Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135241, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843312

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 seeks to "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water", which is challenging particularly in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Pacific Island Countries (PIC). We report drinking water sources and services in the Solomon Islands and examine geographical inequalities. Based on two quantitative baseline datasets of n = 1,598 rural and n = 1,068 urban households, we analyzed different drinking water variables (source type, collection time, amount, use, perceived quality, storage, treatment) and a composite index, drinking water service level. We stratified data by urban and rural areas and by province, mapped, and contextualized them. There are substantive rural-urban drinking water inequalities in the Solomon Islands. Overall, urban households are more likely to: use improved drinking water sources, need less time to collect water, collect more water, store their water more safely, treat water prior to consumption, perceive their water quality as better and have an at least basic drinking water service than rural households. There are also provincial and center-periphery inequalities in drinking water access, with more centrally located provinces using piped water supplies and more distant and remote provinces using rainwater and surface water as their primary source. There are also inter-national inequalities. Out of all PICs, the Solomon Islands have among the lowest access to basic drinking water services: 92% of urban and 55% of rural households. Of all SIDS, PICs are least serviced. This study shows that drinking water inequality is a critical issue, and highlights that all identified dimensions of inequality - rural-urban, provincial, center-periphery and inter-national - need to be explicitly recognized and addressed and included in pro-equity monitoring, policy and programming efforts by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders to reduce inequalities as per the Agenda 2030.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 331-340, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132712

RESUMO

The Solomon Islands, like other small island developing states in the Pacific, face significant challenges from a changing climate, and from increasing extreme weather events, while also lagging behind the rest of the world in terms of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) services. In order to support planning for the implementation of national WaSH strategies and policies, this study contextualizes representative urban and rural baselines for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 ("by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation"). We highlight specific threats to the current sanitation services under extreme weather events such as flooding and drought, both of which are commonly observed in the country, and provide suggestions for structural improvements to sanitation facilities to increase resiliency. As the first detailed nationally representative cross-sectional sanitation study in urban and rural areas in the Solomon Islands, the results of this paper inform national WaSH policy, strategic planning and programming by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 619-620: 1126-1132, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734591

RESUMO

In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 715-721, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454211

RESUMO

The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Participants revealed that seasonality affects water availability, water system breakdowns, resource mobilization, committee activity, and external support availability. In the rainy season, participants typically reported spending less time and money on water collection because rainwater harvesting and seasonal streams, ponds, wells and reservoirs are available. In the dry season, people used improved groundwater sources more often and spent more money and time collecting water. Although seasonal changes in household water demand and use have been examined previously, our data suggest that seasonality also influences community management through differential water system use, system breakdowns and management characteristics. We found that water committees generally have less money, time and access to external support during the rainy season, making them less able to carry out O&M. Our results suggest that community engagement should take place over a long period of time so that seasonal patterns in management can be understood and incorporated into water committee training. External support actors should make a more targeted effort to understand the cultural and economic patterns in a community in order to train committees with appropriate management strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Zâmbia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 601-602: 1075-1083, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599364

RESUMO

Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behavior-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34-$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15-$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93-$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35-$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behavior-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behavior-change programs.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Saneamento/métodos , Etiópia , Gana , Humanos , Higiene , Desenvolvimento de Programas , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/economia , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Toaletes/economia , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(3): 531-538, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient, safe, continuously available drinking water is important for human health and development, yet one in three handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa are non-functional at any given time. Community management, coupled with access to external technical expertise and spare parts, is a widely promoted model for rural water supply management. However, there is limited evidence describing how community management can address common hardware and management failures of rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We identified hardware and management rehabilitation pathways using qualitative data from 267 interviews and 57 focus group discussions in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia. Study participants were water committee members, community members, and local leaders in 18 communities (six in each study country) with water systems managed by a water committee and supported by World Vision (WV), an international non-governmental organization (NGO). Government, WV or private sector employees engaged in supporting the water systems were also interviewed. Inductive analysis was used to allow for pathways to emerge from the data, based on the perspectives and experiences of study participants. RESULTS: Four hardware rehabilitation pathways were identified, based on the types of support used in rehabilitation. Types of support were differentiated as community or external. External support includes financial and/or technical support from government or WV employees. Community actor understanding of who to contact when a hardware breakdown occurs and easy access to technical experts were consistent reasons for rapid rehabilitation for all hardware rehabilitation pathways. Three management rehabilitation pathways were identified. All require the involvement of community leaders and were best carried out when the action was participatory. CONCLUSIONS: The rehabilitation pathways show how available resources can be leveraged to restore hardware breakdowns and management failures for rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Governments, NGOs, and private sector actors can better build capacity of community actors by focusing on their role in rehabilitating hardware and management and to ensure that they are able to quickly contact external support actors when needed for rehabilitation. Using qualitative and participatory methods allows for insight into rapid rehabilitation of hardware and management.


