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1.
Ann Surg ; 270(5): 877-883, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore putative different impacts of delayed graft function (DGF) on long-term graft survival in kidneys donated after brain death (DBD) and circulatory death (DCD). BACKGROUND: Despite a 3-fold higher incidence of DGF in DCD grafts, large studies show equivalent long-term graft survival for DBD and DCD grafts. This observation implies a differential impact of DGF on DBD and DCD graft survival. The contrasting impact is remarkable and yet unexplained. METHODS: The impact of DGF on DBD and DCD graft survival was evaluated in 6635 kidney transplants performed in The Netherlands. DGF severity and functional recovery dynamics were assessed for 599 kidney transplants performed at the Leiden Transplant Center. Immunohistochemical staining, gene expression profiling, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used to identify differentially activated pathways in DBD and DCD grafts. RESULTS: While DGF severely impacted 10-year graft survival in DBD grafts (HR 1.67; P < 0.001), DGF did not impact graft survival in DCD grafts (HR 1.08; P = 0.63). Shorter dialysis periods and superior posttransplant eGFRs in DBD grafts show that the differential impact was not caused by a more severe DGF phenotype in DBD grafts. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicates that pathways associated with tissue resilience are present in kidney grafts. Molecular evaluation showed selective activation of resilience-associated pathways in DCD grafts. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an absent impact of DGF on long-term graft survival in DCD kidneys. Molecular evaluation suggests that the differential impact of DGF between DBD and DCD grafts relates to donor-type specific activation of resilience pathways in DCD grafts.

2.
Nephron ; : 1-4, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563917
3.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(4): 1157-1164, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366472

RESUMO

Among several theories to explain the complicated process of human ageing, the mitochondrial oxidative stress hypothesis has received recent attention. Considering that lifespan and ageing rates vary considerably across taxa, a better understanding of factors that lead to negligible or extremely rapid senescence in mammals may generate novel approaches to target human ageing. Several species, such as naked mole rats, ocean quahog, rockfish and Greenland shark, have been identified that exhibit negligible senescence and superior resistance to age-related diseases. Considering that the available literature suggests that their outstanding stress resistance is linked to maintenance of protein homeostasis and robust mitochondrial functions, treatments that target protein modification and upregulation of matrix antioxidants may have implications for extending human health span.

4.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(4): 1165-1172, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416886

RESUMO

Ageing is a process of decline in physiological function and capability over time. It is an anticipated major burden on societal health-care costs due to an increasingly aged global population. Accelerated biological ageing is a feature of age-related morbidities, which also appear to share common underpinning features, including low-grade persistent inflammation, phosphate toxicity, diminished Nrf2 activity, a depleted metabolic capability, depressed mitochondrial biogenesis and a low diversity gut microbiome.Social, psychological, lifestyle and nutritional risk factors can all influence the trajectory of age-related health, as part of an individual's exposome, which reflects the interplay between the genome and the environment. This is manifest as allostatic (over)load reflecting the burden of lifestyle/disease at both a physiological and molecular level. In particular, age-related genomic methylation levels and inflammatory status reflect exposome differences. These features may be mediated by changes in microbial diversity. This can drive the generation of pro-inflammatory factors, such as TMAO, implicated in the 'diseasome' of ageing. Additionally, it can be influenced by the 'foodome', via nutritional differences affecting the availability of methyl donors required for maintenance of the epigenome and by the provision of nutritionally derived Nrf2 agonists. Both these factors influence age-related physiological resilience and health. This offers novel insights into possible interventions to improve health span, including a rage of emerging senotherapies and simple modifications of the nutritional and environmental exposome. In essence, the emerging strategy is to treat ageing processes common to the diseasome of ageing itself and thus preempt the development or progression of a range of age-related morbidities.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302696

