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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995800

RESUMO

Introduction: the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that countries conduct comprehensive national immunisation program reviews regularly to help them identify systems wide-barriers or gaps and monitor performance against the set targets. Methods: we reviewed reports from the latest national immunisation program reviews conducted in the 20 countries in the sub-region in the course of 2012-2018. We generated descriptive analysis of the findings across the sub-region. Results: the 20 program reviews included field observations to the subnational levels as well as interviews with program staff and stakeholders. At the time of the reviews, only 11 countries had functional National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups. Operational funding was inadequate in half of the countries. The reviews documented the cancellation of outreach services, supportive supervision visits and maintenance of cold chain equipment due to the lack of fuel or operational funding. Immunisation programs in 10 countries had major human resource gaps. Vaccine stock management tools were not effectively used in 10 countries, and stock out of vaccines and supplies was documented in 9 countries during the review. The full components of the RED strategy were implemented in only 3 of the 20 countries. Twelve countries reported challenges with the availability and accuracy of target populations. Four countries had documented the presence of vaccine hesitant groups at the time of the reviews. Conclusion: the reviews demonstrated challenges in various aspects of the programs in different countries. The implementation of the review recommendations should be built into the annual program plans, as well as into coasted multi-year plans, in order to address the gaps and helps the program to attain the set targets. With the rapid evolution of the scope and complexity of the immunisation programs in recent years, countries should invest their efforts in building the capacity of their human resources as well as updating their logistics and data systems.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacinas/provisão & distribuição , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , África Oriental , África Austral , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Refrigeração , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995771

RESUMO

Introduction: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic has caused serious disruption to almost all aspect of human endeavor forcing countries to implement unprecedented public health measures aimed at mitigating its effects, such as total lockdown (inter and intra), travel bans, quarantine, social distancing in an effort to contain the spread of the virus. Supportive supervision is a functional component of the immunization systems that allows identification of existing gaps, provides an opportunity for onsite training, and document real-time findings for improvement of the program. The control measures of COVID-19 pandemic have also resulted in limitation of operations of the immunization system including supportive supervision. This has limited many aspects of supportive supervision for surveillance and routine immunization monitoring system in the East and Southern African countries. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of COVID-19 on Integrated Supportive Supervision visits for expanded programme on immunization (EPI) and how it influences the immunization and vaccine preventable disease (VPD) surveillance indicators, and its short-term effect towards notification of increase or decrease morbidity and mortality. Methods: we reviewed the integrated supportive supervision (ISS) data and the routine administrative coverage from 19 countries in the East and Southern Africa (ESA) for the period January to August 2019 to analyze the trends in the number of visits, vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD), and routine immunization (RI) indicators using t-test, and compare with the period January to August 2020 during the months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: thirteen countries out of the 19 considered, had shown a decline in the number of integrated supportive supervision (ISS) visits, with 10 (77%) having more than 59% decrease during the January-August 2020 as compared to the same period 2019. Eleven (57%) of the countries have shown a decrease (p-value < 0.05). Ethiopia and Kenya had the highest drop (p-value < 0.000). Six (32%) had an increase in the number of visits, with Madagascar, Zambia, and Zimbabwe having >100% increase in the number of visits. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of the countries that have decreased in the number of ISS visits have equally witnessed a drop in DPT3 administrative coverage. Countries with a low proportion of outreach sessions conducted in the period of January - August 2020, have all had sessions interruption, with more than 40% of the reasons associated with the lockdown. Conclusion: countries have experienced a decrease in the number of supportive supervision visits conducted, during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and, this has influenced the routine immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases surveillance (VPD) process indicators monitored through the conduct of the visits. Continuous decrease in these performance indicators pose a great threat to the performance sustained and the functionality of the surveillance and immunization system, and consequently on increased surveillance sensitivity to promptly detect outbreaks and aiming to reducing morbidity and mortality in the sub-region.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , África Oriental , África Austral , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343791

