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1.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556605

RESUMO

Wound management poses a considerable economic burden on the global healthcare system, considering the impacts of wound infection, delayed healing and scar formation. To this end, multifunctional dressings based on hydrogels have been developed to stimulate skin healing. Herein, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a sprayable hydrogel-based wound dressing loaded with cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONs) and an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), for combined reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging and antibacterial properties. We adopted a mussel-inspired strategy to chemically conjugate gelatin with dopamine motifs and prepared a hydrogel dressing with improved binding affinity to wet skin surfaces. Additionally, the release of AMP from the hydrogel demonstrated rapid release ablation and contact ablation against four representative bacterial strains, confirming the desired antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the CeONs-loaded hydrogel dressing exhibited favorable ROS-scavenging abilities. The biocompatibility of the multifunctional hydrogel dressing was further proven in vitro by culturing with HaCaT cells. Overall, the benefits of the developed hydrogel wound dressing, including sprayability, adhesiveness, antimicrobial activity, as well as ROS-scavenging and skin-remodeling ability, highlight its promissing translational potentials in wound management. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Various hydrogel-based wound-dressing materials have been developed to stimulate wound healing. However, from the clinical perspective, few of the current wound dressings meet all the intended multifunctional requirements of preventing infection, promoting rapid wound closure, and minimizing scar formation, while simultaneously offering the convenience of application. In the current study, we adopted a mussel-inspired strategy to functionalize the GelMA hydrogels with DOPA to fabricate GelMA-DOPA hydrogel which exhibited an enhanced binding affinity for wound surfaces, AMP HHC-36 and CeONs are further encapsulated into the GelMA-DOPA hydrogel to confer the hydrogel wound dressing with antimicrobial and ROS-scavenging abilities. The GelMA-DOPA-AMP-CeONs dressing offered the benefits of sprayability, adhesiveness, antimicrobial activity, as well as ROS-scavenging and skin-remodeling ability, which might address the therapeutic and economic burdens associated with chronic wound treatment and management.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze perioperative complications, resource consumption, and inpatient mortality of patients who receive total joint arthroplasty (TJA) with a concomitant diagnosis of a primary hypercoagulable state (PHS). The following questions were posed in the present paper. First, do patients undergoing TJA with PHS have increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI)? Second, what other in-hospital complications are more likely among PHS patients undergoing TJA? Third, do TJA patients with PHS usually consume greater in-hospital resources? Fourth, do PHS patients suffer higher mortality rates compared to non-PHS patients? Finally, have PHS patients received proper anticoagulant management in past arthroplasties? METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for the years between 2003 and 2014 was searched to identify patients undergoing primary TJA. Patients with PHS were identified with the ICD-9-CM code 289.81. The χ2 -test, the Pearson test, and adjusted multivariate regression analysis were performed to evaluate the difference and odds ratios between the positive and negative diagnosis groups. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2014, a total of 2,044,356 patients were identified in the NIS as undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States. A total of 4664 patients (0.2%) were identified as having PHS. Compared with the non-PHS group, TJA patients with PHS had a higher risk of DVT (THA: odds ratio [OR] = 8.343, 95% CI: 5.362-12.982, P < 0.001; TKA: OR = 4.712, 95% CI: 3.560-6.238, P < 0.001) but did not have increased risk of PE (THA: OR = 1.306, 95% CI: 0.48-3.555, P = 0.602; TKA: OR = 1.143, 95% CI: 0.687-1.903), and only PHS patients in the THA group had higher risks of inpatient mortality (OR = 3.184, 95% CI: 1.348-7.522, P = 0.008) and periprosthetic joint infection (OR = 3.343, 95% CI: 1.084-10.879, P = 0.036). In addition, PHS patients had extended length of stay, higher total costs, and increased risks of certain other complications, such as peripheral vascular disease, hemorrhage, and thrombophlebitis. CONCLUSION: In the present study, PHS patients had higher risks of DVT, greater in-hospital resource consumption, and certain other perioperative complications. However, PHS was not associated with increased risk of PE in TJA patients in the United States between 2003 and 2014. While potential hazards of PHS have already been recognized, the present study revealed additional concerns and demonstrated that further improvements in the perioperative management of patients with hereditary hypercoagulable disorders are essential.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on perioperative risks among patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) have not been investigated yet. Thus, we hypothesized that patients with RA sustained increased perioperative risks and higher resource consumption burdens as compared to patients with osteoarthritis (OA) during the perioperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to compare the demographic characteristics, major in-hospital complications, resource consumptions, and in-hospitalization mortality between patients with RA and OA after rTKA. A 1:1 propensity score-matching, χ2 test, independence-sample T-test, and logistic regression analysis were done in statistical analyses to answer our hypotheses. RESULTS: 4.3% (6363/132,405) of rTKA patients were diagnosed with RA. They tended to be women and received revision for infection but with similar ages as compared to patients with OA. Except for acute postoperative anemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.196), blood transfusion (OR = 1.179), prolonged hospitalization (OR = 1.049), and higher total cost (OR = 1.145), patients with RA sustained decreased odds of acute renal failure (OR = 0.804) and urinary complications (OR = 0.467). Besides, the other observed in-hospital complications showed no differences between patients with RA and OA. CONCLUSION: Despite consuming greater in-hospital resources, patients with RA did not suffer increased odds of most in-hospital complications and in-hospital mortality for a revision TKA during the perioperative period. Compared with patients with OA, patients with RA sustained equivalent perioperative risks in the United States between 2002 and 2014.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(2): 383-395, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432190

