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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shewanella algae is a zoonotic marine bacterium that causes a variety of infections in immunocompromised patients or those who have been exposed to seawater. The development of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) resistance in S. algae are found in human and environment isolates during the past ten years, and thus the treatment options are decreasing. METHODOLOGY: In the study, we conduct a comparative genomic study to identify the resistant mechanism of TMP/SMX-resistance in S. algae. RESULTS: We found the resistance of TMP/SMX in S. algae is associated with the existence of sul1 and dfrA12 within the class 1 integron. The gene cassette dfra12-aadA2-qacEΔ1/sul1 within the class 1 integron is highly conserved. In addition, the class 1 integron and encapsulated sul1 are significantly enriched in Enterobacteriaceae in NCBI and UniProt databases. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the horizontal transfer of TMP/SMX resistance via class 1 integron is most frequently occurred within Enterobacteriaceae and has spread to a wide range of sources including soil, poultry, and marine water.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibilities of carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNSPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CNSAB) isolates to cefiderocol, novel ß-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations, new tetracycline analogues, and other comparative antibiotics. METHODS: In total, 405 non-duplicate bacteremic CNSPA (n = 150) and CNSAB (n = 255) isolates were collected from 16 hospitals in Taiwan between 2018 and 2020. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method, and susceptibilities were interpreted according to the relevant guidelines or in accordance with results of previous studies and non-species-related pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data. RESULTS: Among the isolates tested, cefiderocol demonstrated potent in vitro activity against CNSPA (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 mg/L; 100% of isolates were inhibited at ≤4 mg/L) and CNSAB (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 mg/L; 94.9% of isolates were inhibited at ≤4 mg/L) isolates. More than 80% of CNSPA isolates were susceptible to cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and amikacin, based on breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Activities of new BLI combinations varied significantly. Tetracycline analogues, including tigecycline (MIC50/90, 1/2 mg/L; 92.5% of CNSAB isolates were inhibited at ≤2 mg/L) and eravacycline (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 mg/L; 99.6% of CNSAB isolates were inhibited at ≤2 mg/L) exhibited more potent in vitro activity against CNSAB than omadacycline (MIC50/90, 4/8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The spread of CNSPA and CNSAB poses a major challenge to global health. Significant resistance be developed even before a novel agent becomes commercially available. The development of on-site antimicrobial susceptibility tests for these novel agents is of great clinical importance.

3.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(12): 1511-1514, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental cleaning is an effective measure to prevent infections. However, performance observation has been rarely delineated. This study aimed to compare correlations among visual inspection, performance observation, and effectiveness by using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence (ATP bioluminescence) as a comparator to find out which method is better to assess hospital cleanliness. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at a medical center from April 2019 to October 2020. Seven high-touch surfaces were evaluated during and after terminal cleaning by performance observation, visual inspection, and ATP bioluminescence. RESULTS: The scores by performance observation, visual inspection, and ATP were 55.4%, 87.5%, and 26.6% after cleaning. The correlations between performance observation and visual inspection and between performance observation and ATP interpretation were weak positive (φ = 0.300, 0.324, P < .001). No correlation was between the visual inspection and ATP interpretation (φ=0.137). The median of ATP readings was lower in "compliant" group by performance observation and "clean" group by visual inspection than "not compliant" group and "not clean" group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Performance observation combined with ATP would be preferred to include to audit cleanliness on high-risk surfaces. Visual inspection would be a rapid and time-saving assessment tool on low-risk surfaces.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfecção , Hospitais , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Medições Luminescentes , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Lipoglicopeptídeos , Oxazolidinonas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sorogrupo , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Teicoplanina/análogos & derivados , Teicoplanina/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas , Tetrazóis
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other invasive diseases, and is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly population. The present study aimed to provide current antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 252 nonduplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to 16 hospitals in Taiwan between January 2017 and December 2019, and were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was determined using the Vitek 2 automated system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Furthermore, epidemiological profiles of S. pneumoniae infections were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the strains analyzed, 88% were recognized as invasive pneumococcal strains. According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria for non-meningitis, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae demonstrated a declining trend from 43.6% in 2017 to 17.2% in 2019. However, the rate of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 85.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Furthermore, the prevalence of ceftriaxone-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 62.7% based on the criteria for meningitis. Isolates demonstrated higher susceptibility toward doripenem and ertapenem than toward meropenem and imipenem. An increased rate of non-susceptibility toward levofloxacin was observed in southern Taiwan (15.1%) and elderly patients (≥65 years; 11.4%). Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. CONCLUSION: Empirical treatment with ceftriaxone monotherapy for pneumococcal meningitis should be carefully monitored owing to its high non-susceptibility rate. The susceptibility rates of most isolates to penicillin (used for treating non-meningitis pneumococcal diseases), carbapenems (ertapenem and doripenem), respiratory quinolones (moxifloxacin and levofloxacin), vancomycin, and linezolid suggested the potential of these antibiotics in treating pneumococcal diseases in Taiwan.