RESUMO

Introduction: following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic on 11 March 2020, countries started implementing strict control measures, health workers were re-deployed and health facilities re-purposed to assist COVID-19 control efforts. These measures, along with the public concerns of getting COVID-19, led to a decline in the utilization of regular health services including immunization. Methods: we reviewed the administrative routine immunization data from 15 African countries for the period from January 2018 to June 2020 to analyze the trends in the monthly number of children vaccinated with specific antigens, and compare the changes in the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: thirteen of the 15 countries showed a decline in the monthly average number of vaccine doses provided, with 6 countries having more than 10% decline. Nine countries had a lower monthly mean of recipients of first dose measles vaccination in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the first quarter. Guinea, Nigeria, Ghana, Angola, Gabon, and South Sudan experienced a drop in the monthly number of children vaccinated for DPT3 and/or MCV1 of greater than 2 standard deviations at some point in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the mean for the months January-June of 2018 and 2019. Conclusion: countries with lower immunization coverage in the pre-COVID period experienced larger declines in the number of children vaccinated immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. Prolonged and significant reduction in the number of children vaccinated poses a serious risk for outbreaks such as measles. Countries should monitor coverage trends at national and subnational levels, and undertake catch-up vaccination activities to ensure that children who have missed scheduled vaccines receive them at the earliest possible time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , África , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796198

RESUMO

Introduction: World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that countries conduct comprehensive national immunisation programme reviews regularly to help them identify systems wide-barriers or gaps and monitor performance against the set targets. Methods: we reviewed reports from the latest national immunisation program reviews conducted in the 20 countries in the subregion in the course of 2012-2018. We generated descriptive analysis of the findings across the subregion. Results: the 20 program reviews included field observations to the subnational levels as well as interviews with program staff and stakeholders. At the time of the reviews, only 11 countries had functional National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups. Operational funding was inadequate in half of the countries. The reviews documented the cancellation of outreach services, supportive supervision visits and maintenance of cold chain equipment due to the lack of fuel or operational funding. Immunisation programs in 10 countries had major human resource gaps. Vaccine stock management tools were not effectively used in 10 countries, and stockout of vaccines and supplies was documented in 9 countries during the review. The full components of the Reaching Every District (RED) Strategy were implemented in only 3 of the 20 countries. Twelve countries reported challenges with the availability and accuracy of target populations. Four countries had documented the presence of vaccine hesitant groups at the time of the reviews. Conclusion: the reviews demonstrated challenges in various aspects of the programs in different countries. The implementation of the review recommendations should be built into the annual program plans, as well as into costed multi-year plans, in order to address the gaps and helps the program to attain the set targets. With the rapid evolution of the scope and complexity of the immunisation programs in recent years, countries should invest their efforts in building the capacity of their human resources as well as updating their logistics and data systems.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , África Oriental , África Austral , Fortalecimento Institucional , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Refrigeração/instrumentação , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/provisão & distribuição , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl: 113-121, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766972

RESUMO

Background: WHO recommends all countries to include a second routine dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV2) in their national routine vaccination schedules regardless of the level of coverage with the first routine dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV1). As of Dec 2016, 26 countries in the African Region have introduced MCV2. Methods: We reviewed the WHO UNICEF coverage estimates for MCV1 and MCV2 in these countries, and the reports of the post introduction evaluation of MCV2 from 11 countries. Results: Twenty three countries have WHO/UNICEF estimates of MCV2 coverage available in 2015. Of these, 2 countries have coverage of ≥ 95% for both MCV1 and MCV2 while 5 countries have coverage of > 80% for both doses. Dropout rates of >20% MCV1 - MCV2 exist in 12 countries. Post-MCV2 introduction evaluations done in 11 countries from 2012 to 2015 showed that inadequate health worker training, insufficient sensitization and awareness generation among parents and suboptimal dose recording practices were common programmatic weaknesses that contributed to the low MCV2 coverage in these countries. Conclusion: MCV2 coverage remains low as reflected in large drop-out rates in most countries. Higher MCV2 coverage is necessary to sustainably achieve the regional measles elimination goal. National immunization programs must improve implementation of MCV2 using the standard introduction and evaluation guidelines available for EPI program planning.