RESUMO

The GABAB receptor (GABABR) agonist baclofen has been used to treat alcohol and several other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD), yet its underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate cortical GABABR dynamics following chronic alcohol exposure. Ex vivo brain slice recordings from mice chronically exposed to alcohol revealed a reduction in GABABR-mediated currents, as well as a decrease of GABAB1/2R and G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2) activities in the motor cortex. Moreover, our data indicated that these alterations could be attributed to dephosphorylation at the site of serine 783 (ser-783) in GABAB2 subunit, which regulates the surface expression of GABABR. Furthermore, a human study using paired-pulse-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) analysis further demonstrated a reduced cortical inhibition mediated by GABABR in patients with AUD. Our findings provide the first evidence that chronic alcohol exposure is associated with significantly impaired cortical GABABR function. The ability to promote GABABR signaling may account for the therapeutic efficacy of baclofen in AUD.

5.
Small ; : e2006891, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502109

RESUMO

In this paper, 2D borophene is synthesized through a liquid-phase exfoliation. The morphology and structure of as-prepared borophene are systemically analyzed, and the Z-scan is used to measure the nonlinear optical properties. It is found that the saturable absorber (SA) properties of borophene make it serve as an excellent broadband optical switch, which is strongly used for mode-locking in near- and mid-infrared laser systems. Ultrastable pulses with durations as short as 792 and 693 fs are successfully delivered at the central wavelengths of 1063 and 1560 nm, respectively. Furthermore, stable pulses at a wavelength of 1878 nm are demonstrated from a thulium mode-locked fiber laser based on the same borophene SA. This research reveals a significant potential for borophene used in lasers helping extending the frontiers of photonic technologies.

6.
Nutrition ; 83: 111058, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360033

RESUMO

Substance abuse is a chronic relapsing disorder that results in serious health and socioeconomic issues worldwide. Addictive drugs induce long-lasting morphologic and functional changes in brain circuits and account for the formation of compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Yet, there remains a lack of reliable therapy. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicated that neuroinflammation was implicated in the development of drug addiction. Findings from both our and other laboratories suggest that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are effective in treating neuroinflammation-related mental diseases, and indicate that they could exert positive effects in treating drug addiction. Thus, in the present review, we summarized and evaluated recently published articles reporting the neuroinflammation mechanism in drug addiction and the immune regulatory ability of ω-3 PUFAs. We also sought to identify some of the challenges ahead in the translation of ω-3 PUFAs into addiction treatment.