Assuntos
Falha de Equipamento , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Participação da Comunidade , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , Governo Local , Organizações , Zâmbia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563916

RESUMO

Information and communications technologies (ICTs) such as mobile survey tools (MSTs) can facilitate field-level data collection to drive improvements in national and international development programs. MSTs allow users to gather and transmit field data in real time, standardize data storage and management, automate routine analyses, and visualize data. Dozens of diverse MST options are available, and users may struggle to select suitable options. We developed a systematic MST Evaluation Framework (EF), based on International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) software quality modeling standards, to objectively assess MSTs and assist program implementers in identifying suitable MST options. The EF is applicable to MSTs for a broad variety of applications. We also conducted an MST user survey to elucidate needs and priorities of current MST users. Finally, the EF was used to assess seven MSTs currently used for water and sanitation monitoring, as a validation exercise. The results suggest that the EF is a promising method for evaluating MSTs.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Saneamento , Poluentes da Água/análise , Humanos , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 166: 66-76, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543683

RESUMO

Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor. We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: learning, individual performance, and improved programming; and two sets of influences: trainee and context factors. We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September 2013 to May 2014. Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work. Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Ensino/normas , Água/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Quênia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Saneamento/métodos
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 123(12): 1222-31, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. METHODS: We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. RESULTS: Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p < 0.001) and in HSW (p = 0.03). Source water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. CONCLUSIONS: Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Água Potável/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Características da Família , Fezes/microbiologia
10.
Water Resour Res ; 51(10): 8431-8449, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667863

RESUMO

Safe drinking water is critical to human health and development. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, most improved water sources are boreholes with handpumps; studies suggest that up to one third of these handpumps are nonfunctional at any given time. This work presents findings from a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 1509 water sources in 570 communities in the rural Greater Afram Plains (GAP) region of Ghana; one of the largest studies of its kind. 79.4% of enumerated water sources were functional when visited; in multivariable regressions, functionality depended on source age, management, tariff collection, the number of other sources in the community, and the district. A Bayesian network (BN) model developed using the same data set found strong dependencies of functionality on implementer, pump type, management, and the availability of tools, with synergistic effects from management determinants on functionality, increasing the likelihood of a source being functional from a baseline of 72% to more than 97% with optimal management and available tools. We suggest that functionality may be a dynamic equilibrium between regular breakdowns and repairs, with management a key determinant of repair rate. Management variables may interact synergistically in ways better captured by BN analysis than by logistic regressions. These qualitative findings may prove generalizable beyond the study area, and may offer new approaches to understanding and increasing handpump functionality and safe water access.

11.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 33: 239-57, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22224881

RESUMO

Diarrheal disease is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide; thus a large body of research has been produced describing its risks. We review more than four decades of literature on diarrheal disease epidemiology. These studies detail a progression in the conceptual understanding of transmission of enteric pathogens and demonstrate that diarrheal disease is caused by many interdependent pathways. However, arguments by diarrheal disease researchers in favor of attending to interaction and interdependencies have only recently yielded more formal systems-level approaches. Therefore, interdependence has not yet been highlighted in significant new research initiatives or policy decisions. We argue for a systems-level framework that will contextualize transmission and inform prevention and control efforts so that they can integrate transmission pathways. These systems approaches should be employed to account for community effects (i.e., interactions among individuals and/or households).


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Saúde Pública , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Microbiologia da Água
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(27): 10467-10472, 2006 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16790549

RESUMO

The molecular oscillator that drives circadian rhythmicity in mammals obtains its near 24-h periodicity from posttranslational regulation of clock proteins. Activity of the major clock kinase casein kinase I (CKI) epsilon is regulated by inhibitory autophosphorylation. Here we show that protein phosphatase (PP) 5 regulates the kinase activity of CKIepsilon. We demonstrate that cryptochrome regulates clock protein phosphorylation by modulating the effect of PP5 on CKIepsilon. Like CKIepsilon, PP5 is expressed both in the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and in peripheral tissues independent of the clock. Expression of a dominant-negative PP5 mutant reduces PER phosphorylation by CKIepsilon in vivo, and down-regulation of PP5 significantly reduces the amplitude of circadian cycling in cultured human fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings indicate that PP5, CKIepsilon, and cryptochrome dynamically regulate the mammalian circadian clock.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Flavoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas CLOCK , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Catálise , Linhagem Celular , Criptocromos , Ativação Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/enzimologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA