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1.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 28(11): 2393-2400, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699062

RESUMO

A novel method for the simultaneous detection of ingredients in pharmaceutical applications such as creams and lotions was developed. An ultrasonic atomizer has been used to produce a mist containing ingredients. The analyte molecules in the mist can be ionized by using direct analysis in real time (DART) at lower temperature than traditionally used, and we thus solved the problem of normal DART-MS measurement using a high-temperature gas. Thereby, molecular-related ions of heat-unstable components and nonvolatile components became detectable. The deprotonated molecular ion of glycyrrhizic acid (m/z 821), which is unstable at high temperatures, was detected without pyrolysis by ultrasonic mist-DART-MS using unheated helium gas, although it was not detected by normal DART-MS using heated helium gas. The cationized molecular ions of derivatives of polyethylene glycol fatty acid monoesters, which are nonvolatile compounds, were also detected as m/z peaks observed from 800 to 2300. Although the protonated molecular ion of tocopherol acetate was not detected in ionization by ultrasonic mist, it was detected by ultrasonic mist-DART-MS even in the emulsion. It was not necessary to dissolve a sample completely to detect its ions. This method enabled us to obtain the composition of pharmaceutical applications simply and rapidly. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

2.
Mass Spectrom (Tokyo) ; 2(1): A0015, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24349916

RESUMO

Studies of clusters in condensed phase at atmospheric pressure are very important for understanding the properties and structures of liquids. Liquid-ionization (LPI) mass spectrometry is useful to study hydrogen-bonded clusters at the liquid surface and in a gas phase. An improved ion source connected to a tandem mass spectrometer provides detailed information about clusters. Mass spectra of pure ethanol (99.5%) observed by the first mass analyzer (Q1) showed neat ethanol cluster ions (C2H5OH) m H(+) with m up to 10 and hydrate ions (C2H5OH) m (H2O) n H(+) with m larger than 7 and n=1, such as those with m-n=8-1 and 9-1. When the flow rate of ethanol (liquid) was increased, large ethanol cluster ions with m larger than 25 were observed by the second mass analyzer (Q3). It is interesting to note that neat ethanol cluster ions are more abundant than corresponding (with the same m) hydrate ions (n=1), and major hydrate ions contain only one molecule of water. Results indicate that ion-molecule reactions occur between Q1 and Q3, because such mass spectra have never been observed by Q1. Various results indicate that neat ethanol clusters exist at the liquid surface and are ionized to give cluster ions.

3.
Mass Spectrom (Tokyo) ; 2(Spec Iss): S0008, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24349927

RESUMO

The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 µL (absolute sample amount 90-630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion-molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion-molecule adduct species like [M+NO2](-), [M+NO3](-), [M+HCO3](-), [M+HCO4](-) were generated together with [M-H](-) peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(33): 7889-95, 2013 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23875640

RESUMO

For the real time and direct analysis of chemical constituents from living beings and dry sample, sheath-flow probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SF-PESI-MS) has been newly developed. The components from dry or semidry biological tissues can be extracted using the solvent and picked up by the needle for electrospray. This technique was applied to real-time pesticide analysis of living plants. The results have been validated with that of a well-known system, liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS). It is demonstrated that SF-PESI-MS can produce reasonable ionization efficiency, which is confirmed by LESA-MS.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/instrumentação
5.
J Mass Spectrom ; 48(7): 823-9, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23832938

RESUMO

Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) uses a sharp solid needle as electrospray emitter. This method was found to be applicable to the analysis of real-world samples with high concentrations of salts and detergents without sample pretreatment. Since PESI is only applicable to wet samples but not to dry samples, sheath-flow PESI (SF-PESI) has been developed. The metal needle was inserted into the fine plastic capillary with a protrusion of 0.1-0.2 mm from the capillary terminus. The solvent was supplied continuously through the capillary. At the lowest position of the probe, solvent flowing out from the capillary makes the sample wet and extracts the analytes from the surface. The extracted analytes were electrosprayed at the highest position of the needle. SF-PESI was successfully applied to samples such as narcotics, tablets, bill, fruits, potatoes, etc.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Modelos Lineares , Metanol/química , Modelos Químicos , Agulhas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solventes/química , Comprimidos/química
6.
Analyst ; 138(6): 1682-8, 2013 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23348832