7.
Eur J Radiol ; 134: 109467, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In populations without contrast enhancement, the imaging features of atypical brain parenchyma inflammations can mimic those of grade II gliomas. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the conventional MR-based radiomics signature in differentiating brain inflammation from grade II glioma. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients (39 patients with grade II glioma and 18 patients with inflammation) were divided into primary (n = 44) and validation cohorts (n = 13). Radiomics features were extracted from T1-weighted images (T1WI) and T2-weighted images (T2WI). Two-sample t-test and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression were adopted to select features and build radiomics signature models for discriminating inflammation from glioma. The predictive performance of the models was evaluated via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and compared with the radiologists' assessments. RESULTS: Based on the primary cohort, we developed T1WI, T2WI and combination (T1WI + T2WI) models for differentiating inflammation from glioma with 4, 8, and 5 radiomics features, respectively. Among these models, T2WI and combination models achieved better diagnostic efficacy, with AUC of 0.980, 0.988 in primary cohort and that of 0.950, 0.925 in validation cohort, respectively. The AUCs of radiologist 1's and 2's assessments were 0.661 and 0.722, respectively. CONCLUSION: The signature based on radiomics features helps to differentiate inflammation from grade II glioma and improved performance compared with experienced radiologists, which could potentially be useful in clinical practice.

8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 9337-9353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262591

RESUMO

Purpose: Autologous bone grafts are the gold standard for treating bone defects. However, limited bone supply and morbidity at the donor site restrict its extensive use. Therefore, developing bone graft materials as an alternative to autologous grafts has gained considerable attention. Injectable hydrogels endowed with osteogenic potential have the ability to fill irregular bone defects using minimally invasive procedures and have thus been attracting researchers' attention. However, from a clinical perspective, most fabrication methods employed for the current injectable osteogenic hydrogels are difficult and inconvenient. In the current study, we fabricated an injectable osteogenic hydrogel using a simple and convenient strategy. Materials and Methods: Gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) pre-polymer was synthetized. Nano silicate (SN) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) were introduced into the pre-polymer to achieve injectability, controlled release property, excellent osteogenic ability, and efficient stem cell homing. Results: The GelMA-SN-SDF-1α demonstrated excellent injectability via a 17-G needle at room temperature. The loaded SDF-1α exhibited a long-term controlled release pattern and efficiently stimulated MSC migration and homing. The GelMA-SN-SDF-1α hydrogel amplified cell spreading, migration, osteogenic-related biomarker expression, and matrix mineralization. The GelMA-SN-SDF-1α hydrogel filled critical-sized calvaria defects in rats and demonstrated excellent bone regeneration ability, as assessed using micro-CT scanning and histomorphometric staining. Conclusion: The GelMA-SN-SDF-1α hydrogel provides a simple and convenient strategy for the fabrication of injectable osteogenic graft materials.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314677

RESUMO

During a long-duration manned spaceflight mission, such as flying to Mars and beyond, all crew members will spend a long period in an independent spacecraft with closed-loop bioregenerative life-support systems. Saving resources and reducing medical risks, particularly in mental heath, are key technology gaps hampering human expedition into deep space. In the 1960s, several scientists proposed that an induced state of suppressed metabolism in humans, which mimics 'hibernation', could be an ideal solution to cope with many issues during spaceflight. In recent years, with the introduction of specific methods, it is becoming more feasible to induce an artificial hibernation-like state (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating species. Natural torpor is a fascinating, yet enigmatic, physiological process in which metabolic rate (MR), body core temperature (Tb ) and behavioural activity are reduced to save energy during harsh seasonal conditions. It employs a complex central neural network to orchestrate a homeostatic state of hypometabolism, hypothermia and hypoactivity in response to environmental challenges. The anatomical and functional connections within the central nervous system (CNS) lie at the heart of controlling synthetic torpor. Although progress has been made, the precise mechanisms underlying the active regulation of the torpor-arousal transition, and their profound influence on neural function and behaviour, which are critical concerns for safe and reversible human torpor, remain poorly understood. In this review, we place particular emphasis on elaborating the central nervous mechanism orchestrating the torpor-arousal transition in both non-flying hibernating mammals and non-hibernating species, and aim to provide translational insights into long-duration manned spaceflight. In addition, identifying difficulties and challenges ahead will underscore important concerns in engineering synthetic torpor in humans. We believe that synthetic torpor may not be the only option for manned long-duration spaceflight, but it is the most achievable solution in the foreseeable future. Translating the available knowledge from natural torpor research will not only benefit manned spaceflight, but also many clinical settings attempting to manipulate energy metabolism and neurobehavioural functions.

