groups A and B in a ratio of 1:1. Participants in group A received 1% atropine once a day for 1 week, and then once a week for 23 weeks. Participants in group B received 0.01% atropine once a day for 6 months. ChT and internal axial length (IAL) were measured at baseline, 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: In group A, the ChT significantly increased after a 1-week loading dose of 1% atropine (26 ± 14 µm; P < 0.001) and the magnitude of increase stabilized throughout the following weekly treatment. The internal axial length did not significantly change at the 6-month visit (-0.01 ± 0.11 mm; P = 0.74). In contrast, a decreased ChT (-5 ± 17 µm; P < 0.001) and pronounced eye elongation (0.19 ± 0.12 mm; P < 0.001) were observed in group B after 6 months. Multivariable regression analysis showed that less increase in ChT at the 1-week visit (P = 0.03), younger age (P < 0.001), and presence of peripapillary atrophy (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with greater internal axial length increase over 6 months in group A. Conclusions: One percent atropine could increase the ChT, whereas 0.01% atropine caused a decrease in ChT after 6 months of treatment. For participants receiving 1% atropine, the short-term increase in ChT was negatively associated with long-term eye elongation. Younger age and the presence of peripapillary atrophy were found to be risk factors for greater eye elongation.

11.
World J Psychiatry ; 10(10): 223-233, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134113

RESUMO

This review summarizes the anti-depressant mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in preclinical studies, including anti-inflammatory effects mediated by activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 signaling pathway, anti-oxidative stress effects, enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis via activation of the endocannabinoid system and brain derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway, increasing the content of monoamine neurotransmitters via inhibition of Sirtuin 1/monoamine oxidase A signaling pathway, and reducing the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. We also discuss the shortcomings of transcranial magnetic stimulation in preclinical studies such as inaccurate positioning, shallow depth of stimulation, and difficulty in elucidating the neural circuit mechanism up- and down-stream of the stimulation target brain region.

12.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major issue in human reproductive health, affecting an estimated 15% of couples worldwide. Infertility can result from disorders of sex development (DSD) or from reproductive endocrine disorders (REDs) with onset in infancy, early childhood or adolescence. Male infertility, accounting for roughly half of all infertility cases, generally manifests as decreased sperm count (azoospermia or oligozoospermia), attenuated sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) or a higher proportion of morphologically abnormal sperm (teratozoospermia). Female infertility can be divided into several classical types, including, but not limited to, oocyte maturation arrest, premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), fertilization failure and early embryonic arrest. An estimated one half of infertility cases have a genetic component; however, most genetic causes of human infertility are currently uncharacterized. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has greatly facilitated the identification of infertility-associated gene mutations in patients over the past 20 years. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review aims to conduct a narrative review of the genetic causes of human infertility. Loss-of-function mutation discoveries related to human infertility are summarized and further illustrated in tables. Corresponding knockout/mutated animal models of causative genes for infertility are also introduced. SEARCH METHODS: A search of the PubMed database was performed to identify relevant studies published in English. The term 'mutation' was combined with a range of search terms related to the core focus of the review: infertility, DSD, REDs, azoospermia or oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF), primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), acephalic spermatozoa syndrome (ASS), globozoospermia, teratozoospermia, acrosome, oocyte maturation arrest, POI, zona pellucida, fertilization defects and early embryonic arrest. OUTCOMES: Our search generated ∼2000 records. Overall, 350 articles were included in the final review. For genetic investigation of human infertility, the traditional candidate gene approach is proceeding slowly, whereas high-throughput sequencing technologies in larger cohorts of individuals is identifying an increasing number of causative genes linked to human infertility. This review provides a wide panel of gene mutations in several typical forms of human infertility, including DSD, REDs, male infertility (oligozoospermia, MMAF, PCD, ASS and globozoospermia) and female infertility (oocyte maturation arrest, POI, fertilization failure and early embryonic arrest). The causative genes, their identified mutations, mutation rate, studied population and their corresponding knockout/mutated mice of non-obstructive azoospermia, MMAF, ASS, globozoospermia, oocyte maturation arrest, POI, fertilization failure and early embryonic arrest are further illustrated by tables. In this review, we suggest that (i) our current knowledge of infertility is largely obtained from knockout mouse models; (ii) larger cohorts of clinical cases with distinct clinical characteristics need to be recruited in future studies; (iii) the whole picture of genetic causes of human infertility relies on both the identification of more mutations for distinct types of infertility and the integration of known mutation information; (iv) knockout/mutated animal models are needed to show whether the phenotypes of genetically altered animals are consistent with findings in human infertile patients carrying a deleterious mutation of the homologous gene; and (v) the molecular mechanisms underlying human infertility caused by pathogenic mutations are largely unclear in most current studies. WILDER IMPLICATIONS: It is important to use our current understanding to identify avenues and priorities for future research in the field of genetic causes of infertility as well as to apply mutation knowledge to risk prediction, genetic diagnosis and potential treatment for human infertility.

