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1.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 7614035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405506

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a known risk factor for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and sarcopenia in older patients. Because there may be an interaction between DKD and sarcopenia, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between urinary levels of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and sarcopenia using a novel rat model of T2D. Methods: Male spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats (n = 5) at 16 weeks of age were used as an animal model of T2D. Age- and sex-matched Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 7) were used as controls. Urine samples were obtained from the rats, and muscle strength was evaluated with the use of the forelimb grip test at 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age. Serum, kidney, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle samples were collected at 24 weeks of age. Urinary L-FABP levels were measured using dedicated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Increased urinary L-FABP levels, focal glomerular sclerosis, moderate interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and accumulation of renal oxidative proteins were significantly observed in the SDT fatty rats, compared to the SD rats. Muscle weight, muscle strength, cross-sectional areas of both type I and type IIb muscle fibers, and increasing rate of muscle strength were significantly decreased in the SDT fatty rats compared to the SD rats at 24 weeks. Urinary L-FABP levels at 20 and 24 weeks were significantly negatively correlated with muscle strength. Urinary L-FABP levels at 16 weeks were significantly negatively correlated with the increasing rate of muscle strength. Conclusions: Urinary L-FABP reflects the degree of muscle strength and weight, as well as cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers. Although further clinical study is needed, urinary L-FABP may be useful to monitor the progression of sarcopenia and DKD in T2D patients.

2.
CEN Case Rep ; 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279192

RESUMO

Nintedanib, a triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor, has been used in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and adenocarcinoma in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Although vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors have been reported to cause endothelial injury and glomerular microangiopathy, nintedanib-induced glomerular microangiopathy has not been reported. A 68-year-old man with a history of primary aldosteronism, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung developed proteinuria and leg edema after nintedanib initiation. Kidney biopsy revealed prominent endothelial and mesangial injury. Proteinuria improved after nintedanib withdrawal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case report of nintedanib-induced glomerular microangiopathy. Although the incidence of nephropathy among patients receiving nintedanib is unknown at this moment, we recommend monitoring urinary protein excretion and blood pressure in patients receiving nintedanib and performing kidney biopsy to determine any histopathological change.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6066, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269262

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. However, the threshold value of serum uric acid levels for increased risk of mortality has not been determined. This large-scale cohort study used a nationwide database of 500,511 Japanese subjects (40-74 years) who participated in the annual health checkup and were followed up for 7 years. The association of serum uric acid levels at baseline with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality was examined. The Cox proportional hazard model analysis with adjustment for possible confounders revealed that the all-cause and cardiovascular mortality showed a J-shaped association with serum uric acid levels at baseline in both men and women. A significant increase in the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was noted with serum uric acid levels ≥ 7 mg/dL in men and ≥ 5 mg/dL in women. A similar trend was observed for cardiovascular mortality. This study disclosed that even a slight increase in serum uric acid levels was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women in a community-based population. Moreover, the threshold values of uric acid for mortality might be different for men and women.

5.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in immunosuppressive therapy for patients with primary nephrotic syndrome, its effectiveness and safety have not been fully studied in recent nationwide real-world clinical data in Japan. METHODS: A 5-year cohort study, the Japan Nephrotic Syndrome Cohort Study, enrolled 374 patients with primary nephrotic syndrome in 55 hospitals in Japan, including 155, 148, 38, and 33 patients with minimal change disease (MCD), membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and other glomerulonephritides, respectively. The incidence rates of remission and relapse of proteinuria, 50% and 100% increases in serum creatinine, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), all-cause mortality, and other major adverse outcomes were compared among glomerulonephritides using the Log-rank test. Incidence of hospitalization for infection, the most common cause of mortality, was compared using a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Immunosuppressive therapy was administered in 339 (90.6%) patients. The cumulative probabilities of complete remission within 3 years of the baseline visit was ≥ 0.75 in patients with MCD, MN, and FSGS (0.95, 0.77, and 0.79, respectively). Diabetes was the most common adverse events associated with immunosuppressive therapy (incidence rate, 71.0 per 1000 person-years). All-cause mortality (15.6 per 1000 person-years), mainly infection-related mortality (47.8%), was more common than ESKD (8.9 per 1000 person-years), especially in patients with MCD and MN. MCD was significantly associated with hospitalization for infection than MN. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MCD and MN had a higher mortality, especially infection-related mortality, than ESKD. Nephrologists should pay more attention to infections in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome.