10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339273

RESUMO

Thermal interface material (TIM) is crucial for heat transfer from a heat source to a heat sink. A high-performance thermal interface material with solid-solid phase change properties was prepared to improve both thermal conductivity and interfacial wettability by using reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated polyurethane (PU) foam as a filler, and segmented polyurethane (SPU) as a matrix. The rGO-coated foam (rGOF) was fabricated by a self-assembling method and the SPU was synthesized by an in situ polymerization method. The pure SPU and rGOF/SPU composite exhibited obvious solid-solid phase change properties with proper phase change temperature, high latent heat, good wettability, and no leakage. It was found that the SPU had better heat transfer performance than the PU without phase change properties in a practical application as a TIM, while the thermal conductivity of the rGOF/SPU composite was 63% higher than that of the pure SPU at an ultra-low rGO content of 0.8 wt.%, showing great potential for thermal management.

11.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous clinical models have been proposed to evaluate and predict recurrence and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in different stages after resection, but no model for very early-stage HCC. METHODS: The data of 661 very early-stage HCC patients after curative resection in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze recurrence and survival. The risk classifications for recurrence and survival were established by using classification and regression tree analysis. The nomograms were constructed and validated using bootstrap resampling and an independent 186-patient validation cohort from the same institution. RESULTS: According to the results of multivariate analysis for prognosis after resection, decision trees and 3-stratification classifications that satisfactorily determined the risk of recurrence and survival were established. Based on these two risk classifications, a six-factor nomogram for predicting recurrence and a six-factor nomogram for predicting survival were created. The concordance indexes were 0.64 for recurrence nomogram, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.60-0.67, and 0.76 for survival nomogram, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.70-0.82. The calibration curves showed good agreement between the predictions made by the nomograms and the actual survival outcomes. These predicting results for recurrence and survival were better than three common classical HCC stages and were confirmed in the independent validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-stratification classifications enabled satisfactory risk evaluations of recurrence and survival, and the nomograms showed considerably accurate predictions of the risk of recurrence and survival in very early-stage HCC patients after curative resection.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 583611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192269

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of ketogenic metabolism on macrophage polarization, inflammation inhibition, and function recovery after acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods: Sixty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into sham, standard diet (SD), ketone diet (KD), and 1, 3-butanediol (BD) groups. All animals underwent C5 unilateral laminectomy, whereas the SD, KD, and BD groups underwent C5 spinal cord hemi-contusion. The impact rod with a diameter of 1.5 mm was aligned 22.5° to the left and 1.4 mm to the midline, and then triggered to deliver a set displacement of 1.5 mm at a speed of 100 mm/s. The gene expression of inflammatory factors as well as the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, arginase-1, and inflammatory factors were measured at 1 week post-injury. Serum ketone and behavior were evaluated every second week for 12 weeks. Then, histological analyses of the gray and white matter at the epicenter were conducted at 12 weeks post-injury. Results: The serum ketone levels of the KD and BD groups were significantly increased when compared with the SD group. The gene and protein expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß tended to increase after the SCI, but were inhibited in the KD and BD groups. The protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, marker of M1 macrophage, was inhibited in the KD and BD groups; on the other hand, the expression of arginase-1, marker of M2 macrophage, was boosted in the KD and BD groups. The usage of the ipsilateral forelimb was higher in the KD group than in the SD group. The hemi-contusive injury resulted in an obvious ipsilateral lesion area at the epicenter, and there was no significant difference between groups regarding the lesion size. However, the spared gray matter area was significantly greater in the KD group than in the SD and BD groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that ketogenic metabolism promotes macrophage polarization to M2, inhibits an inflammatory response, and alleviates the loss of gray matter after SCI. A higher ketone level, such as that induced by the ketogenic diet, seems to benefit function recovery after SCI.

