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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(11): 9645-9652, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309121

RESUMO

Direct reduction of metal oxides into a few transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) monolayers has been recently explored as an alternative method for large area and uniform deposition. However, not many studies have addressed the characteristics and requirement of the metal oxides into TMDCs by the selenization/sulfurization processes, yielding a wide range of outstanding properties to poor electrical characteristics with nonuniform films. The large difference implies that the process is yet not fully understood. In particular, the selenization/sulfurization at low temperature leads to poor crystallinity films with poor electrical performance, hindering its practical development. A common approach to improve the quality of the selenized/sulfurized films is by further increasing the process temperature, thus requiring additional transfer in order to explore the electrical properties. Here, we show that by finely tuning the quality of the predeposited oxide the selenization/sulfurization temperature can be largely decreased, avoiding major substrate damage and allowing direct device fabrication. The direct relationship between the role of selecting different metal oxides prepared by e-beam evaporation and reactive sputtering and their oxygen deficiency/vacancy leading to quality influence of TMDCs was investigated in detail. Because of its outstanding physical properties, the formation of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) from the reduction of tungsten oxide (WO x) was chosen as a model for proof of concept. By optimizing the process parameters and the selection of metal oxides, layered WSe2 films with controlled atomic thickness can be demonstrated. Interestingly, the domain size and electrical properties of the layered WSe2 films are highly affected by the quality of the metal oxides, for which the layered WSe2 film with small domains exhibits a metallic behavior and the layered WSe2 films with larger domains provides clear semiconducting behavior. Finally, an 8'' wafer scale-layered WSe2 film was demonstrated, giving a step forward in the development of 2D TMDC electronics in the industry.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12706, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983108

RESUMO

A p-a-SiC:H window layer was used in amorphous Si thin film solar cells to boost the conversion efficiency in an indoor lighting of 500 lx. The p-a-SiC:H window layer/p-a-Si:H buffer layer scheme moderates the abrupt band bending across the p/i interface for the enhancement of VOC, JSC and FF in the solar spectra of short wavelengths. The optimized thickness of i-a-Si:H absorber layer is 400 nm to achieve the conversion efficiency of ~9.58% in an AM1.5 G solar spectrum. However, the optimized thickness of the absorber layer can be changed from 400 to 600 nm in the indoor lighting of 500 lx, exhibiting the maximum output power of 25.56 µW/cm2. Furthermore, various durability tests with excellent performance were investigated, which are significantly beneficial to harvest the indoor lights for applications in the self-powered internet of thing (IoT).

3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1368, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465531

RESUMO

Development of manufacture trend for TFTs technologies has focused on improving electrical properties of films with the cost reduction to achieve commercialization. To achieve this goal, high-performance sub-50 nm TFTs-based MOSFETs with ON-current (Ion)/subthreshold swing (S.S.) of 181 µA/µm/107 mV/dec and 188 µA/µm/98 mV/dec for NMOSFETs and PMOSFETs in a monolithic 3D circuit were demonstrated by a low power with low thermal budget process. In addition, a stackable static random access memory (SRAM) integrated with TFTs-based MOSFET with static noise margins (SNM) equals to 390 mV at VDD = 1.0 V was demonstrated. Overall processes include a low thermal budget via ultra-flat and ultra-thin poly-Si channels by solid state laser crystallization process, chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) planarization, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) gate stacking layers and infrared laser activation with a low thermal budget. Detailed material and electrical properties were investigated. The advanced 3D architecture with closely spaced inter-layer dielectrics (ILD) enables high-performance stackable MOSFETs and SRAM for power-saving IoT/mobile products at a low cost or flexible substrate.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(8): 1824-1830, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387117

RESUMO

Indoor utilization of emerging photovoltaics is promising; however, efficiency characterization under room lighting is challenging. We report the first round-robin interlaboratory study of performance measurement for dye-sensitized photovoltaics (cells and mini-modules) and one silicon solar cell under a fluorescent dim light. Among 15 research groups, the relative deviation in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the samples reaches an unprecedented 152%. On the basis of the comprehensive results, the gap between photometry and radiometry measurements and the response of devices to the dim illumination are identified as critical obstacles to the correct PCE. Therefore, we use an illuminometer as a prime standard with a spectroradiometer to quantify the intensity of indoor lighting and adopt the reverse-biased current-voltage (I-V) characteristics as an indicator to qualify the I-V sampling time for dye-sensitized photovoltaics. The recommendations can brighten the prospects of emerging photovoltaics for indoor applications.