13.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 7172052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042224

RESUMO

Background: We provide an updated meta-analysis with detailed information on a combination of TCM and routine treatment. Methods: Retrieve appropriate articles with no language restrictions on keywords until 8 July 2019 in an electronic database. All trajectories are screened according to certain criteria. The quality of certified research was also evaluated. We made a detailed record of the results of the measurement. Meta-analysis was carried out by using the Revman 5.3 software. Results: Sixty-seven RCTs were included, and 6594 subjects were analyzed. Compared with routine treatment, the total effective rate (TER) of TCM combined with routine treatment was improved, and the recovery of stroke was also significantly accelerated. Regulation of blood lipids by notably shrinking the contents of TC, TG, and LDL and enhancing the levels of HDL. The levels of serum hs-CRP, WHV, and WLV decreased significantly, indicating that the expression of thrombomodulin was decreased after the comprehensive treatment of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The combination of TCM treatment could enhance the protection of neural function by decreasing the NIHSS scoring while increasing the BI scoring. Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Angeticae Sinensis Radix, etc., can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of stroke convalescent patients and promote the recovery of neurological function. ACU of Baihui, Renzhong, etc., can improve the clinical rehabilitation effect of patients. However, our findings must be handled with care because of the small sample size and low quality of clinic trials cited. Other rigorous and large-scale RCTs are in need to confirm these results. Conclusion: A combination of TCM and routine treatment in the treatment of stroke could improve TER, and it is beneficial to the rehabilitation of patients in the recovery period of apoplexy. These effects can be mediated by a combination of several mechanisms. Nevertheless, due to the limitations of this study, these results should be handled with caution.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110809, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049584

RESUMO

Phloretin is a natural dihydrochalcone flavonoid that is mainly distributed in apple, pear and other juicy fruit peels or root peels. Phloretin exhibits several pharmacological properties, such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. However, the poor water solubility of phloretin limits its application in the treatment of numerous diseases. To date, the underlying mechanisms of phloretin absorption have not been investigated. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of phloretin orally administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were examined, and the absorption mechanisms of phloretin were investigated in a Caco-2 cell monolayer and single-pass intestinal perfusion in SD rat. The effects measured by basic parameters, such as compound concentration, time, temperature, paracellular pathway, in different intestinal segments were analyzed, and various inhibitors, such as the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil, the multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) inhibitor indomethacin, the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitor reserpine, and the closely related regulator EDTA, were evaluated to determine their effects on the absorption of phloretin. The pharmacokinetics of phloretin was studied by oral and intravenous injection in rats. The bioavailability was 8.676 %.The SPIP experiments showed that P-gp, MRP2, BCRP protein inhibitor and closely related regulator, could significantly increase the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of phloretin. Monolayer transport experiments in Caco-2 cells showed that P-gp, MRP2 protein inhibitor and closely related regulator EDTA, significantly increased the Papp value of phloretin. In conclusion, phloretin is a substrate of P-gp and MRP2, and its modes of transport include active transport, efflux protein transport and cell bypass.

15.
J Org Chem ; 85(19): 12444-12455, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865421

RESUMO

Ru-catalyzed cross-coupling of secondary alcohols with only byproducts H2 and H2O provides a green synthetic strategy to prepare ß-disubstituted ketones. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with the coupling of 1-phenylethanol and cyclohexanol as a model reaction to gain deeper mechanistic insights herein. The mechanistic details of the main reaction and the key steps of possible side reactions were clarified, and the obtained results are consistent with reported selectivity. Hydrogenation of α,ß-unsaturated ketones and dehydrogenation of ruthenium hydride intermediate are direct chemoselectivity-determining stages. The hydrogenation via 1,4-addition generates more stable intermediates, being favored over that via 1,2-addition, and thus avoids the formation of alkene products. The conjugation and π-π stacking effects of phenyl and the weak electronic effect of alkyls explain the dominance of specific ketone products in the hydrogenation stage. Hydrogenation of ketone products is kinetically operative but not exergonic enough to stop the irreversible dihydrogen release in an open reaction system, and thus alcohol products are absent. Furthermore, water evaporation in aldol condensation is found to be a double-edged sword, as it can accelerate the hydrogenation stage to prevent α,ß-unsaturated ketones from being the main products but decrease the selectivity therein from thermodynamics overall.