RESUMO

We have examined several combinations of solvents and probes with the aim of optimizing the ionization conditions for biomolecules e.g., proteins, peptides and lipids by negative mode probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PESI-MS). With the data presented in this study, negative-mode PESI-MS can be considered as a potential tool for biomolecular analysis and cancer diagnostics because of its simplicity in instrumental configuration. A sharper sampling probe was found to be better for obtaining high quality mass spectra because it can generate stable electrospray without the occurrence of gas breakdown. Although the best conditions may depend on each sample, aqueous organic solvent solutions, especially isopropanol-H(2)O (1/1) with a pH of ≥7, are shown to be preferable for negative-mode PESI-MS, which was successfully applied to colon cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Colo/química , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/química , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas/análise , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/instrumentação
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(3): 569-78, 2013 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23256460

RESUMO

A high proportion of pelargonidin 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (Pg3G) is metabolized to glucuronides and excreted in mammal urine after ingestion of strawberry fruit, suggesting that these metabolites play important functional roles in vivo. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the structures and determine the biological fate of the two dominant metabolites of Pg3G in rats to enable an accurate discussion of the biological properties of anthocyanins. Authentic Pg3G was orally administered to rats. One pelargonidin monoglucuronide and three Pg3G-monoglucuronides (glucuronides of the glucoside) were identified together with intact Pg3G in both blood plasma and urine samples. The structures of the two dominant metabolites were elucidated as pelargonidin 3-O-ß-D-glucuronide (Pg3GlcA) and pelargonidin 3-O-ß-D-glucuronyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucoside by means of (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple-bond connective spectroscopy. The bioavailability of Pg3G in its intact form was 0.31% of the orally administered dose, and 0.65% was absorbed in the Pg3GlcA form.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Absorção , Administração Oral , Animais , Antocianinas/sangue , Antocianinas/urina , Disponibilidade Biológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Glucuronídeos/sangue , Glucuronídeos/urina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Analyst ; 137(20): 4658-61, 2012 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22937532

RESUMO

To perform remote and direct sampling for mass spectrometry, solid probe assisted nanoelectrospray ionization (SPA-nanoESI) has been newly developed. After capturing the sample on the tip of the needle by sticking it to the biological tissue, the needle was inserted into the solvent-preloaded nanoESI capillary from the backside. NanoESI gave abundant ion signals for human kidney tissues and the liver of a living mouse. The method is easy to operate and versatile because any biological specimen could be sampled away from the mass spectrometer. Minimal invasiveness is another merit of this method.


Assuntos
Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanotecnologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 653(1-3): 75-81, 2011 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21167148

RESUMO

Poly-trans-[(2-carboxyethyl) germasesquioxane], Ge-132 is a water-soluble organic germanium compound. Oral intake of dietary Ge-132 changes fecal color and we attempted to identify the fecal red pigment, which increased by the intake of dietary Ge-132. Sprague Dawley rats were given diets containing Ge-132 from 0 to 0.5% concentration. Fecal red pigment was extracted and purified for optical and structural studies. We examined the fecal red pigment content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and hepatic gene expressions relating to heme synthesis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The purified red pigment had particular optical characteristics on the ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrum (Soret band absorbance at 400 nm) and fluorescence emission at 600 nm by 400 nm excitation, and was identified as protoporphyrin IX by LC-MS analysis. Protoporphyrin IX significantly (P<0.05) increased 2.4-fold in the feces by the intake of a 0.5% Ge-132 diet. Gene expression analysis of the liver explained the increase of protoporphyrin IX by dietary Ge-132 as it enhanced (P<0.05) aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (Alas1), a rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis, expression 1.8-fold, but decreased ferrochelatase (Fech) expression 0.6-fold (P<0.05). The results show that the intake of dietary Ge-132 is related to heme metabolism. Because protoporphyrin IX is used to treat chronic hepatitis, Ge-132 may be a beneficial substance to increase protoporphyrin IX in the liver.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fezes/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heme/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
10.
J AOAC Int ; 94(6): 1770-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22320083

RESUMO

An analog of aildenafil, which is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5, was found in a dietary supplement marketed for enhancement of sexual function. The compound was isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and its structure was identified by means of 13C-NMR spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectrometry, high-resolution MS, and X-ray structure determination. The compound was identified to be sulfoaildenafil (other names: thioaildenafil, dimethyl sildenafil thione, and thiomethisosildenafil). Sulfoaildenafil is very similar to the compound thiohomosildenafil. As it is difficult to distinguish between them by LC-photodiode array detector analysis, ultra-performance LC (UPLC)/MS, ion trap LC/MS/MS (LC/IT-MS/MS), and GC/MS were performed. The mass spectra of thiohomosildenafil by UPLC/MS and LC/IT-MS/MS showed mass fragments of m/z 58, 72, and 355, and the mass spectrum by GC/MS showed mass fragments of m/z 56, 72, and 420. Some of these fragments had low intensities, but they were useful for distinguishing between the two compounds. The relationship between aildenafil (other names: dimethylsildenafil and methisosildenafil) and homosildenafil is similar to that between sulfoaildenafil and thiohomosildenafil. Therefore, these compounds were also examined.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Piperazinas/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 51(5): 1091-6, 2010 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20007013

RESUMO

This paper describes the LC-NMR spectroscopic identification of a novel urinary endogenous metabolite responsible for the signals, which were found as major contributors to the separation between genetically hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and normotensive control rats (WKY) in previous NMR-based metabonomic studies. Urine samples from 26-week-old normotensive rats were analyzed by an LC-NMR system equipped with a reversed-phase column having high retention ability for polar compounds. (1)H NMR spectra were continuously obtained in the on-flow mode, and the retention times of the unassigned signals in question were determined. Various two-dimensional spectra were subsequently measured for the fraction containing the unassigned signals under the stop-flow mode, which enables for a long accumulation resulting in the enhancement of signal-to-noise ratios. The candidate compound obtained from these LC-NMR data was synthesized, and the NMR and mass spectra were compared with those of the LC-NMR fraction. The unknown metabolite was identified as succinyltaurine from these experiments together with standard addition experiments. This novel metabolite, which is characteristic of the normotensive rats, is very interesting because it is structurally related to hypotensive taurine, and not substantially detected in the genetically hypertensive rats, which excreted more taurine than the normotensive rats. The biological and pathophysiological significances of succinyltaurine remain to be investigated.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Hipertensão/urina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica/métodos , Succinatos/urina , Taurina/urina , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Succinatos/síntese química , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Taurina/síntese química
13.
J Toxicol ; 2010: 172367, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21209702

RESUMO

Several cases of poisoning resulting in human fatalities and stemming from the ingestion of coral reef crabs have been reported from the Indo-Pacific region. We assessed the toxicity of the unidentified xanthid crab collected from the Camotes Sea off the eastern coast of Cebu Island, central Visayas region of Philippines from the food hygienic point of view. All seven specimens, which were identified with Demania cultripes, collected in 2006 were toxic to mice irrespective of the season of collection and induced paralytic symptoms typical of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). The activity was expressed in mouse unit (MU) being defined as the amount of TTX to kill a 20 g ddY male mice in 30 min after i.p. injection. Toxicity scores for viscera and appendages of specimens were 18.2 ± 16.0 (mean ± S.D.) and 4.4 ± 2.6 MU/g, respectively. The highest individual toxicity scores observed for viscera and appendages were 52.1 and 7.7 MU/g, respectively. The frequency of toxic samples was 100%. Toxin profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection analysis (HPLC-FLD) revealed that TTX was the main toxic principle accounting for about 90% of the total toxicity along with 4-epi TTX and 4,9-anhydroTTX. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed mass fragment ion peaks at m/z 376, 392 and 407, which were characteristic of the quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX. In addition, only a small amount of PSP containing gonyautoxins1-4 and hydroxysaxitoxin was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting evidence of occurrence of TTX and PSP in the xanthid crab D. cultripes inhabiting waters surrounding Cebu Island. From food hygienic point of view, people in coastal areas should be warned of the potential hazard of this crab in order to prevent its intentional or accidental consumption.