5.
Nanoscale ; 8(9): 5181-8, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878109

RESUMO

The fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells on flexible substrates is a non-trivial task due to thermal and ion diffusion related issues. In order to circumvent these issues, we have developed a chemical-mechanical polishing lift-off (CMPL) transfer process, enabling the direct transfer of CIGS solar cells from conventional soda-lime glass (SLG) onto arbitrary flexible substrates up to 4 cm(2) in size. The structural and compositional nature of the pre- and post-transferred films is examined using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. We demonstrate the fabrication of solar cells on a range of flexible substrates while being able to maintain 75% cell efficiency (η) when compared to pre-transferred solar cells. The results obtained in this work suggest that our transfer process offers a highly promising approach toward large scale fabrication of CIGS-based solar cells on a wide variety of flexible substrates, suitable for use in the large scale CIGS photovoltaic industry.

6.
Opt Express ; 23(3): A106-17, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836236

RESUMO

Metallic back reflectors has been used for thin-film and wafer-based solar cells for very long time. Nonetheless, the metallic mirrors might not be the best choices for photovoltaics. In this work, we show that solar cells with all-dielectric reflectors can surpass the best-configured metal-backed devices. Theoretical and experimental results all show that superior large-angle light scattering capability can be achieved by the diffuse medium reflectors, and the solar cell J-V enhancement is higher for solar cells using all-dielectric reflectors. Specifically, the measured diffused scattering efficiency (D.S.E.) of a diffuse medium reflector is >0.8 for the light trapping spectral range (600nm-1000nm), and the measured reflectance of a diffuse medium can be as high as silver if the geometry of embedded titanium oxide(TiO(2)) nanoparticles is optimized. Moreover, the diffuse medium reflectors have the additional advantage of room-temperature processing, low cost, and very high throughput. We believe that using all-dielectric solar cell reflectors is a way to approach the thermodynamic conversion limit by completely excluding metallic dissipation.

7.
ACS Nano ; 9(4): 3907-16, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25769317

RESUMO

A reactive mold-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process through an easy-to-make agarose stamp soaked in bromine methanol etchant to rapidly imprint larger area micro- and nanoarrays on CIGS substrates was demonstrated. Interestingly, by using the agarose stamp during the MACE process with and without additive containing oil and triton, CIGS microdome and microhole arrays can be formed on the CIGS substrate. Detailed formation mechanisms of microstructures and the chemical composition variation after the etching process were investigated. In addition, various microand nanostructures were also demonstrated by this universal approach. The microstructure arrays integrated into standard CIGS solar cells with thinner thickness can still achieve an efficiency of 11.22%, yielding an enhanced efficiency of ∼18% compared with that of their planar counterpart due to an excellent absorption behavior confirmed by the simulation results, which opens up a promising way for the realization of high-efficiency micro- or nanostructured thin-film solar cells. Finally, the complete dissolution of agarose stamp into hot water demonstrates an environmentally friendly method by the mold-assisted chemical etching process through an easy-to-make agarose stamp.

8.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4243, 2014 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24603964

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructures have demonstrated enticing potency to boost performance of photovoltaic devices primarily owning to the improved photon capturing capability. Nevertheless, cost-effective and scalable fabrication of regular 3-D nanostructures with decent robustness and flexibility still remains as a challenging task. Meanwhile, establishing rational design guidelines for 3-D nanostructured solar cells with the balanced electrical and optical performance are of paramount importance and in urgent need. Herein, regular arrays of 3-D nanospikes (NSPs) were fabricated on flexible aluminum foil with a roll-to-roll compatible process. The NSPs have precisely controlled geometry and periodicity which allow systematic investigation on geometry dependent optical and electrical performance of the devices with experiments and modeling. Intriguingly, it has been discovered that the efficiency of an amorphous-Si (a-Si) photovoltaic device fabricated on NSPs can be improved by 43%, as compared to its planar counterpart, in an optimal case. Furthermore, large scale flexible NSP solar cell devices have been fabricated and demonstrated. These results not only have shed light on the design rules of high performance nanostructured solar cells, but also demonstrated a highly practical process to fabricate efficient solar panels with 3-D nanostructures, thus may have immediate impact on thin film photovoltaic industry.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(7): 4842-9, 2014 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24571825

RESUMO

A nontoxic hydrogen-assisted solid Se vapor selenization process (HASVS) technique to achieve a large-area (40 × 30 cm(2)) Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar panel with enhanced efficiencies from 7.1 to 10.8% (12.0% for active area) was demonstrated. The remarkable improvement of efficiency and fill factor comes from improved open circuit voltage (Voc) and reduced dark current due to (1) decreased interface recombination raised from the formation of a widened buried homojunction with n-type Cd(Cu) participation and (2) enhanced separation of electron and hole carriers resulting from the accumulation of Na atoms on the surface of the CIGS film. The effects of microstructural, compositional, and electrical characteristics with hydrogen-assisted Se vapor selenization, including interdiffusion of atoms and formation of buried homojunction, were examined in detail. This methodology can be also applied to CIS (CuInSe2) thin film solar cells with enhanced efficiencies from 5.3% to 8.5% (9.4% for active area) and provides a facile approach to improve quality of CIGS and stimulate the nontoxic progress in the large scale CIGS PV industry.

