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1.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672265

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. While Duchenne is most commonly caused by large intragenic deletions that cause frameshift and complete loss of dystrophin expression, in-frame deletions in DMD can result in the expression of internally truncated dystrophin proteins and may be associated with a milder phenotype. In this study, we describe two individuals with large in-frame 5' deletions (exon 3-23 and exon 3-28) that remove the majority of the N-terminal region, including part of the actin binding and central rod domains. Both patients had progressive muscle weakness during childhood but are observed to have a relatively mild disease course compared to typical Duchenne. We show that in muscle biopsies from both patients, truncated dystrophin is expressed at the sarcolemma. We have additionally developed a patient-specific fibroblast-derived cell model, which can be inducibly reprogrammed to form myotubes that largely recapitulate biopsy findings for the patient with the exon 3-23 deletion, providing a culture model for future investigation of this unusual case. We discuss these mutations in the context of previously reported 5' in-frame DMD deletions and relevant animal models, and review the spectrum of phenotypes associated with these deletions.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the value of transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) in ascertaining the consequence of DNA variants on RNA transcripts to improve the diagnostic rate from exome or genome sequencing for undiagnosed Mendelian diseases spanning a wide spectrum of clinical indications. METHODS: From 234 subjects referred to the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, University of California-Los Angeles clinical site between July 2014 and August 2018, 113 were enrolled for high likelihood of having rare undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions despite thorough prior clinical evaluation. Exome or genome sequencing and RNAseq were performed, and RNAseq data was integrated with genome sequencing data for DNA variant interpretation genome-wide. RESULTS: The molecular diagnostic rate by exome or genome sequencing was 31%. Integration of RNAseq with genome sequencing resulted in an additional seven cases with clear diagnosis of a known genetic disease. Thus, the overall molecular diagnostic rate was 38%, and 18% of all genetic diagnoses returned required RNAseq to determine variant causality. CONCLUSION: In this rare disease cohort with a wide spectrum of undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions, RNAseq analysis increased the molecular diagnostic rate above that possible with genome sequencing analysis alone even without availability of the most appropriate tissue type to assess.

3.
Muscle Nerve ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study we characterized disease progression over 48 weeks among boys receiving deflazacort vs prednisone/prednisolone placebo arm treatment in two recent Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials. METHODS: Ambulatory boys with DMD receiving placebo in the phase 3 ataluren (N = 115) and tadalafil (N = 116) trials were included. The trials required at least 6 months of prior corticosteroid use and stable baseline dosing. Associations between corticosteroid use and 48-week changes in ambulatory function were estimated using mixed models. Adjusted differences between corticosteroid groups were pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis, deflazacort-treated patients vs prednisone/prednisolone-treated patients experienced, on average, lower declines of 28.3 meters on 6-minute walk distance (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 50.9; 2.9 seconds on rise from supine [95% CI, 0.9, 4.9 seconds]; 2.3 seconds on 4-stair climb [95% CI, 0.5, 4.1 seconds]; and 2.9 [95% CI, 0.1, 5.8] points on the North Star Ambulatory Assessment linearized score). DISCUSSION: Deflazacort-treated patients experienced significantly lower functional decline over 48 weeks.

4.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 224, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a dominantly-inherited progressive muscular dystrophy caused by de-repression of the DUX4 gene, which causes disease by a toxic-gain-of-function. As molecularly targeted drugs move from preclinical testing into human trials, it is essential that we validate clinical trial tools and methodology to facilitate the drug development process. METHODS/DESIGN: The primary goal of this study is to hasten drug development for FSHD by validating two novel clinical outcome assessments (COAs) and refining clinical trial strategies. We will perform an 18-month longitudinal study in 220 genetically confirmed and clinically affected participants using our FSHD Clinical Trial Research Network, comprised of 8 sites in the United States, and 3 collaborating sites in Europe. Visits occur at baseline and months 3, 12, and 18. At each visit we will collect: 1) a novel FSHD functional composite COA made up of 18 evaluator-administered motor tasks in the domains of shoulder/arm, hand, core/abdominal, leg, and balance function; and 2) electrical impedance myography as a novel muscle quality biomarker (US sites). Other COAs include 1) Domain 1 of the Motor Function Measure; 2) Reachable workspace; 3) orofacial strength using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument; 4) lean muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); 5) strength as measured by quantitative myometry and manual muscle testing; and 6) the FSHD Health Index and other patient-reported outcomes. Plasma, DNA, RNA, and serum will be collected for future biomarker studies. We will use an industry standard multi-site training plan. We will evaluate the test-retest reliability, validity, and sensitivity to disease progression, and minimal clinically important changes of our new COAs. We will assess associations between demographic and genetic factors and the rate of disease progression to inform refinement of eligibility criteria for future clinical trials. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest collaborative study of patients with FSHD performed in the US and Europe. The results of this study will enable more efficient clinical trial design. During the conduct of the study, relevant data will be made available for investigators or companies pursuing novel FSHD therapeutics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03458832; Date of registration: 1/11/2018.