14.
J Biochem ; 144(3): 383-8, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18515857

RESUMO

Conversion of glucose to pyruvate via reactions homologous to the non-phosphorylated Entner-Doudoroff (non-P ED) pathway could be achieved in the presence of two amino acid catalysts, cysteine and histidine: cystine oxidizes glucose to gluconic acid by the reaction homologous to glucose dehydrogenase and histidine changes gluconic acid to 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconic acid, then to pyruvate by the reaction homologous to gluconic acid dehydratase and 2-keto-3-deoxy gluconate aldolase, respectively. Pyruvate can be converted to acetyl CoA by the reaction with CoA, TPP and FAD in the presence of cysteine and histidine, which resembles pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It was found that gluconic acid dehydration alone is non-specific, in contrast to other reactions. The non-P ED pathway is used by some extreme thermophiles in bacteria and archaea, usually thought as the oldest among the contemporary organisms. This study suggests the possible contribution of amino acid to the origin of the glycolytic pathway.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/química , Bioquímica/métodos , Cisteína/química , Glucose/química , Glicólise , Histidina/química , Aminoácidos/química , Catálise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Gluconatos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Biológicos , NAD/química , Fosforilação , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Bacteriol ; 190(15): 5404-11, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18539746

RESUMO

Thermoplasma acidophilum HO-62 was grown at different pHs and temperatures, and its polar lipid compositions were determined. Although the number of cyclopentane rings in the caldarchaeol moiety increased when T. acidophilum was cultured at high temperature, the number decreased at low pHs. Glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids, and phospholipids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light-scattering detector. The amount of caldarchaeol with more than two sugar units on one side increased under low-pH and high-temperature conditions. The amounts of glycolipids increased and those of phosphoglycolipids decreased under these conditions. The proton permeability of the liposomes obtained from the phosphoglycolipids that contained two or more sugar units was lower than that of the liposomes obtained from the phosphoglycolipids that contained one sugar unit. From these results, we propose the hypothesis that T. acidophilum adapts to low pHs and high temperatures by extending sugar chains on their cell surfaces, as well as by varying the number of cyclopentane rings.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Thermoplasma/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Éteres de Glicerila/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Permeabilidade , Prótons , Temperatura
16.
Food Chem ; 110(2): 493-500, 2008 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26049244

RESUMO

The effect of sugar moiety on anthocyanin metabolism was studied using anthocyanidin 3-rutinosides (cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (Cy3R) and delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (Dp3R)) and 3-O-glucosides (delphinidin 3-O-glucoside (Dp3G)). O-methylated Cy3R and Dp3R were detected in rat blood plasma after oral administration of Cy3R and Dp3R (100mg/kg body weight). On the basis of HPLC retention time and UV-visible spectra together with the data of our previous studies on the hydrophobic metabolites of anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosides, it was concluded that both 3'- and 4'-O-methyl Cy3R were metabolites of Cy3R. On the other hand, only 4'-O-methyl Dp3R was detected as hydrophobic metabolite of Dp3R. A group of hydrophilic metabolites was also detected in rat blood plasma after oral administration of anthocyanins (Dp3G, Cy3R and Dp3R) and their structures were determined to be extended glucuronides and their O-methyl analogues by tandem MS analysis. The amounts of extended glucuronides of Dp3G, Cy3R and Dp3R were less than those of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) reported in our previous study. On the other hand, anthocyanidin-glucuronides (both cyanidin-glucuronide and delphinidin-glucuronide) were not detected after oral administration of Cy3R, Dp3R and Dp3G. These results indicated that both the type of sugar moiety and stability of aglycone largely affected phase II metabolism of anthocyanins, and also indicated that the type of sugar moiety did not affect the O-methylation metabolism but affected glucuronyl conjugation in both liver and small intestine.

17.
Toxicon ; 50(6): 779-90, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17698158

RESUMO

A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of the banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis. These two types of adhesive bacteria were identified through 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Shewanella woodyi (Type-I) and Roseobacter sp. (Type-II). Representative isolates of these two adhesive bacteria were examined for tetrodotoxin (TTX) production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). It was rather unexpectedly revealed that TTX and anhydroTTX were present in the supernatant of culture of the Type-II isolate Roseobacter sp.