6.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the elucidation of splicing abnormalities as a cause of hereditary diseases has progressed. However, there are no comprehensive reports of suspected splicing variants in the CLCN5 gene in Dent disease cases. We reproduced gene mutations by mutagenesis, inserted the mutated genes into minigene vectors, and investigated the pathogenicity and onset mechanisms of these variants. METHODS: We conducted functional splicing assays using a hybrid minigene for six suspected splicing variants (c.105G>A, c.105+5G>C, c.106-17T>G, c.393+4A>G, c.517-8A>G, c.517-3C>A) in CLCN5. We extracted information on these variants from the Human Gene Mutation Database. We reproduced minigene vectors with the insertion of relevant exons with suspected splicing variants. We then transfected these minigene vectors into cultured cells and extracted and analyzed the mRNA. In addition, we conducted in silico analysis to confirm our minigene assay results. RESULTS: We successfully determined that five of these six variants are pathogenic via the production of splicing abnormalities. One showed only normal transcript production and was thus suspected of not being pathogenic (c.106-17T>G). CONCLUSION: We found that five CLCN5 variants disrupted the original splice site, resulting in aberrant splicing. It is sometimes difficult to obtain mRNA from patient samples because of the fragility of mRNA or its low expression level in peripheral leukocytes. Our in vitro system can be used as an alternative to in vivo assays to determine the pathogenicity of suspected splicing variants.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102215

RESUMO

Active vitamin D (calcitriol, or 1.25 (OH) 2 D) is associated with muscle weakness, falls, and fracture in community-dwelling older people. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a serum active vitamin D level and lower extremity muscle strength in elderly patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 231 patients with CKD treated conservatively as outpatients. We analyzed patient background factors, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, calcium, albumin, serum calcitriol level as an indicator of active vitamin D, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) collected from medical records. As an index of lower extremity muscle strength, the isometric knee extension muscle strength-to-weight ratio (kgf/kg) was calculated. The mean patient age was 75.9 ± 6.1 years (68.8% male), and the BMI was 24.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2. A significant correlation was observed between knee extensor muscle strength and serum calcitriol level (r = 0.32, p < 0.01), age (r = -0.30, p < 0.01), BMI (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), intact PTH (r = -0.22, p < 0.01), phosphorus (r = -0.29, p < 0.01), albumin (r = -0.28, p < 0.01), and eGFR (r = 0.25, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed calcitriol to be significantly associated with knee extensor muscle strength (ß: 0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0-0.002, p = 0.04) after adjustment for covariates. These results suggest that the serum active vitamin D level is associated with lower extremity muscle strength in older adults with pre-dialysis CKD. It is necessary to verify whether vitamin D supplementation increases lower extremity muscle strength in pre-dialysis CKD patients.