5.
Neurology ; 92(13): e1405-e1415, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic and physiologic basis for recessive myasthenic congenital myopathy in 2 families, suggestive of a channelopathy involving the sodium channel gene, SCN4A. METHODS: A combination of whole exome sequencing and targeted mutation analysis, followed by voltage-clamp studies of mutant sodium channels expressed in fibroblasts (HEK cells) and Xenopus oocytes. RESULTS: Missense mutations of the same residue in the skeletal muscle sodium channel, R1460 of NaV1.4, were identified in a family and a single patient of Finnish origin (p.R1460Q) and a proband in the United States (p.R1460W). Congenital hypotonia, breathing difficulties, bulbar weakness, and fatigability had recessive inheritance (homozygous p.R1460W or compound heterozygous p.R1460Q and p.R1059X), whereas carriers were either asymptomatic (p.R1460W) or had myotonia (p.R1460Q). Sodium currents conducted by mutant channels showed unusual mixed defects with both loss-of-function (reduced amplitude, hyperpolarized shift of inactivation) and gain-of-function (slower entry and faster recovery from inactivation) changes. CONCLUSIONS: Novel mutations in families with myasthenic congenital myopathy have been identified at p.R1460 of the sodium channel. Recessive inheritance, with experimentally established loss-of-function, is a consistent feature of sodium channel based myasthenia, whereas the mixed gain of function for p.R1460 may also cause susceptibility to myotonia.

6.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 20(3): 111-119, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess tolerability and efficacy of amifampridine phosphate versus placebo for symptomatic treatment of Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS). METHODS: This phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal trial in 26 adults with LEMS compared efficacy of amifampridine phosphate versus placebo over a 4-day period. The primary endpoints were quantitative myasthenia gravis score (QMG) and subject global impression, and the secondary endpoint was Clinical Global Impression-Improvement. The exploratory endpoints were 3TUG (timed up and go) test and QMG limb domain score. All participants had been receiving amifampridine phosphate (30-80 mg/d divided into 3 or 4 doses daily) in an expanded access protocol and had been titrated to the optimal dose and frequency for at least 1 week before randomization into the current study. After completion of assessments after 4 days of double-blind treatment, patients had the option to return to open-label amifampridine phosphate. The efficacy endpoints were mean changes from baseline in the various evaluation parameters. RESULTS: Amifampridine phosphate (n = 13) demonstrated significant benefit in QMG and subject global impression compared with placebo (n = 13) at 4 days. Other measures of efficacy, including Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, 3TUG, and QMG limb domain score also improved. The most common "adverse events" in the placebo group were muscle weakness (n = 5) and fatigue (n = 4), as expected from withdrawal of amifampridine phosphate, whereas only back pain (n = 1), pain in extremity (n = 1), and headache (n = 1) were reported in amifampridine phosphate group. CONCLUSIONS: This phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal trial in adults with LEMS provided class I evidence of efficacy of amifampridine phosphate as symptomatic treatment in LEMS.