6.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(3): 106377, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166777

RESUMO

This study examined the susceptibility of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacterales (CNSE) to cefiderocol, cefepime/zidebactam, cefepime/enmetazobactam, omadacycline, eravacycline and other comparative agents. Non-duplicate Enterobacterales isolates from 16 Taiwanese hospitals were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method, and susceptibility results were interpreted based on relevant guidelines. In total, 201 CNSE isolates were investigated, including 26 Escherichia coli isolates and 175 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Carbapenemase genes were detected in 15.4% (n=4) of E. coli isolates and 47.4% (n=83) of K. pneumoniae isolates, with the most common being blaKPC (79.3%, 69/87), followed by blaOXA-48-like (13.8%, 12/87). Cefiderocol was the most active agent against CNSE; only 3.8% (n=1) of E. coli isolates and 4.6% (n=8) of K. pneumoniae isolates were not susceptible to cefiderocol. Among the carbapenem-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, 88.5% (n=23) and 93.7% (n=164), respectively, were susceptible to ceftazidime/avibactam. For cefepime/zidebactam, 23 (88.5%) E. coli isolates and 155 (88.6%) K. pneumoniae isolates had MICs ≤2/2 mg/L. For cefepime/enmetazobactam, 22 (84.6%) E. coli isolates and 85 (48.6%) K. pneumoniae isolates had MICs ≤2/8 mg/L. The higher MICs of K. pneumoniae against cefepime/enmetazobactam were due to only one (1.5%) of the 67 blaKPC-carrying isolates being susceptible. MICs of omadacycline were significantly higher than those of eravacycline and tigecycline. In summary, cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam and cefepime/zidebactam were more effective against carbapenem-nonsusceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae than other drugs, highlighting their potential as valuable therapeutics.

7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(1): 106353, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961991

RESUMO

Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed for 235 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates from 18 Taiwanese hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eravacycline, omadacycline, lipoglycopeptides, and other comparator antibiotics were determined using the broth microdilution method. Nearly all isolates of VREfm were not susceptible to teicoplanin, dalbavancin, and telavancin, with susceptibility rates of 0.5%, 1.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Tigecycline and eravacycline were active against 93.2% and 89.7% of the VREfm isolates, respectively. Moreover, the susceptibility rates of quinupristin/dalfopristin, tedizolid, and linezolid were 59.1%, 84.2%, and 77.4%, respectively. Additionally, 94% of the VREfm isolates were classified as susceptible to daptomycin, and the MICs of omadacycline required to inhibit VREfm growth by 50% and 90% were 0.12 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Susceptibility rates of VREfm isolates to synthetic tetracyclines and daptomycin were slightly lower and to oxazolidinone-class antibiotics were much lower in Taiwan than those in other parts of the world. Continuous monitoring of VREfm resistance to novel antibiotics, including synthetic tetracyclines, oxazolidinone-class antibiotics, and daptomycin, is needed in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Daptomicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Linezolida/farmacologia , Lipoglicopeptídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Virginiamicina/farmacologia
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(4): 740-744, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253142

RESUMO

The first imported case of XDR typhoid fever in Taiwan contracted with a bacterial strain, which was most closely related to the blaCTX-M-15-carrying strains linked to Pakistan. Meropenem, in combination with an antimicrobial with intracellular activity against Salmonella, should be used for the treatment of XDR typhoid fever.