8.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(2): 160-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with permanent postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, a complication of total thyroidectomy, often require high calcium supplementation with vitamin D to maintain serum calcium levels. The epidemiology of calcium-alkali syndrome (CAS) in patients with hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of hypercalcemia, renal impairment, metabolic alkalosis, and CAS in patients treated for presumed hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with neck cancers who underwent total thyroidectomy without parathyroid autotransplantation between January 2010 and October 2013 at our hospital were consecutively included. All patients received calcium lactate and alfacalcidol for postsurgical hypocalcemia. We defined hypercalcemia as a corrected serum calcium level (cCa) ≥10.5 mg/dL, metabolic alkalosis as a difference in serum sodium and serum chloride ([sNa-sCl]) ≥39 mEq/L, and renal impairment as a ≥50% increase in serum creatine and/or ≥35% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) compared to baseline. RESULTS: cCa peaked (11.1 ± 1.5 mg/dL) at a median of 326 days (interquartile range 78-869) after surgery. At peak cCa, [sNa-sCl] was significantly higher (p < 0.01), and eGFR was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that at baseline. Fifteen patients (55.6%) had hypercalcemia, 19 (70.3%) had alkalosis, 12 (44.4%) had renal impairment, and 9 (33.3%) had CAS. Patients with CAS (mean age 67.1 ± 10.8 years) were older than those without CAS (56.7 ± 13.6 years, p = 0.06). The mean dose of alfacalcidol in the CAS group (3.1 ± 1.2 µg/day) was significantly larger than that in the non-CAS group (2.1 ± 1.0 µg/day, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study reveals the high incidence of CAS in patients with hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the serum calcium level, acid-base balance, and renal function should be closely monitored in patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism who receive large doses of active vitamin D.

9.
Intern Med ; 59(1): 93-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902910

RESUMO

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an extremely rare condition caused by an excessive activation of the complement pathway based on genetic or acquired dysfunctions in complement regulation, leading to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). A complement-amplifying condition (CAC) can trigger aHUS occurrence along with complement abnormality. We herein report a case of severe TMA after laparoscopic myomectomy in a healthy woman. This case was eventually diagnosed as complement-mediated TMA secondary to surgical invasive stress as a CAC, with no definitive diagnosis of aHUS despite a genetic test. The patient fully recovered after several eculizumab administrations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/complicações , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/tratamento farmacológico , Miomectomia Uterina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Raras , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia
10.
Intern Med ; 59(3): 389-394, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588082

RESUMO

A 77-year-old man with a history of hypertension, prostate hyperplasia, and urolithiasis was admitted for acute kidney injury caused by hypercalcemia. Neck ultrasonography showed a large cyst adjacent to the right lower thyroid lobe. Although a 99mtechnetium sestamibi scan was negative, an extremely high intracystic intact parathyroid hormone level suggested that the cyst had a parathyroid origin and that a functional parathyroid cyst was present. Immunohistochemical staining for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) after right lower parathyroidectomy revealed CaSR-positive cells lining the cyst, indicating that the functional parathyroid cyst had originated from the hemorrhagic degeneration of a parathyroid adenoma.

11.
CEN Case Rep ; 9(1): 65-73, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705303

RESUMO

A 30-year-old woman on steroid therapy for eosinophilia presented with nephrotic syndrome during steroid tapering. She was diagnosed with membranous nephropathy (MN) stage II-III (positive for IgG1 and IgG4) by renal biopsy. There was no evidence of secondary MN. Her urinary protein level was controlled to 0.5 g/day or less, and her eosinophil count in white blood cell differential was stabilized at less than 10% without increasing the steroid dosage. The renal specimen did not show any enhanced granular expression of PLA2R along the glomerular basement membrane, and PLA2R was not detected in the patient's serum. On retrospective analysis, enhanced granular staining for thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) in the glomeruli was detected in the biopsy, and anti-THSD7A IgG was detected in the serum using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT). Based on these, the case was considered as THSD7A-associated MN with comorbid eosinophilia. The causal relationship between THSD7A-related MN and eosinophilia was unclear. However, a few cases of THSD7A-associated MN with eosinophilia have been reported, and further clarification on the relationship between THSD7A-related MN and eosinophilia is warranted.