Assuntos
Amifampridina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Miastênica de Lambert-Eaton/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
7.
Neurotherapeutics ; 15(4): 840-848, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414046

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive X-linked degenerative muscle disease due to mutations in the DMD gene. Genetic confirmation has become standard in recent years. Improvements in the standard of care for DMD have led to improved survival. Novel treatments for DMD have focused on reducing the dystrophic mechanism of the muscle disease, modulating utrophin protein expression, and restoring dystrophin protein expression. Among the strategies to reduce the dystrophic mechanisms are 1) inhibiting inflammation, 2) promoting muscle growth and regeneration, 3) reducing fibrosis, and 4) facilitating mitochondrial function. The agents under investigation include a novel steroid, myostatin inhibitors, idebenone, an anti-CTGF antibody, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and cardiosphere-derived cells. For utrophin modulation, AAV-mediated gene therapy with GALGT2 is currently being investigated to upregulate utrophin expression. Finally, the strategies for dystrophin protein restoration include 1) nonsense readthrough, 2) synthetic antisense oligonucleotides for exon skipping, and 3) AAV-mediated micro/minidystrophin gene delivery. With newer agents, we are witnessing the use of more advanced biotechnological methods. Although these potential breakthroughs provide significant promise, they may also raise new questions regarding treatment effect and safety.

8.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 11: 113-119, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094386

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Recruitment and retention of research participants are challenging and critical components of successful clinical trials and natural history studies. Infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been a particularly challenging population to study due to their fragile and complex medical issues, poor prognosis and, until 2016, a lack of effective therapies. Recruitment of healthy infants into clinical trials and natural history studies is also challenging and sometimes assumed to not be feasible. Methods: In 2011, our group initiated a two-year, longitudinal natural history study of infants with SMA and healthy infant controls to provide data to assist in the analysis and interpretation of planned clinical trials in infants with SMA. The recruitment goal was to enroll 27 infants less than 6 months of age with SMA and 27 age-matched healthy infants within the two-year enrollment period. A detailed recruitment and retention plan was developed for this purpose. In addition, a survey was administered to participant families to understand the determinants of participation in the study. Results: All healthy infants were recruited within the study's first year and 26 SMA infants were recruited within the two-year recruitment period. Thirty-eight participant families responded to the recruitment determinants survey. Nearly half of respondents (18/38, 48%) reported that they first heard of the study from their physician or neurologist. The most common reason to decide to enroll their infant (22/38, 58%) and to remain in the study (28/38, 74%) was their understanding of the importance of the study. Thematic recruitment tools such as a study brochure, video on social media, and presentations at advocacy meetings were reported to positively influence the decision to enroll. Conclusions: A proactive, thematic and inclusive recruitment and retention plan that effectively communicates the rationale of a clinical study and partners with patients, advocacy groups and the local communities can effectively recruit participants in vulnerable populations. Recommendations for the proactive integration of recruitment and retention plans into clinical trial protocol development are provided.

9.
Muscle Nerve ; 58(5): 639-645, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ACT DMD was a 48-week trial of ataluren for nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Patients received corticosteroids for ≥6 months at entry and stable regimens throughout study. This post hoc analysis compares efficacy and safety for deflazacort and prednisone/prednisolone in the placebo arm. METHODS: Patients received deflazacort (n = 53) or prednisone/prednisolone (n = 61). Endpoints included change from baseline in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests, estimated age at loss of ambulation (extrapolated from 6MWD). RESULTS: Mean changes in 6MWD were -39.0 m (deflazacort; 95% confidence limit [CL], -68.85, -9.17) and -70.6 m (prednisone/prednisolone; 95% CL, -97.16, -44.02). Mean changes in 4-stair climb were 3.79 s (deflazacort; 95% CL, 1.54, 6.03) and 6.67 s (prednisone/prednisolone; 95% CL, 4.69, 8.64). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis, limited by its post hoc nature, suggests greater preservation of 6MWD and 4-stair climb with deflazacort vs. prednisone/prednisolone. A head-to-head comparison will better define these differences. Muscle Nerve 58: 639-645, 2018.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(11): 1439-1440, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039160
11.
Trials ; 19(1): 291, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials in rare diseases have many challenges, among which are the need to set up multiple sites in different countries to achieve recruitment targets and the divergent landscape of clinical trial regulations in those countries. Over the past years, there have been initiatives to facilitate the process of international study set-up, but the fruits of these deliberations require time to be operationally in place. FOR-DMD (Finding the Optimum Steroid Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) is an academic-led clinical trial which aims to find the optimum steroid regimen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for 5 years (July 2010 to June 2015), anticipating that all sites (40 across the USA, Canada, the UK, Germany and Italy) would be open to recruitment from July 2011. However, study start-up was significantly delayed and recruitment did not start until January 2013. METHOD: The FOR-DMD study is used as an example to identify systematic problems in the set-up of international, multi-centre clinical trials. The full timeline of the FOR-DMD study, from funding approval to site activation, was collated and reviewed. Systematic issues were identified and grouped into (1) study set-up, e.g. drug procurement; (2) country set-up, e.g. competent authority applications; and (3) site set-up, e.g. contracts, to identify the main causes of delay and suggest areas where anticipatory action could overcome these obstacles in future studies. RESULTS: Time from the first contact to site activation across countries ranged from 6 to 24 months. Reasons of delay were universal (sponsor agreement, drug procurement, budgetary constraints), country specific (complexity and diversity of regulatory processes, indemnity requirements) and site specific (contracting and approvals). The main identified obstacles included (1) issues related to drug supply, (2) NIH requirements regarding contracting with non-US sites, (3) differing regulatory requirements in the five participating countries, (4) lack of national harmonisation with contracting and the requirement to negotiate terms and contract individually with each site and (5) diversity of languages needed for study materials. Additionally, as with many academic-led studies, the FOR-DMD study did not have access to the infrastructure and expertise that a contracted research organisation could provide, organisations often employed in pharmaceutical-sponsored studies. This delay impacted recruitment, challenged the clinical relevance of the study outcomes and potentially delayed the delivery of the best treatment to patients. CONCLUSION: Based on the FOR-DMD experience, and as an interim solution, we have devised a checklist of steps to not only anticipate and minimise delays in academic international trial initiation but also identify obstacles that will require a concerted effort on the part of many stakeholders to mitigate.