9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(4): 658-664, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shewanella algae is a zoonotic pathogen that poses a serious health threat to immunocompromised hosts. Treatment of S. algae infections is challenging due to the pathogen's intrinsic resistance to a variety of ß-lactam antibiotics. Therapeutic options have become further limited by the emergence of quinolone-resistant strains. Currently, there are few studies concerning the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying acquired quinolones resistance in S. algae. qnrA was once proposed as the candidate gene related to quinolones resistance in S. algae. However, recent studies demonstrated qnrA are highly conservative and does not confer resistance to quinolones in S. algae. METHODS: A total of 27 non-duplicated isolates of S. algae strains were examined. MICs of ciprofloxacin were determined using Vitek 2. Whole genome sequencing was performed using MiSeq platform. Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database and ResFinder were used for annotation of quinolones resistance genes. Multiple sequence alignment by EMBOSS Clustal Omega were used to identified mutation in quinolone resistance-determining regions. To investigation of the alteration of protein structure induced by mutation, in silico molecular docking studies was conducted using Accryl Discovery studio visualizer. RESULTS: All S. algae harbored the quinolone-resistance associated genes (qnrA, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE) regardless its resistance to ciprofloxacin. Comparison of these genomes identified a nonsynonymous mutation (S83V) in chromosome-encoded gyrase subunits (GyrA) in quinolone-resistant strain. We found this mutation disrupts the water-metal ion bridge, reduces the affinity of the quinolone-enzyme complex for the metal ions and therefore decrease the capability of quinolones to stabilize cleavage complexes. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides insight into the quinolone resistance mechanisms in S. algae, which would be helpful for the evolution of antibiotic resistance in this bacterium.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 141440, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829270

RESUMO

Eight disinfection methods were applied to control biofilm contamination in domestic hot water system. The inactivation efficiency, responses of high- (≥1%), mid- (0.1% ~ 1%) and low-abundant taxa (≤0.1%) to disinfection, and interactions within and across three sub-communities were investigated. Ultraviolet was the most effective disinfection method for total bacteria and Escherichia coli, and chlorine dioxide had the highest inactivation efficiency on heterotrophic bacteria, while silver ions exhibited poor performance on all of them. At the phylum level, the responses of microorganisms to eight disinfection methods were different, but Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated in most samples. Eight disinfection methods had a greater impact on the proportion of high- and mid-abundant taxa than that of low-abundant taxa, and led to dissimilar transformations of genera among high-, mid- and low-abundant taxa in each sample. High-, mid- and low-abundant taxa of different samples showed similar structures and were roughly clustered into three Groups. Moreover, high-abundant taxa had more complex internal interactions than mid- and low-abundant taxa, and mainly presented co-occurrence patterns. The associations between high- and low-abundant taxa were close, and some low-abundant genera were identified as hub bacteria, such as Paracoccus, Thioalkalispira and Flavitalea. Furthermore, a total of 23 potential pathogens were detected in this study, and they mainly showed positive interactions, with Mycobacteria and Streptococcus as keystone genera. These results highlight the dissimilar responses of high-, mid- and low-abundant taxa to disinfection, and the critical role of some low-abundant genera in the microbial network, as well as the co-occurrence patterns among potential pathogens.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Água , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455870