13.
Curr Drug Metab ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With significant clinical effects, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been attracting increasing interest of the world's scientific community. However, TCM contains immense amounts of chemical components. It is a great challenge to objectively evaluate of the correlation between the in vivo process and the therapeutic effect of TCM. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the recent investigation (from 2017 to 2019) on preclinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of TCM via liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHOD: We reviewed the published articles regarding the PK of TCM by LC-MS/MS. In addition, we summarized information on PK parameter of bioactive components, single herb and traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. RESULTS: The vast majority of literatures on preclinical PK of TCM use single oral administration, the biological matrix is mostly rat plasma, and the main PK parameters include AUC, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2, etc. Conclusion: Although LC-MS/MS can be used for high-throughput analysis, the characterization of in vivo processes of TCM is still has a long way. With the advantages of high sensitivity, high specificity and simple operation, the increasingly mature LC-MS/MS technology will play an important role in the PK of TCM.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24634-24639, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020306

RESUMO

Experimental discovery of ultralarge elastic deformation in nanoscale diamond and machine learning of its electronic and phonon structures have created opportunities to address new scientific questions. Can diamond, with an ultrawide bandgap of 5.6 eV, be completely metallized, solely under mechanical strain without phonon instability, so that its electronic bandgap fully vanishes? Through first-principles calculations, finite-element simulations validated by experiments, and neural network learning, we show here that metallization/demetallization as well as indirect-to-direct bandgap transitions can be achieved reversibly in diamond below threshold strain levels for phonon instability. We identify the pathway to metallization within six-dimensional strain space for different sample geometries. We also explore phonon-instability conditions that promote phase transition to graphite. These findings offer opportunities for tailoring properties of diamond via strain engineering for electronic, photonic, and quantum applications.

15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 90: 393-402, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916272

RESUMO

Our previous study revealed that fish oil (FO) pre-treatment could improve the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior in mice but did not alter the expression of stress hormones associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The exact mechanisms underlying the protective effects of FO remain elusive. Here we applied the metabolomic technique to investigate the potential involvement of FO metabolites in ameliorating depressive-like behaviors in LPS-injected mice. It revealed that LPS-injection stimulated systemic inflammation, exhausted the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) level in the brain, decreased energy metabolism and impaired neuronal function, which collectively contributed to depressive-like behaviors in mice. FO treatment enhanced the production of neuroprotective metabolites including taurine, hypotaurine and tyramine, decreased the generation of neurotoxic agents such as ADPR, glutamate accumulation and oxidized glutathione, and prevented the NAD exhaustion in the brain, which might underlie the beneficial effects of FO against LPS-induced inflammation and depressive-like behaviors.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(6): 065301, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845677

RESUMO

We investigate the radio-frequency spectroscopy of impurities interacting with a quantum gas at finite temperature. In the limit of a single impurity, we show using Fermi's golden rule that introducing (or injecting) an impurity into the medium is equivalent to ejecting an impurity that is initially interacting with the medium, since the "injection" and "ejection" spectral responses are simply related to each other by an exponential function of frequency. Thus, the full spectral information for the quantum impurity is contained in the injection spectral response, which can be determined using a range of theoretical methods, including variational approaches. We use this property to compute the finite-temperature equation of state and Tan contact of the Fermi polaron. Our results for the contact of a mobile impurity are in excellent agreement with recent experiments and we find that the finite-temperature behavior is qualitatively different compared to the case of infinite impurity mass.

17.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712796

RESUMO

Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been considered as a key contributor to impaired cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brains. However, how does it affect the brain and whether the glucose controlling can slow down the process are still unknown. In the current study, T2DM patients with high glycosylated hemoglobin level (HGL) and controls with normal glycosylated hemoglobin level (NGL) were enrolled to investigate the relationships between HbA1c, brain imaging characteristics and cognitive function. First, a series of cognitive tests including California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) were conducted. Then, the functional irregularity based on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was evaluated via a new data-driven brain entropy (BEN) mapping analysis method. We found that the HGLs exhibited significantly increased BEN in the right precentral gyrus (PreCG.R), the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG.R), the triangular and opercular parts of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFGtriang.R and IFGoperc.R). The strengths of the functional connections of PreCG.R with the brainstem/cerebellum were decreased. Partial correlation analysis showed that HbA1c had a strong positive correlation to regional BEN and negatively correlated with some CVLT scores. Negative correlations also existed between the BEN of PreCG.R/IFGoperc.R and some CVLT scores, suggesting the correspondence between higher HbA1c, increased BEN and decreased verbal memory function. This study demonstrated the potential of BEN in exploring the functional alterations affected by HbA1c and interpreting the verbal memory function decline. It will help understanding the neurophysiological mechanism of T2DM-induced cognitive decline and taking effective prevention or treatment measures.