12.
Neurol Clin ; 36(2): 367-378, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655455

RESUMO

The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of rare genetic conditions characterized by abnormal neuromuscular transmission. Typically, these conditions have been the result of a dysfunctional protein that is present in the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic cleft, or the postsynaptic terminal. Many of these syndromes present within the first few years of life with fluctuating and fatiguable weakness in a distribution similar to myasthenia gravis, although a limb-girdle distribution and late onset are also seen in certain specific types of CMS. Electrodiagnostic testing with repetitive nerve stimulation may be helpful in some forms of CMS.

13.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 5(2): 145-158, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29614695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, leading to muscular atrophy. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). In humans, a nearly identical copy gene, SMN2, is present. Because SMN2 has been shown to decrease disease severity in a dose-dependent manner, SMN2 copy number is predictive of disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To develop a treatment algorithm for SMA-positive infants identified through newborn screening based upon SMN2 copy number. METHODS: A working group comprised of 15 SMA experts participated in a modified Delphi process, moderated by a neutral third-party expert, to develop treatment guidelines. RESULTS: The overarching recommendation is that all infants with two or three copies of SMN2 should receive immediate treatment (n = 13). For those infants in which immediate treatment is not recommended, guidelines were developed that outline the timing and appropriate screens and tests to be used to determine the timing of treatment initiation. CONCLUSIONS: The identification SMA affected infants via newborn screening presents an unprecedented opportunity for achievement of maximal therapeutic benefit through the administration of treatment pre-symptomatically. The recommendations provided here are intended to help formulate treatment guidelines for infants who test positive during the newborn screening process.


Assuntos
Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Assistência ao Convalescente , Algoritmos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Técnica Delfos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Eletromiografia , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Destreza Motora , Triagem Neonatal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/diagnóstico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/genética , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Tempo
14.
N Engl J Med ; 378(7): 625-635, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modulates pre-messenger RNA splicing of the survival motor neuron 2 ( SMN2) gene. It has been developed for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 trial of nusinersen in 126 children with SMA who had symptom onset after 6 months of age. The children were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo intrathecal administration of nusinersen at a dose of 12 mg (nusinersen group) or a sham procedure (control group) on days 1, 29, 85, and 274. The primary end point was the least-squares mean change from baseline in the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale-Expanded (HFMSE) score at 15 months of treatment; HFMSE scores range from 0 to 66, with higher scores indicating better motor function. Secondary end points included the percentage of children with a clinically meaningful increase from baseline in the HFMSE score (≥3 points), an outcome that indicates improvement in at least two motor skills. RESULTS: In the prespecified interim analysis, there was a least-squares mean increase from baseline to month 15 in the HFMSE score in the nusinersen group (by 4.0 points) and a least-squares mean decrease in the control group (by -1.9 points), with a significant between-group difference favoring nusinersen (least-squares mean difference in change, 5.9 points; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 8.1; P<0.001). This result prompted early termination of the trial. Results of the final analysis were consistent with results of the interim analysis. In the final analysis, 57% of the children in the nusinersen group as compared with 26% in the control group had an increase from baseline to month 15 in the HFMSE score of at least 3 points (P<0.001), and the overall incidence of adverse events was similar in the nusinersen group and the control group (93% and 100%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among children with later-onset SMA, those who received nusinersen had significant and clinically meaningful improvement in motor function as compared with those in the control group. (Funded by Biogen and Ionis Pharmaceuticals; CHERISH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02292537 .).