RESUMO

Pyogenic liver abscess is usually a complication of biliary tract disease. Taiwan features among the countries with the highest incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Few studies have investigated whether patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) have higher incidence rates of CRC and HCC. However, these findings have been inconclusive. The risks of CRC and HCC in patients with PLA and the factors contributing to cancer development were assessed in these patients. The clinical tests significantly associated with cancers in these patients with PLA were determined to assist in the early diagnosis of these cancers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using binary logistic regression Cancer classification models were constructed using the decision tree algorithm C5.0 to compare the accuracy among different models with those risk factors of cancers and then determine the optimal model. Thereafter, the rules were summarized using the decisi8on tree model to assist in the diagnosis. The results indicated that CRC and HCC (OR, 3.751; 95% CI, 1.149-12.253) and CRC (OR, 6.838; 95% CI, 2.679-17.455) risks were higher in patients with PLA than those without PLA. The decision tree analysis demonstrated that the model with the PLA variable had the highest accuracy, and that classification could be conducted using fewer factors, indicating that PLA is critical in HCC and CRC. Two rules were determined for assisting in the diagnosis of CRC and HCC using the decision tree model.

12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 481-484, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111449
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(3): 318-328, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202925

RESUMO

Multicentre surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically important Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from 16 Taiwanese hospitals was performed. Escherichia coli (n = 398), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 346), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 252) and Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) (n = 188) bloodstream isolates, non-typhoidal Salmonella (n = 230) and Shigella flexneri (n = 18) from various sources were collected. Antimicrobial MICs were determined using broth microdilution. Genes encoding K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamases (NDMs), Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase (VIM), OXA-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) as well as mcr-1-5 genes were detected by molecular methods. Rates of carbapenem non-susceptibility were 2.8%, 9.0%, 0.4%, 0%, 10.3% and 48.8% for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella, Shigella, P. aeruginosa and ABC, respectively. For carbapenemases, one (0.3%) E. coli harboured blaNDM-1. Fifteen (4.3%), two (0.6%) and two (0.6%) K. pneumoniae contained blaKPC, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM, respectively. Two (0.5%) E. coli and fourteen (4.0%) K. pneumoniae were non-wild-type according to the colistin MIC. Among Enterobacteriaceae with a colistin MIC ≥ 2 mg/L, mcr-1 was detected in one E. coli, two K. pneumoniae and three Salmonella spp. All three mcr-1-positive Salmonella isolates were collected from community-acquired infections; none of the six mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae were carbapenem-resistant. Carbapenem resistance has increased among clinically important GNB, especially among hospital-acquired infections. blaKPC, especially the blaKPC-2 variant, was detected in approximately one-half of the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates in this study. Although resistance rates to colistin remained low among Enterobacteriaceae, the finding of mcr-1 from different species raises concern of potential dissemination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Genótipo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 52(4): 592-597, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study investigated the impact of implementing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle care on the rates of VAP in intensive care units (ICUs) in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 10 ICUs (bed number, 170), including surgical (SICUs) (n = 7), cardiovascular/surgical (CV/S-ICUs) (n = 1), and medical ICUs (MICUs) (n = 2) from 10 hospitals (7 medical center hospitals and 3 regional hospitals) were enrolled in this quality-improvement project. This study was divided into the pre-intervention phase (1st January, 2012-31st July, 2013) and the intervention phase (1st August, 2013-31st October, 2014). RESULTS: Among the 10 hospitals, the overall rates (cases per 1000 ventilator-days) of VAP declined significantly (p = 0.005; rate ratio, 0.71) from 1.9 in the pre-intervention period to 1.5 in the intervention period. Significant difference in VAP rates between these periods was found in the regional hospitals (from 1.6 to 0.7; p < 0.001) and the SICUs (from 2.1 to 1.4; p < 0.001), but not in the medical centers (2.0 vs. 1.9; p = 0.0667) or CV/S-ICUs (4.5 vs. 4.5; p = 0.5391). However, VAP rate increased significantly (cases per 1000 ventilator-days) in the MICUs between the two periods (from 0.5 to 1.0; p = 0.0489). For the VAP bundle care elements, the overall compliance rate was 87.7% with 83.6% and 97.9% in the medical centers and regional hospitals, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing VAP bundle care has effectively reduced VAP in Taiwanese ICUs, but differences in performance and compliance rates of VAP bundle care among the different ICUs and hospital categories did exist.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar , Hospitais , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
Infect Drug Resist ; 11: 1983-1992, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464540