RESUMO

The cytoprotective transcriptor factor nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 (NRF2) is part of a complex regulatory network that responds to environmental cues. To better understand its role in a cluster of inflammatory and pro-oxidative burden of lifestyle diseases that accumulate with age, lessons can be learned from evolution, the animal kingdom and progeroid syndromes. When levels of oxygen increased in the atmosphere, mammals required ways to protect themselves from the metabolic toxicity that arose from the production of reactive oxygen species. The evolutionary origin of the NRF2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) signalling pathway from primitive origins has been a prerequisite for a successful life on earth, with checkpoints in antioxidant gene expression, inflammation, detoxification and protein homoeostasis. Examples from the animal kingdom suggest that superior antioxidant defense mechanisms with enhanced NRF2 expression have been developed during evolution to protect animals during extreme environmental conditions, such as deep sea diving, hibernation and habitual hypoxia. The NRF2-KEAP1 signalling pathway is repressed in progeroid (accelerated ageing) syndromes and a cluster of burden of lifestyle disorders that accumulate with age. Compelling links exist between tissue hypoxia, senescence and a repressed NRF2 system. Effects of interventions that activate NRF2, including nutrients, and more potent (semi)synthetic NRF2 agonists on clinical outcomes are of major interest. Given the broad-ranging actions of NRF2, we need to better understand the mechanisms of activation, biological function and regulation of NRF2 and its inhibitor, KEAP1, in different clinical conditions to ensure that modulation of this thiol-based system will not result in major adverse effects. Lessons from evolution, the animal kingdom and conditions of accelerated ageing clarify a major role of a controlled NRF2-KEAP1 system in healthy ageing and well-being.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968208

RESUMO

A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to answer the question: What epigenetic, telomeric and associated biological changes are associated with exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the under 12s? Using PRISMA guidelines, appropriate databases were searched. 190 papers were returned with 38 articles fully reviewed. Articles were each independently quality rated by two authors using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool and data were extracted. Of the 38 articles, 23 were rated as very high quality. Most study participants were adults (n = 7769) with n = 727 child participants. Only seven of the very/high-quality studies were prospective and involved children. Methylation was the most studied method of epigenetic modification. There is some evidence supporting epigenetic modification of certain markers in participants exposed to ACEs measured in adulthood. Research is lacking on non-coding aspects of the epigenome and on coding aspects other than DNA methylation. There is some evidence of a more powerful effect on telomere length if physical neglect was involved. Much further work is required to model biological and psychological effects of epigenetic changes during childhood using prospective study designs. The effect of ACEs on the cellular ageing process during childhood is inadequately investigated and relies solely on measure of telomere length. Future research suggestions are proposed.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a substantial gap in health and longevity between more affluent and more deprived areas, and more knowledge of the determinants of this health divide is required. Experience of the local residential environment is important for health although few studies have examined this in relation to biological markers of age such as telomere length. We sought to examine if residents' perceptions of neighbourhood stressors over time were associated with telomere length in a community study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort study of 2186 adults in the West of Scotland, we measured neighbourhood stressors at three time points over a 12-year period and telomere length at the end of the study. Using linear regression models, we found that a higher accumulation of neighbourhood stressors over time was associated with shorter telomere length, even after taking cohort, social class, health behaviours (smoking status, diet, physical activity), BMI and depression into account among females only (Beta = 0.007; 95%CI [0.001, 0.012]; P<0.014). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Neighborhood environments are potentially modifiable, and future efforts directed towards improving deleterious local environments may be useful to lessen telomere attrition.

8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717151

RESUMO

Together with bone-mineral disorders, premature vascular ageing is a common feature of the uremic phenotype. A detailed understanding of mechanisms involved remains unclear and warrants further research. Available treatment options for end stage renal disease are principally dialysis and organ transplantation, as other treatment alternatives have proven insufficient. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been proposed as a model of early vascular and bone ageing, with accumulating evidence supporting the contribution of cellular senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to cardiovascular pathology in CKD. Correspondingly, novel therapies based around the use of senolytic compounds and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) agonists, have been suggested as attractive novel treatment options. In this review, we detail the contribution of the uremic environment to these processes underpinning ageing and how these relate to vascular health.