6.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl(16): 108-112, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957104

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries introduce rubella containing vaccines (RCVs) to reduce rubella circulation and the occurrence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of June 2017, a total of 18 countries have already introduced or are in the process of introducing RCV in routine child vaccination programs. RCV introduction during 2013 - 2014 in five countries in the Region resulted in a reduction of rubella incidence of 48% to 96% in the post-introduction period as compared to the average incidence in the years before introduction. These results suggest that initial mass vaccination campaigns and introduction of RCVs in routine immunization programs result in significant reduction in rubella incidence and a reduced potential for the occurrence of CRS.

7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 27(Suppl 3): 24, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296159

RESUMO

Despite the availability of effective tetanus prevention strategies, as of 2016, Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) has not yet been achieved in 18 countries globally. In this paper, we review the status of MNTE in the World Health Organization African Region (AFR),and provide recommendations for achieving and maintaining MNTE in AFR. As of November 2016, 37 (79%) AFR countries have achieved MNTE, with 10 (21%) countries remaining. DTP3 coverage increased from 52% in 2000 to 76% in 2015. In 2015, coverage with at least 2 doses of tetanus containing vaccine (TT2+) and proportion of newborns protected at birth (PAB) were 69% and 77%, compared with 44% and 62% in 2000, respectively. Since 1999, over 79 million women of reproductive age (WRA) have been vaccinated with TT2+ through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Despite the progress, only 54% of births were attended by skilled birth attendants (SBAs), 5 (11%) countries provided the 3 WHO-recommended booster doses to both sexes, and about 5.5 million WRA still need to be reached with SIAs. Coverage disparities still exist between countries that have achieved MNTE and those that have not. In 2015, coverage with DTP3 and PAB were higher in MNTE countries compared with those yet to achieve MNTE: 84% vs. 68% and 86% vs. 69%, respectively. Challenges to achieving MNTE in the remaining AFR countries include weak health systems, competing priorities, insufficient funding, insecurity, and sub-optimal neonatal tetanus (NT) surveillance. To achieve and maintain MNTE in AFR, increasing SBAs and tetanus vaccination coverage, integrating tetanus vaccination with other opportunities (e.g., polio and measles campaigns, mother and child health days), and providing appropriately spaced booster doses are needed. Strengthening NT surveillance and conducting serosurveys would ensure appropriate targeting of MNTE activities and high-quality information for validating the achievement and maintenance of elimination.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Tétano/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Tétano/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 24: 47, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy and refusal continue to be a global challenge to reaching immunization targets, especially among those in traditional or fundamentalist religions. The apostolic faith in Zimbabwe has been historically associated with objection to most medical interventions, including immunization. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and vaccine coverage among apostolic and non-apostolic adults aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-23 months using the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zimbabwe during 2010-2011. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between the apostolic religion and receipt of all four basic childhood vaccinations in the Expanded Program on Immunization, receipt of no vaccinations, and availability of child vaccination card. RESULTS: Among children aged 12-23 months, 64% had received all doses of the four basic vaccinations, and 12% had received none of the recommended vaccines. A vaccination card was available for 68% of children. There was no significant association between Apostolic faith and completion of all basic vaccinations (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.69-1.17), but apostolic children were almost twice as likely to have received no basic vaccinations (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.22-2.77) than non-Apostolic children, and they were 32% less likely to have a vaccination card that was available and seen by the interviewer (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89). CONCLUSION: Disparities in childhood vaccination coverage and availability of vaccination cards persist for apostolic in Zimbabwe. Continued collaboration with apostolic leaders and additional research to better understand vaccine hesitancy and refine interventions and messaging strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Religião e Medicina , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
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