16.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 518: 111005, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877753

RESUMO

In addition to serving as an incretin-based treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) can also reverse cardiovascular diseases caused by vascular remodelling. However, a detailed mechanism underlying how GLP-1 reverses vascular remodelling remains unclear. Here, Spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR) were used as an in vivo model of vascular remodelling. Treatment with a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Liraglutide or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor Alogliptin decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), thickness of vascular wall, and overall collagen levels in SHR. In vitro vascular remodelling can be induced by exposing rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) to angiotensin II (Ang II); GLP-1 treatment attenuated AngII induction of RASMC proliferation, migration, and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) enhanced the inhibitory effects of GLP-1, and extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signalling participated in these processes. These results provide a new mechanistic understanding of key therapeutic strategies for the treatment of vascular remodelling-related diseases.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112642, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979593

RESUMO

The outbreaks of the infectious disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 seriously threatened the life of humans. A rapid, reliable and specific detection method was urgently needed. Herein, we reported a contamination-free visual detection method for SARS-CoV-2 with LAMP and CRISPR/Cas12a technology. CRISPR/Cas12a reagents were pre-added on the inner wall of the tube lid. After LAMP reaction, CRISPR/Cas12a reagents were flowed into the tube and mixed with amplicon solution by hand shaking, which can effectively avoid possible amplicon formed aerosol contamination caused by re-opening the lid after amplification. CRISPR/Cas12a can highly specific recognize target sequence and discriminately cleave single strand DNA probes (5'-6FAM 3'-BHQ1). With smart phone and portable 3D printing instrument, the produced fluorescence can be seen by naked eyes without any dedicated instruments, which is promising in the point-of-care detection. The whole amplification and detection process could be completed within 40 min with high sensitivity of 20 copies RNA of SARS-CoV-2. This reaction had high specificity and could avoid cross-reactivity with other common viruses such as influenza virus. For 7 positive and 3 negative respiratory swab samples provided by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, our detection results had 100% positive agreement and 100% negative agreement, which demonstrated the accuracy and application prospect of this method.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Fluorescência , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Smartphone
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lingzhu San (LZS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription which can be effective in treating febrile seizures (FS) and has few researches on the mechanisms. In order to better guide the clinical use of LZS, we used the research ideas and methods of network pharmacology to find the potential core compounds, targets and pathways of LZS in the complex TCM system for the treatment of FS, and predict the mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Databases such as BATMAN, TCMSP, TCMID, and SWISS TARGET are used to mine the active compounds and targets of LZS, and the target information of FS was obtained through GENECARDS and OMIM. Using Venny2.1.0 and Cytoscape software to locked the potential core compounds and targets of FS. The R language and ClusterProfiler software package were adopt to enrich and analyze the KEGG and GO pathways of the core targets and the biological processes and potential mechanisms of the core targets were revealed. RESULTS: 187 active compounds and 2113 target proteins of LZS were collected. And 38 potential core compounds, 35 core targets and 775 metabolic and functional pathways were screened which involved in mediating FS. Finally, the role of the core compounds, targets and pivotal pathways of LZS regulated FS in the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanism of FS was discussed and clarified. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, the multi-compounds, multi-targets and multi-pathways mechanism of LZS in the treatment of FS was preliminarily revealed through the analysis of network pharmacology data, which is consistent with the principle of multi-compounds compatibility of TCM prescriptions and unified treatment of diseases from multiple angles, and it provides a new way for TCM to treat complex diseases caused by multiple factors.

19.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 119, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746850

RESUMO

Exosomes have been considered as novel and potent vehicles of intercellular communication, instead of "cell dust". Exosomes are consistent with anucleate cells, and organelles with lipid bilayer consisting of the proteins and abundant lipid, enhancing their "rigidity" and "flexibility". Neighboring cells or distant cells are capable of exchanging genetic or metabolic information via exosomes binding to recipient cell and releasing bioactive molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Of note, exosomes exert the remarkable effects on lipid metabolism, including the synthesis, transportation and degradation of the lipid. The disorder of lipid metabolism mediated by exosomes leads to the occurrence and progression of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and Alzheimer's diseases and so on. More importantly, lipid metabolism can also affect the production and secretion of exosomes, as well as interactions with the recipient cells. Therefore, exosomes may be applied as effective targets for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Video abstract.

20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(8): 668-672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748582

RESUMO

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new de novo infectious disease, was first identified in Wuhan, China and quickly spread across China and around the world. The etiology was a novel betacoronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Lu et al., 2020). On Mar. 11, 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) characterized COVID-19 as a global pandemic. As of Mar. 22, 2020, over 292 000 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported globally. To date, COVID-19, with its high infectivity, has killed more people than severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) combined (Wu and McGoogan, 2020).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Resultado do Tratamento
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