13.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(4): 709-715, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845418

RESUMO

Exercise-induced redistribution of tissue blood flow decreases the renal blood flow in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. However, the acute effects of incremental short maximal exercise on renal tubular conditions remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of incremental short maximal exercise on the urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, which is a highly sensitive tubular biomarker that correlates excellently with peritubular capillary blood flow. A total of 116 adults (aged 24-83 years) without chronic kidney disease performed the incremental short maximal exercise using a cycling ergometer, wherein the exercise sequence consisted of commencing with a 2-min workout period at 20 W (as a warm-up period) and then followed by a 10-20 W increase every 1 minute until termination criteria were reached. Urinary samples were gathered before and immediately after the exercise to evaluate the concentrations of urinary creatinine, albumin, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein. Urinary excretion levels of albumin and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein were significantly increased post-exercise (P < .001 and P = .008, respectively). Furthermore, the % change in urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein levels after exercise was found to correlate independently with age, estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline, and the % change in urinary albumin (Model R2  = 0.451, P < .001). Our findings suggest that incremental short maximal exercise may lead to acute slightly adverse effects on tubular conditions, especially in young adults or adults with lower renal function, even without chronic kidney disease.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225812, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800605

RESUMO

Several recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, current evidence that describes general demographics in blood pressure and mortality with chronic kidney disease is sparse in Japan. Using a population-based longitudinal cohort that received annual health checkups in Japan in 2008, hypertensive status, self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs, and prognosis were examined through 2012. Chronic kidney disease was defined as positive proteinuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Subjects were 40 to 74 years old (n = 227,204) with median 3.6 years follow-up period, and patients with and without chronic kidney disease were analyzed separately (n = 183,586 and n = 43,618, respectively). Cardiovascular disease mortality, comprising coronary heart diseases and stroke as entered in the national death registry using ICD-10 coding, was examined. Among all subjects, 346 deaths (96 in chronic kidney disease and 250 in non-chronic kidney disease) due to cardiovascular disease occurred. Compared with cardiovascular disease mortality in chronic kidney disease patients with untreated normal blood pressure, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio was 3.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.75-5.41) for those with untreated hypertension, 2.30 (1.31-4.03) for those who became normotensive after treatment, and 3.28 (1.91-5.64) for those who remained hypertensive despite treatment. In non-chronic kidney disease subjects, the ratios were 1.90 (1.33-5.41), 1.95 (1.35-2.80), and 1.77 (1.18-2.66), respectively. These results from a nationwide cohort could be one of representative demographics of controlling blood pressure and cardiovascular disease deaths when treating patients with chronic kidney disease in Japan in recent years. Even after development and spread of anti-hypertensive drugs, preventing development of hypertension is preferable, because any hypertension treatment status comparing untreated normal blood pressure was a risk of cardiovascular mortality at baseline year.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225878, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An extended-release, once-daily, oral formulation of tacrolimus is currently used after kidney transplantation as a substitute for the conventional twice-daily formulation. The purpose of this study was to provide a limited sampling strategy with minimum and optimum sampling points to predict the tacrolimus area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) after administration of once-daily tacrolimus in de novo adult kidney transplant patients. METHODS: A total of 36 adult Japanese kidney transplant patients receiving once-daily tacrolimus were included: 31 were allocated to a study group to develop limited sampling strategy (LSS) model equations based on multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, and 5 were allocated to a validation group to estimate the precision of the LSS equations developed by the study group. Twelve-hour AUC (AUC0-12) was calculated by the trapezoidal rule, and the relationship between individual concentration points and AUC0-12 were determined by multiple linear regression analysis. The coefficient of determination (R2) was used to assess the goodness-of-fit of the regression models. Three error indices (mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared prediction error) were calculated to evaluate predictive bias, accuracy, and precision, respectively. Quality of the statistical models was compared with Akaike's information criterion (AIC). RESULTS: A four-point model using C0, C2, C4 and C6 gave the best fit to predict AUC0-12 (R2 = 0.978). In the three- and two-point models, the best fits were at time points C2, C4, and C6 (R2 = 0.973), and C2 and C6 (R2 = 0.962), respectively. All three models reliably estimated tacrolimus AUC0-12, consistent with evaluations by the three error indices and Akaike's information criterion. Practically, the two-point model with C2 and C6 was considered to be the best combination, providing a highly accurate prediction and the lowest blood sampling frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The two-point model with C2 and C6 may be valuable in reducing the burden on patients, as well as medical costs, for once-daily tacrolimus monitoring.