18.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(5): 1811-1823, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642086

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic disease, with more than 4 million cases and nearly 300,000 deaths. Little is known about COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate the influence of preexisting COPD on the progress and outcomes of COVID-19. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. We enrolled 1,048 patients aged 40 years and above, including 50 patients with COPD and 998 patients without COPD, and with COVID-19 confirmed via high-throughput sequencing or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, between December 11, 2019 and February 20, 2020. We collected data of demographics, pathologic test results, radiologic imaging, and treatments. The primary outcomes were composite endpoints determined by admission to an intensive care unit, the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results: Compared with patients who had COVID-19 but not COPD, those with COPD had higher rates of fatigue (56.0% vs. 40.2%), dyspnea (66.0% vs. 26.3%), diarrhea (16.0% vs. 3.6%), and unconsciousness (8.0% vs. 1.7%) and a significantly higher proportion of increased activated partial thromboplastin time (23.5% vs. 5.2%) and D-dimer (65.9% vs. 29.3%), as well as ground-glass opacities (77.6% vs. 60.3%), local patchy shadowing (61.2% vs. 41.4%), and interstitial abnormalities (51.0% vs. 19.8%) on chest computed tomography. Patients with COPD were more likely to develop bacterial or fungal coinfection (20.0% vs. 5.9%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (20.0% vs. 7.3%), septic shock (14.0% vs. 2.3%), or acute renal failure (12.0% vs. 1.3%). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 had a higher risk of reaching the composite endpoints [hazard ratio (HR): 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-3.38; P=0.001] or death (HR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.15-4.51; P=0.019), after adjustment. Conclusions: In this study, patients with COPD who developed COVID-19 showed a higher risk of admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death.

19.
Nanoscale ; 12(22): 11784-11807, 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462161

RESUMO

Since the discovery of graphene in 2004, it has become a worldwide hot topic due to its fascinating properties. However, the zero band gap and weak light absorption of graphene strictly restrict its applications in optoelectronic devices. In this regard, semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials are thought to be promising candidates for next-generation optoelectronic devices. Infrared (IR) light has gained intensive attention due to its vast applications, including night vision, remote sensing, target acquisition, optical communication, etc. Consequently, the generation, modulation, and detection of IR light are crucial for practical applications. Due to the van der Waals interaction between 2D materials and Si, the lattice mismatch of 2D materials and Si can be neglected; consequently, the integration process can be achieved easily. Herein, we review the recent progress of semiconducting 2D materials in IR optoelectronic devices. Firstly, we introduce the background and motivation of the review. Then, the suitable materials for IR applications are presented, followed by a comprehensive review of the applications of 2D materials in light emitting devices, optical modulators, and photodetectors. Finally, the problems encountered and further developments are summarized. We believe that milestone investigations of IR optoelectronics based on 2D materials beyond graphene will emerge soon, which will bring about great industrial revelations in 2D material-based integrated nanodevice commercialization.

20.
Chin Med ; 15: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411290

RESUMO

Background: Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts psychomotor and cognitive functions, most of which are subserved by the dysfunction of hippocampus. Dysregulated excitatory glutamatergic transmission is implicated in repeated alcohol induced psychomotor and cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the main active ingredient of the traditional tonic medicine Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), has been used to treat cognitive deficits. Particularly, Rg1 has been demonstrated to improve hippocampus-dependent learning in mice and attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. Thus, in the present research, we sought to investigate the therapeutic effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on repeated alcohol induced psychomotor and cognitive deficits in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks and unravel the underpinnings of its neuroprotection. Methods: Male ICR (CD-1) mice were consecutively intragastrically treated with 20% (w/v) alcohol for 21 days. Then, behavior tests were conducted to evaluate repeated alcohol induced psychomotor and cognitive deficits. Histopathological changes, and biochemical and molecular alterations were assessed to determine the potential neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1. Results: The results suggested that Rg1, at the optimal dose of 6 mg/kg, has the potential to ameliorate repeated alcohol induced cognitive deficits by regulating activities of NR2B containing NMDARs and excitotoxic signaling. Conclusion: Our findings further provided a new strategy to treat chronic alcohol exposure induced adverse consequences.

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