9.
J Nutr ; 149(3): 372-380, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796783

RESUMO

Epigenetic alterations, such as those linked to DNA methylation, may potentially provide molecular explanations for complications associated with altered gene expression in illnesses, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although both DNA hypo- and hypermethylation have been observed in the uremic milieu, this remains only a single aspect of the epigenetic landscape and, thus, of any biochemical dysregulation associated with CKD. Nevertheless, the role of uremia-promoting alterations on the epigenetic landscape regulating gene expression is still a novel and scarcely studied field. Although few studies have actually reported alterations of DNA methylation via methyl donor nutrient intake, emerging evidence indicates that nutritional modification of the microbiome can affect one-carbon metabolism and the capacity to methylate the genome in CKD. In this review, we discuss the nutritional modifications that may affect one-carbon metabolism and the possible impact of methyl donor nutrients on the microbiome, CKD, and its phenotype.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(3): 454-468, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602462

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are epigenetic regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They are involved in intercellular communication and crosstalk between different organs. As key regulators of homeostasis, their dysregulation underlies several morbidities including kidney disease. Moreover, their remarkable stability in plasma and urine makes them attractive biomarkers. Beyond biomarker studies, clinical microRNA research in nephrology in recent decades has focused on the discovery of specific microRNA signatures and the identification of novel targets for therapy and/or disease prevention. However, much of this research has produced equivocal results and there is a need for standardization and confirmation in prospective trials. This review aims to provide an overview of general concepts and available clinical evidence in both the pathophysiology and biomarker fields for the role of microRNA in AKI and kidney transplantation.

11.
Aging Cell ; 17(5): e12825, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094915

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease and associated comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases) manifest with an accelerated ageing phenotype, leading ultimately to organ failure and renal replacement therapy. This process can be modulated by epigenetic and environmental factors which promote loss of physiological function and resilience to stress earlier, linking biological age with adverse outcomes post-transplantation including delayed graft function (DGF). The molecular features underpinning this have yet to be fully elucidated. We have determined a molecular signature for loss of resilience and impaired physiological function, via a synchronous genome, transcriptome and proteome snapshot, using human renal allografts as a source of healthy tissue as an in vivo model of ageing in humans. This comprises 42 specific transcripts, related through IFNγ signalling, which in allografts displaying clinically impaired physiological function (DGF) exhibited a greater magnitude of change in transcriptional amplitude and elevated expression of noncoding RNAs and pseudogenes, consistent with increased allostatic load. This was accompanied by increased DNA methylation within the promoter and intragenic regions of the DGF panel in preperfusion allografts with immediate graft function. Pathway analysis indicated that an inability to sufficiently resolve inflammatory responses was enabled by decreased resilience to stress and resulted in impaired physiological function in biologically older allografts. Cross-comparison with publically available data sets for renal pathologies identified significant transcriptional commonality for over 20 DGF transcripts. Our data are clinically relevant and important, as they provide a clear molecular signature for the burden of "wear and tear" within the kidney and thus age-related physiological capability and resilience.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154306

RESUMO

There is growing interest in understanding which aspects of the local environment influence obesity. Using data from the longitudinal West of Scotland Twenty-07 study (n = 2040) we examined associations between residents' self-reported neighbourhood problems, measured over a 13-year period, and nurse-measured body weight and size (body mass index, waist circumference, waist⁻hip ratio) and percentage body fat. We also explored whether particular measures such as abdominal obesity, postulated as a marker for stress, were more strongly related to neighbourhood conditions. Using life course models adjusted for sex, cohort, household social class, and health behaviours, we found that the accumulation of perceived neighbourhood problems was associated with percentage body fat. In cross-sectional analyses, the strongest relationships were found for contemporaneous measures of neighbourhood conditions and adiposity. When analyses were conducted separately by gender, perceived neighbourhood stressors were strongly associated with central obesity measures (waist circumference, waist⁻hip ratio) among both men and women. Our findings indicate that chronic neighbourhood stressors are associated with obesity. Neighbourhood environments are modifiable, and efforts should be directed towards improving deleterious local environments to reduce the prevalence of obesity.