16.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(6): 1476-1492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal hypoxia is an aggravating factor for tubulointerstitial damage, which is strongly associated with renal prognosis in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Therefore, urinary markers that can detect renal hypoxia are useful for monitoring DKD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and renal hypoxia using a novel animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Male spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats (n = 6) were used as an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Age- and sex-matched Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 8) were used as controls. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and blood glucose levels were measured at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks of age. Urine samples and serum and kidney tissues were collected at 24 weeks of age. Microvascular blood flow index (BFI) was measured using diffuse correlation spectroscopy before sampling both the serum and kidneys for the evaluation of renal microcirculation at the corticomedullary junction. RESULTS: Obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertension were observed in the SDT fatty rats. Focal glomerular sclerosis, moderate interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis were significantly more frequent in SDT fatty rats than in SD rats. While the frequency of peritubular endothelial cells and phosphoendothelial nitric oxide synthase levels were similar in both types of rats, the degree of renal hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression was significantly higher (and with no change in renal vascular endothelial growth factor expression levels) in the SDT fatty rats. Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher and renal microvascular BFI was significantly lower in the SDT fatty rats than in the SD rats. Urinary L-FABP levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with renal HIF-1α expression and a significant negative correlation with renal microvascular BFI. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary L-FABP levels reflect the degree of renal hypoxia in DKD in a type 2 diabetic animal model. Urinary L-FABP may thus prove useful as a renal hypoxia marker for monitoring DKD in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice.

17.
JAMA ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703124

RESUMO

Importance: Early identification of individuals at elevated risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) could improve clinical care through enhanced surveillance and better management of underlying health conditions. Objective: To develop assessment tools to identify individuals at increased risk of CKD, defined by reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual-level data analysis of 34 multinational cohorts from the CKD Prognosis Consortium including 5 222 711 individuals from 28 countries. Data were collected from April 1970 through January 2017. A 2-stage analysis was performed, with each study first analyzed individually and summarized overall using a weighted average. Because clinical variables were often differentially available by diabetes status, models were developed separately for participants with diabetes and without diabetes. Discrimination and calibration were also tested in 9 external cohorts (n = 2 253 540). Exposures: Demographic and clinical factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Among 4 441 084 participants without diabetes (mean age, 54 years, 38% women), 660 856 incident cases (14.9%) of reduced eGFR occurred during a mean follow-up of 4.2 years. Of 781 627 participants with diabetes (mean age, 62 years, 13% women), 313 646 incident cases (40%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 3.9 years. Equations for the 5-year risk of reduced eGFR included age, sex, race/ethnicity, eGFR, history of cardiovascular disease, ever smoker, hypertension, body mass index, and albuminuria concentration. For participants with diabetes, the models also included diabetes medications, hemoglobin A1c, and the interaction between the 2. The risk equations had a median C statistic for the 5-year predicted probability of 0.845 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.789-0.890) in the cohorts without diabetes and 0.801 (IQR, 0.750-0.819) in the cohorts with diabetes. Calibration analysis showed that 9 of 13 study populations (69%) had a slope of observed to predicted risk between 0.80 and 1.25. Discrimination was similar in 18 study populations in 9 external validation cohorts; calibration showed that 16 of 18 (89%) had a slope of observed to predicted risk between 0.80 and 1.25. Conclusions and Relevance: Equations for predicting risk of incident chronic kidney disease developed from more than 5 million individuals from 34 multinational cohorts demonstrated high discrimination and variable calibration in diverse populations. Further study is needed to determine whether use of these equations to identify individuals at risk of developing chronic kidney disease will improve clinical care and patient outcomes.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577820