RESUMO

Objectives: We investigated the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinically important Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from 16 major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2017. Materials and methods: Escherichia coli (n=686) and Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream isolates (n=673), non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS; n=221) from various sources, Shigella species (n=21) from fecal samples, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=129) from the genitourinary tract were collected. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Alleles encoding K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamases (NDMs), Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase, imipenemase, OXA-48-like, and mcr-1-5 genes were detected by molecular methods in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Results: Five (0.7%) E. coli isolates harbored mcr-1 alleles. Twenty-four (3.6%), seven (1.0%), four (0.6%), and one (0.15%) K. pneumoniae isolates contained bla KPC, bla OXA-48-like, mcr-1, and bla NDM, respectively. Three (1.4%) NTS and no Shigella isolates harbored mcr-1 genes. Seventy-one (10.5%) K. pneumoniae isolates displayed non-susceptibility (NS) to carbapenem agent(s). Phenotypically extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae isolates showed significantly higher rates of ertapenem, tigecycline, and ceftolozane-tazobactam (CLZ- TAZ) NS (40.2%, 16.3%, and 71%-80%, respectively) than E. coli isolates exhibiting ESBL phenotypes (5.4%, 0.7%, and 18%-28%, respectively). All phenotypically ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVB) susceptible. Two (8.3%) KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates showed CAZ-AVB NS. Hospital-acquired K. pneumoniae isolates were significantly less susceptible to ertapenem and CLZ-TAZ than hospital-acquired E. coli isolates. Conclusion: Third-generation cephalosporins remain the optimal choice for treating NTS, Shigella, and gonococcal infections in Taiwan. Hospital-acquired and phenotypically ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae are a heavy resistance burden in Taiwan.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(36): e12268, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200166

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with long-term exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, the factors associated with DM among HIV-infected patients in Asia remain unclear in the HAART era.A nationwide cohort studyData from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) between 2000 and 2010 were used to investigate the incidence of and factors associated with DM among HIV-infected patients. Propensity score matching was conducted to match 4797 patients receiving HAART (HAART cohort) with 4797 patients not receiving HAART (non-HAART cohort). HAART use was treated as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model.HAART cohort had a significantly higher 10-year incidence of DM (7.16%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.30%-10.03%) than non-HAART cohort (2.24%; 95% CI, 1.28%-3.20%) (P < .001). After adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities, receiving HAART was associated with an increased incidence of DM, with a subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) of 2.39 (95% CI, 1.65-3.45). Hypertension (sHR = 5.27; 95% CI, 3.21-8.65), gout (sHR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.38-4.16), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (sHR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.28-4.61) were significantly associated with a higher risk of DM. Sensitivity analyses showed exposure to HAART remained significantly associated with an increased risk of DM, particularly in those without pre-existing hypertension, gout, or HCV infection.Exposure to HAART increased the risk of DM in HIV-infected Taiwanese patients, particularly in those without pre-existing hypertension, gout, or HCV infection.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 52(5): 651-657, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145246