10.
Appl Opt ; 51(24): 5876-84, 2012 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22907016

RESUMO

Silicon-based (Si-based) photonic crystal waveguide based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW PCW) structures consisting of 60° bends and Y-branch power splitters were designed and first efficiently fabricated and characterized. The ARROW structure has a relatively large core size suitable for efficient coupling with a single-mode fiber. Simple capsule-shaped topography defects at 60° photonic crystal (PC) bend corners and Y-branch PC power splitters were used for increasing the broadband light transmission. In the preliminary measurements, the propagation losses of the ARROW PC straight waveguides lower than 2 dB/mm with a long length of 1500 µm were achieved. The average bend loss of 60° PC bend waveguides was lower than 3 dB/bend. For the Y-branch PC power splitters, the average power imbalance was lower than 0.6 dB. The results show that our fabricated Si-based ARROW PCWs with 60° bends and Y-branch structures can provide good light transmission and power-splitting ability.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/instrumentação , Fibras Ópticas , Simulação por Computador , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Luz , Refratometria/instrumentação , Silício/química
11.
Opt Express ; 20(10): A412-7, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22712090

RESUMO

Nano-patterned glass superstrates obtained via a large-area production approach are desirable for antireflection and light trapping in thin-film solar cells. The tapered nanostructures allow a graded refractive index profile between the glass and material interfaces, leading to suppressed surface reflection and increased forward diffraction of light. In this work, we investigate nanostructured glass patterns with different aspect ratios using scalable nanosphere lithography for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells. Compared to flat glass cell and Asahi U-type glass cell, enhancements in short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 51.6% and 8%, respectively, were achieved for a moderate aspect ratio of 0.16. The measured external quantum efficiencies (EQE) spectra confirmed a broadband enhancement due to antireflection and light trapping properties.

12.
Opt Express ; 19 Suppl 4: A757-62, 2011 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21747544

RESUMO

Light-management is critical to thin film solar cells due to their usually limited optical absorption in the active layer. Conventional approaches involve employing separate techniques for anti-reflection and light trapping. Here, we demonstrate an embedded biomimetic nanostructure (EBN) that achieves both effects for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The fabrication of EBNs is accomplished by patterning an index-matching silicon-nitride layer deposited on a glass substrate using polystyrene nanospheres lithography, followed by reactive ion etching. The profile of EBN is then reproduced layer by layer during the deposition of a-Si:H cells. We show that a solar cell with an optimized EBN exhibits a broadband enhanced external quantum efficiency due to both anti-reflection and light-trapping, with respect to an industrial standard cell using an Asahi U glass substrate which is mostly optimized for light trapping. Overall, the cell with an optimized EBN achieves a large short-circuit current density of 17.74 mA/cm(2), corresponding to a 37.63% enhancement over a flat control cell. The power conversion efficiency is also increased from 5.36% to 8.32%. Moreover, the light management enabled by the EBN remains efficient over a wide range of incident angles up to 60°, which is particularly desirable for real environments with diffused sun light. The novel patterning method is not restricted to a-Si:H solar cells, but is also widely applicable to other thin film materials.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Nanoestruturas/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Energia Solar , Absorção , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Teoria Quântica , Análise Espectral
13.
Opt Lett ; 36(7): 1089-91, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21478992

RESUMO

An optical phase modulator is presented by using micro-electro-mechanical systems to actuate deformable silicon waveguides. Via mechanically stretching the waveguide length, the optical path is extended, resulting in a phase shift. The experimental results show that a phase shift of near 0.4π is achieved at 200 V for both TE- and TM-polarized waves by cascading six phase modulation units, agreeing well with the theoretical prediction. The power consumption is estimated to be smaller than 0.2 mW at 200 V, mainly resulting from the leakage current.

14.
Opt Express ; 15(11): 6982-7, 2007 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19547013

RESUMO

Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by near-infrared femtosecond laser annealing (FLA) are demonstrated. The FLA-annealed poly-Si channels exhibit low tail-state, deep-state, and midgap-state densities of grain traps. Characteristics such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and subthreshold slope for FLA-annealed poly-TFTs are comparable to those of conventional approaches. A wide process window for annealing laser fluences was confirmed by examining the changes in electrical parameters for transistors with various channel dimensions.

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