13.
Cells ; 7(8)2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126173

RESUMO

A more comprehensive understanding of the human ageing process is required to help mitigate the increasing burden of age-related morbidities in a rapidly growing global demographic of elderly individuals. One exciting novel strategy that has emerged to intervene involves the use of extracellular vesicles to engender tissue regeneration. Specifically, this employs their molecular payloads to confer changes in the epigenetic landscape of ageing cells and ameliorate the loss of functional capacity. Understanding the biology of extracellular vesicles and the specific roles they play during normative ageing will allow for the development of novel cell-free therapeutic interventions. Hence, the purpose of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the mechanisms that drive ageing, critically explore how extracellular vesicles affect ageing processes and discuss their therapeutic potential to mitigate the effects of age-associated morbidities and improve the human health span.

14.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 13: 1987-1998, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970961

RESUMO

Purpose: Skeletal muscle wasting is an independent predictor of health-related quality of life and survival in patients with COPD, but the complexity of molecular mechanisms associated with this process has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to determine whether an impaired ability to repair DNA damage contributes to muscle wasting and the accelerated aging phenotype in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: The levels of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a molecule that promotes DNA repair, were assessed in vastus lateralis biopsies from 10 COPD patients with low fat-free mass index (FFMI; COPDL), 10 with preserved FFMI and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A panel of selected markers for cellular aging processes (CDKN2A/p16ink4a, SIRT1, SIRT6, and telomere length) were also assessed. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage and a panel of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Markers of muscle regeneration and apoptosis were also measured. Results: We observed a decrease in γH2AX expression in COPDL, which occurred in association with a tendency to increase in CDKN2A/p16ink4a, and a significant decrease in SIRT1 and SIRT6 protein levels. Cellular damage and muscle inflammatory markers were also increased in COPDL. Conclusion: These data are in keeping with an accelerated aging phenotype as a result of impaired DNA repair and dysregulation of cellular homeostasis in the muscle of COPDL. These data indicate cellular degeneration via stress-induced premature senescence and associated inflammatory responses abetted by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype and reflect an increased expression of markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

15.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 25: 8-17, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779823

RESUMO

The WHO 2016 report indicates that worldwide obesity is rising, with over 600 million people in the obese range (BMI>30). The recommended daily calorie intake for adults is 2000 kcal and 2500 kcal for women and men respectively. The average American consumes 3770 kcal/day and the average person in the UK consumes 3400 kcal/day. With such increased caloric intake, there is an increased load on metabolic pathways, in particular glucose metabolism. Such metabolism requires micronutrients as enzyme co-factors. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for thiamine is 1.3 mg/day and 0.5 mg thiamine is required to process 1000 kilocalories (kcal). Therefore, despite the appearance of being overfed, there is now increasing evidence that the obese population may nutritionally depleted of essential micronutrients. Thiamine deficiency has been reported to be in the region of 16-47% among patients undergoing bariatric surgery for obesity. Thiamine, in turn, requires magnesium to be in its active form thiamine diphosphate, (TDP). TDP also requires magnesium to achieve activation of TDP dependent enzymes, including transketolase (TK), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alpha-keto glutaric acid dehydrogenase (AKGDH), during metabolism of glucose. Thiamine and magnesium therefore play a critical role in glucose metabolism and their deficiency may result in the accumulation of anaerobic metabolites including lactate due to a mismatch between caloric burden and function of thiamine dependent enzymes. It may therefore be postulated that thiamine and magnesium deficiency are under-recognized in obesity and may be important in the progress of obesity and obesity related chronic disease states. The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the role of thiamine dependent enzymes in obesity and obesity related chronic disease states.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(1)2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303978

RESUMO

Telomere biology, a key component of the hallmarks of ageing, offers insight into dysregulation of normative ageing processes that accompany age-related diseases such as cancer. Telomere homeostasis is tightly linked to cellular metabolism, and in particular with mitochondrial physiology, which is also diminished during cellular senescence and normative physiological ageing. Inherent in the biochemistry of these processes is the role of magnesium, one of the main cellular ions and an essential cofactor in all reactions that use ATP. Magnesium plays an important role in many of the processes involved in regulating telomere structure, integrity and function. This review explores the mechanisms that maintain telomere structure and function, their influence on circadian rhythms and their impact on health and age-related disease. The pervasive role of magnesium in telomere homeostasis is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Magnésio/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 14(4): 265-284, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332935