Assuntos
Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/tratamento farmacológico , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções Espinhais , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Oligonucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/efeitos adversos , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/fisiopatologia
15.
Muscle Nerve ; 57(4): 522-530, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125635

RESUMO

Periodic paralyses (PPs) are rare neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in skeletal muscle sodium, calcium, and potassium channel genes. PPs include hypokalemic paralysis, hyperkalemic paralysis, and Andersen-Tawil syndrome. Common features of PP include autosomal dominant inheritance, onset typically in the first or second decades, episodic attacks of flaccid weakness, which are often triggered by diet or rest after exercise. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinic presentation then confirmed by genetic testing. In the absence of an identified genetic mutation, documented low or high potassium levels during attacks or a decrement on long exercise testing support diagnosis. The treatment approach should include both management of acute attacks and prevention of attacks. Treatments include behavioral interventions directed at avoidance of triggers, modification of potassium levels, diuretics, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Muscle Nerve 57: 522-530, 2018.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 82(6): 883-891, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality, typically resulting in death preceding age 2. Clinical trials in this population require an understanding of disease progression and identification of meaningful biomarkers to hasten therapeutic development and predict outcomes. METHODS: A longitudinal, multicenter, prospective natural history study enrolled 26 SMA infants and 27 control infants aged <6 months. Recruitment occurred at 14 centers over 21 months within the NINDS-sponsored NeuroNEXT (National Network for Excellence in Neuroscience Clinical Trials) Network. Infant motor function scales (Test of Infant Motor Performance Screening Items [TIMPSI], The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test for Neuromuscular Disorders, and Alberta Infant Motor Score) and putative physiological and molecular biomarkers were assessed preceding age 6 months and at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months with progression, correlations between motor function and biomarkers, and hazard ratios analyzed. RESULTS: Motor function scores (MFS) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) decreased rapidly in SMA infants, whereas MFS in all healthy infants rapidly increased. Correlations were identified between TIMPSI and CMAP in SMA infants. TIMPSI at first study visit was associated with risk of combined endpoint of death or permanent invasive ventilation in SMA infants. Post-hoc analysis of survival to combined endpoint in SMA infants with 2 copies of SMN2 indicated a median age of 8 months at death (95% confidence interval, 6, 17). INTERPRETATION: These data of SMA and control outcome measures delineates meaningful change in clinical trials in infantile-onset SMA. The power and utility of NeuroNEXT to provide "real-world," prospective natural history data sets to accelerate public and private drug development programs for rare disease is demonstrated. Ann Neurol 2017;82:883-891.