RESUMO

Recently, changes in urinary albumin and in GFR have been recognized as risk factors for the development of end-stage kidney disease and mortality. Though most clinical epidemiology studies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) used renal function and proteinuria at baseline alone, definitive diagnosis of CKD with multiple measurements intensifies the differences in the risk for mortality between the CKD and non-CKD populations. We hypothesized that a transient diagnosis of proteinuria and reduced renal function each indicate a significantly higher mortality compared to definitive non-CKD as the negative control and lower mortality compared with definitive CKD as the positive control. The present longitudinal study evaluated a general-population cohort of 338,094 persons who received annual health checkups, with a median 4.3-year study period. There were 2,481 deaths, including 510 CVD deaths (20.6%) and 1,328 cancer deaths (53.5%), and mortality risk was evaluated for transient proteinuria and for transiently reduced renal function. The hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and cancer mortality were not significant, but that for cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher for transient proteinuria (HR, 1.94 [95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.96] in men and 2.78 [1.50-5.16] in women). On the other hand, transiently reduced renal function was not significant for either cardiovascular mortality risk or cancer mortality risk. We surmise that this is the first study of the mortality risk of transient dipstick proteinuria in a large general-population cohort with cause-specific death registration. Transiently positive proteinuria appears to be a significant risk specifically for cardiovascular mortality compared with definitely negative for proteinuria.

19.
Int J Emerg Med ; 12(1): 29, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is one of the most commonly encountered electrolyte disorders in the emergency department (ED). Few studies have reported the seasonal fluctuations of the prevalence of hypernatremia with conflicting results. We investigated the seasonal prevalence of hypernatremia in an emergency department in Japan. METHODS: A total of 12,598 patients presented to the ED between January 2015 and December 2017 were reviewed. The adult group aged between 18 and 64 years old consisted of 5427 patients and the elderly group aged over 65 years consisted of 7171 patients. Information collected included age, sex, serum sodium, and serum creatinine. Hypernatremia was defined as a serum sodium leve1 > 145 mEq/L, and moderate to severe hypernatremia was defined as a serum sodium level ≥ 150 mEq/L. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypernatremia was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the adult group (2.6% vs. 0.7%; p < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of moderate to severe hypernatremia was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the adult group (1.0% vs. 0.1%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of hypernatremia and moderate to severe hypernatremia was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the adult group in all seasons. In the elderly group, the seasonal prevalence of moderate to severe hypernatremia was significantly higher during the winter. Also, there was a correlation between weather temperature and the prevalence of moderate to severe hypernatremia in the elderly group (r = - 0.34, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Hypernatremia is prevalent in the elderly and the prevalence is highest during the winter. Special attention should be paid in the elderly patients to prevent hypernatremia especially in the winter.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12953, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506478

RESUMO

This longitudinal cohort study aimed to create a novel prediction model for cardiovascular death with lifestyle factors. Subjects aged 40-74 years in the Japanese nationwide Specific Health Checkup Database in 2008 were included. Subjects were randomly assigned to the derivation and validation cohorts by a 2:1 ratio. Points for the prediction model were determined using regression coefficients that were derived from the Cox proportional hazards model in the derivation cohort. Models 1 and 2 were developed using known risk factors and known factors with lifestyle factors, respectively. The models were validated by comparing Kaplan-Meier curves between the derivation and validation cohorts, and by calibration plots in the validation cohort. Among 295,297 subjects, data for 120,823 were available. There were 310 cardiovascular deaths during a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. Model 1 included known risk factors. In model 2, weight gain, exercise habit, gait speed, and drinking alcohol were additionally included as protective factors. Kaplan-Meier curves matched better between the derivation and validation cohorts in model 2, and model 2 was better calibrated. In conclusion, our prediction model with lifestyle factors improved the predictive ability for cardiovascular death.

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