RESUMO

This nationwide surveillance was conducted in 2017 to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia due to mcr-1-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae as well as the presence of mcr-1-harbouring Escherichia coli in pigs. Non-duplicate, consecutive bacterial isolates were collected from patients treated at 16 hospitals in Taiwan. All E. coli (n = 686) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 673) isolates from humans were obtained from patients with bacteraemia; for Salmonella spp. isolates (n = 221), 52.5% were obtained from blood samples and 26.2% from stool samples. The rates of mcr-1-harbouring bacteraemic isolates were 0.9% (6/686), 0.4% (3/673) and 0.9% (1/116) for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and Salmonella spp., respectively. Among the 16 E. coli isolates collected from 16 pigs, 12 (75.0%) were positive for mcr-1. Two mcr-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates, one possessing K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) only and the other possessing both KPC and OXA-48, exhibited high-level resistance to carbapenems [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≥64 mg/L]. The 12 mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates from pigs were all susceptible to carbapenems. Pulsotypes of the six human mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates were different from each other and also varied from those of the porcine isolates. Among the ten patients with bacteraemia caused by mcr-1-harbouring isolates, five had community-acquired infections and five had hospital-acquired infections. Sepsis-related mortality occurred in four patients (40.0%) with bacteraemia. These findings indicate the importance of regular screening for the presence of mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae in humans and animals to prevent the spread of infection in hospitals and the community.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Salmonella/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
18.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 51(5): 666-671, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study assessed the effect of the central line bundle on the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (ICUs) in Taiwan. METHODS: This national study was conducted in 27 ICUs with 404 beds total, including 15 medical ICUs, 11 surgical ICUs, and one mixed ICU. The study period was divided into two phases: a pre-intervention (between June 1, 2011 and October 31, 2011) and intervention phase (between December 1, 2011 and October 31, 2012). Outcome variables, including CLABSI rates (per 1000 catheter-days) and catheter utilization rates, were measured. RESULTS: The overall rate of CLABSI significantly decreased by 12.2% (p < 0.001) from 5.74 per 1000 catheter-days in the pre-intervention phase to 5.04 per 1000 catheter-days in the intervention phase. The catheter utilization rate decreased by 1.1% from 55.3% in the pre-intervention phase to 54.2% in the intervention phase. The decline in CLABSI varied significantly among hospital and ICU levels, except surgical ICUs (p = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a multidimensional central-line bundle significantly reduced the rates of CLABSI by 12.2% in nearly all participating ICUs, except surgical ICUs.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateteres/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/classificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 50(4): 464-470, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study was intended to investigate the impact of implementation of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) bundle care on the incidence of CA-UTI in high-risk units. METHODS: Thirteen high-risk units, including medical (n = 5), surgical (n = 3), cardiac intensive care units (n = 2), respiratory care centers (n = 2), and respiratory care ward (n = 1) were included in this quality-improvement project. This study was divided into pre-intervention phase (from January 1 to July 31) and post-intervention phase (from August 1 to October 31) in 2013. RESULTS: The incidence of CA-UTI decreased by 22.7%, from 3.86 to 2.98 per 1000 catheter-days (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.82; p < 0.0001) before and after the introduction of the CA-UTI bundle. Among 66 episodes of culture-proven CA-UTIs, Candida spp. were the most common pathogens (n = 17, 25.8%), followed by Escherichia coli (n = 10, 15.2%). For the seven elements of the insertion bundle, the compliance was the lowest for cleaning of the perineum, followed by hand hygiene. The overall compliance rates of the insertion bundle were 93.4%, 99.5%, and 96.3% in medical centers, regional hospitals, and district hospital, respectively. For the six elements of the maintenance bundle, the compliance was the lowest for daily review of the need of a Foley catheter. The overall compliance rates of the maintenance bundle were 95.7%, 99.9%, and 99.9% in medical centers, regional hospitals, and district hospital, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of CA-UTI bundle care successfully reduced CA-UTI in Taiwanese high-risk units. A process surveillance checklist can be helpful for understanding which parts of the bundle care require improvements.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
Turk J Haematol ; 34(2): 159-166, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27610628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the risk factors for CMV reactivation and treatment failure in CMV endemic areas have remained unclear. This study investigated the risk factors for CMV reactivation among allo-HSCT recipients in an area where CMV is highly endemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 82 allo-HSCT recipients from a CMV endemic area were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were stratified into two groups: those with CMV reactivation (n=32) and those without CMV reactivation (n=50). We investigated possible variables associated with CMV reactivation and treatment failure. RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed that non-remission disease status [hazard ratio (HR): 2.15; p=0.032] and ≥grade III acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR: 3.07; p=0.002) were associated with CMV reactivation. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that older age (HR: 1.03; p=0.029) and ≥grade III acute GVHD (HR: 2.98; p=0.012) were associated with CMV reactivation. Overall survival time seemed lower among patients with CMV reactivation than among patients without CMV reactivation, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.165). The absence of ≥grade III acute GVHD was associated with successful CMV treatment in the current study (odds ratio: 4.40; p=0.008). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic anti-CMV therapy might need to be considered for allo-HSCT recipients who have ≥grade III GVHD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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