Assuntos
Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/sangue , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/genética , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/sangue , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/sangue , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética
17.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 19(1): 19-26, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pattern and extent of muscle weakness and impact on physical functioning in adults with GNEM. METHODS: Strength and function were assessed in GNEM subjects (n = 47) using hand-held dynamometry, manual muscle testing, upper and lower extremity functional capacity tests, and the GNEM-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS). RESULTS: Profound upper and lower muscle weakness was measured using hand-held dynamometry in a characteristic pattern, previously described. Functional tests and clinician-reported outcomes demonstrated the consequence of muscle weakness on physical functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristic pattern of upper and lower muscle weakness associated with GNEM and the resulting functional limitations can be reliably measured using these clinical outcome assessments of muscle strength and function.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/genética , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/genética , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/complicações , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/genética , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet ; 390(10101): 1489-1498, 2017 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, and rare neuromuscular, X-linked recessive disease. Dystrophin deficiency is the underlying cause of disease; therefore, mutation-specific therapies aimed at restoring dystrophin protein production are being explored. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in ambulatory boys with nonsense mutation DMD. METHODS: We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 54 sites in 18 countries located in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America. Boys aged 7-16 years with nonsense mutation DMD and a baseline 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 150 m or more and 80% or less of the predicted normal value for age and height were randomly assigned (1:1), via permuted block randomisation (block size of four) using an interactive voice-response or web-response system, to receive ataluren orally three times daily (40 mg/kg per day) or matching placebo. Randomisation was stratified by age (<9 years vs ≥9 years), duration of previous corticosteroid use (6 months to <12 months vs ≥12 months), and baseline 6MWD (<350 m vs ≥350 m). Patients, parents and caregivers, investigational site personnel, PTC Therapeutics employees, and all other study personnel were masked to group allocation until after database lock. The primary endpoint was change in 6MWD from baseline to week 48. We additionally did a prespecified subgroup analysis of the primary endpoint, based on baseline 6MWD, which is reflective of anticipated rates of disease progression over 1 year. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01826487. FINDINGS: Between March 26, 2013, and Aug 26, 2014, we randomly assigned 230 patients to receive ataluren (n=115) or placebo (n=115); 228 patients comprised the intention-to-treat population. The least-squares mean change in 6MWD from baseline to week 48 was -47·7 m (SE 9·3) for ataluren-treated patients and -60·7 m (9·3) for placebo-treated patients (difference 13·0 m [SE 10·4], 95% CI -7·4 to 33·4; p=0·213). The least-squares mean change for ataluren versus placebo in the prespecified subgroups was -7·7 m (SE 24·1, 95% CI -54·9 to 39·5; p=0·749) in the group with a 6MWD of less than 300 m, 42·9 m (15·9, 11·8-74·0; p=0·007) in the group with a 6MWD of 300 m or more to less than 400 m, and -9·5 m (17·2, -43·2 to 24·2; p=0·580) in the group with a 6MWD of 400 m or more. Ataluren was generally well tolerated and most treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Eight (3%) patients (n=4 per group) reported serious adverse events; all except one event in the placebo group (abnormal hepatic function deemed possibly related to treatment) were deemed unrelated to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Change in 6MWD did not differ significantly between patients in the ataluren group and those in the placebo group, neither in the intention-to-treat population nor in the prespecified subgroups with a baseline 6MWD of less than 300 m or 400 m or more. However, we recorded a significant effect of ataluren in the prespecified subgroup of patients with a baseline 6MWD of 300 m or more to less than 400 m. Baseline 6MWD values within this range were associated with a more predictable rate of decline over 1 year; this finding has implications for the design of future DMD trials with the 6-minute walk test as the endpoint. FUNDING: PTC Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Oxidiazóis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Distrofina/deficiência , Distrofina/genética , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 58: 34-39, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450193

RESUMO

Despite corticosteroids being the only treatment documented to improve strength and function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) corticosteroid prescription is inconsistent and in some countries, corticosteroids are not prescribed. We are conducting a clinical trial that (1) compares the 3 most frequently prescribed corticosteroid regimes; (2) standardizes treatment of DMD complications; and (3) standardizes prevention of corticosteroid side effects. Investigators at 38 sites in 5 countries plan to recruit 300 boys aged 4-7 who are randomly assigned to one of three regimens: daily prednisone; daily deflazacort; or intermittent prednisone (10days on/10days off). Boys are followed for a minimum of 3years to assess the relative effectiveness and adverse event profiles of the different regimens. The primary outcome is a 3-dimensional variable consisting of log-transformed time to rise from the floor, forced vital capacity, and subject/parent satisfaction with treatment, each averaged over all post-baseline visits. The study protocol includes evidence- and consensus-based treatment of DMD complications and of corticosteroid side effects. This study seeks to establish a standard corticosteroid regimen for DMD. Since all new interventions for DMD are being developed as add-on therapies to corticosteroids, defining the optimum regimen is of importance for all new treatments.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Pregnenodionas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Avaliação da Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Satisfação do Paciente , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Pregnenodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnenodionas/efeitos adversos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Projetos de Pesquisa , Capacidade Vital
20.
Muscle Nerve ; 56(2): 264-270, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. METHODS: Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. RESULTS: High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/sangue , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Amônia/sangue , Doença Crônica , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos
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