Assuntos
Copépodes/microbiologia , Roseobacter/isolamento & purificação , Shewanella/isolamento & purificação , Takifugu/parasitologia , Tetrodotoxina/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Copépodes/fisiologia , Copépodes/ultraestrutura , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Feminino , Fluorometria , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Roseobacter/genética , Roseobacter/metabolismo , Roseobacter/ultraestrutura , Shewanella/genética , Shewanella/metabolismo , Shewanella/ultraestrutura , Pele/parasitologia , Tetrodotoxina/análise
18.
Toxicon ; 48(6): 620-6, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16934305

RESUMO

In May 2002, two parasitic copepods, Pseudocaligus fugu and Taeniacanthus sp., were collected from the body surface and gill of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, respectively, in Takehara city, Hiroshima Prefecture, faced with Seto Inland Sea located in the western part of Japan. To them was added 5 ml of 0.1% acetic acid, then the suspension was subjected to ultrasonic disruption with an ultrasonicator for 10 min. The resulting mixture was heated in a boiling water bath for 10 min, and then centrifuged. The supernatant was concentrated under reduced pressure, and loaded on to a Sep-Pak plus C18 Environmental Cartridge (Waters). The unbound fraction was analyzed by HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for tetrodotoxin (TTX). It was rather unexpectedly revealed from these results that this fraction was comprised of TTX and its analogues. As far as we know, this is the first record to show the existence of TTX in the copepods. In addition, relationships between the more and less than the average number of the two parasites and the toxicity of its skin mucus of the host were examined by student's t-test. In P. fugu, the average number per host was 13.9, and those are 520.7 (n=9) and 269.0 MU/g (n=22), respectively. A highly significant difference between them was detected at p-value 0.0011. In contrast, as for Taeniacanthus sp., the average number was 2.7, and those were 338.0 (n=14) and 345.5 MU/g (n=17), respectively. No significant difference was detected in Taeniacanthus sp. The high host-specificity of P. fugu on the toxic puffer and the present bioassay of its skin mucus suggest a possibility that TTXs may attract the parasite.


Assuntos
Copépodes/química , Takifugu/parasitologia , Tetrodotoxina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Copépodes/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Camundongos , Muco/química , Pele/química , Takifugu/metabolismo , Tetrodotoxina/análise , Tetrodotoxina/toxicidade
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 54(18): 6578-87, 2006 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16939312

RESUMO

To clarify how structural diversity of anthocyanins relates to their in vivo function, bioavailability was precisely studied in rats using bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (Bilberon 25) as an anthocyanin source that contains 15 different anthocyanins. The bilberry extract was orally or intravenously administered to rats, and the plasma levels of each anthocyanin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. As the result, all anthocyanins except peonidin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinoside were detectable in the blood plasma. The plasma concentration of anthocyanins as a whole reached the maximum level of 1.2 microM at 15 min after oral administration of 400 mg/kg bilberry extract (153.2 mg/kg as anthocyanins) and then decreased with time. Uptake and decay profiles of each anthocyanin in the plasma were almost the same for all anthocyanins except a few with their maximum after 30 min. Among the anthocyanins carrying the same aglycone, the plasma level after 15 min of oral administration was as follows: galactoside > glucoside > arabinoside. Plasma clearance of anthocyanins after intravenous administration clearly showed that arabinoside disappeared more rapidly than glucoside and galactoside. On the other hand, when anthocyanins carrying the same sugar moiety were compared, the half disappearance time of plasma anthocyanins was in the following order: delphinidin > cyanidin > petunidin = peonidin > malvidin. The bioavailability of anthocyanins was in the range of 0.61-1.82% and was 0.93% as the anthocyanin mixture. The bioavailability of anthocyanins carrying the same aglycone was in the following order: Galactoside showed the highest followed by glucoside and arabinoside for cyanidin and delphinidin, but arabinoside and galactoside showed a higher bioavailability than glucoside for petunidin and malvidin. Anthocyanins recovered in urine and bile during the first 4 h after intravenous administration were only 30.8 and 13.4%, respectively. Anthocyanin profiles in tissues were quite different from those in blood plasma. The major anthocyanins distributed in liver and kidney were the O-methyl anthocyanins such as peonidin, malvidin, and other O-methyl anthocyanins derived from delphinidin, cyanidin, and petunidin-glycosides.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Bile/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 53(24): 9472-7, 2005 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16302764

RESUMO

Two major anthocyanins were isolated from the acidified methanolic extract of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. These anthocyanins were interconvertible under room light illumination condition. By means of tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, their structures were identified and elucidated as delphinidin 3-[4-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-l-rhamnosyl(1-->6)glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (compound 1) and delphinidin 3-[4-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-l-rhamnosyl-(1-->6)glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (compound 2), respectively. The results indicated that nasunin comprised cis and trans isomers of the p-coumaric acid moiety in its structure.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Solanum melongena/química , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Propionatos
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