RESUMO

Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress. Biomimetic studies suggest that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) offers protection in extreme environmental conditions and promotes longevity in the animal kingdom. Similarly, during months of fasting, immobilization and anuria, hibernating bears are protected from muscle wasting, azotaemia, thrombotic complications, organ damage and osteoporosis - features that are often associated with CKD. Improved understanding of the susceptibility and protective mechanisms of these animals and others could provide insights into novel strategies to prevent and treat several human diseases, such as CKD and ageing-associated complications. An integrated collaboration between nephrologists and experts from other fields, such as veterinarians, zoologists, biologists, anthropologists and ecologists, could introduce a novel approach for improving human health and help nephrologists to find novel treatment strategies for CKD.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(6): 1978-1984, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040594

RESUMO

Background: Both active smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) are important risk factors for many age-related diseases. Active smoking is associated with shortened telomere length. However, whether SHS accelerates telomere attrition with age is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and shortening by age of leukocyte telomere length among adult non-smokers. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional study of the association between self-reported levels of SHS exposure and telomere length shortening per annum on a subgroup of participants from the Scottish Family Health Study. Inclusion was restricted to non-smokers aged ≥ 18 years, who had provided self-reported overall usual SHS exposure (total hours per week) and blood samples for telomere analysis. Linear regression models were used to compare the ratio of telomere repeat copy number to single copy gene number (T/S)by age according to SHS exposure. Results: Of the 1303 eligible participants, 779 (59.8%) reported no SHS exposure, 495 (38.0%) low exposure (1-19 h per week) and 29 (2.2%) high exposure (≥20 h per week). In the univariate linear regression analyses, relative T/S ratio declined with increasing age in all exposure groups. Telomere length decreased more rapidly with increasing age among those with high exposure to SHS [adjusted coefficient -0.019, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.031- -0.007) when compared with both those with no exposure to SHS (adjusted coefficient -0.006, 95% CI -0.008- -0.004) (high vs no SHS: P = 0.010) and those with low exposure to SHS (adjusted coefficient -0.005, 95% CI -0.007- -0.003) (high vs low SHS: P = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high SHS exposure may accelerate normal biological ageing, and support efforts to protect the public from SHS exposure. Further studies on relevant mechanisms should be conducted.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Encurtamento do Telômero , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Autorrelato
19.
Pract Lab Med ; 7: 49-54, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856219

RESUMO

Dealing with the growing burden of age-related morbidities is one of the greatest challenges facing modern society. How we age across the lifecourse and how psychosocial and lifestyle factors interplay with the biology of ageing remains to be fully elucidated. Sensitive and specific biomarkers with which to interrogate the biology of the ageing process are sparse. Recent evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs are key determinants of such processes and that these can be used as potential circulatory bio-markers of ageing. They may also provide a mechanism which mediates the spread of allostatic load across the body over time, ultimately reflecting the immunological health and physiological status of tissues and organs. The interplay between exosomal microRNAs and ageing processes is still relatively unexplored, although circulating microRNAs have been linked to the regulation of a range of physiological and pathological processes and offer insight into mechanistic determinants of healthspan.

20.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 313(4): F938-F950, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701312

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications, which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification, and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have a direct effect on cellular and tissue function. In addition to uremia-specific causes, such as abnormalities in the phosphate-Klotho axis, there are remarkable similarities between the pathophysiology of uremic inflammation and so-called "inflammaging" in the general population. Potentially relevant, but still somewhat unexplored in this respect, are abnormal or misplaced protein structures, as well as abnormalities in tissue homeostasis, which evoke danger signals through damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Systemic inflammation, in combination with the loss of kidney function, can impair the resilience of the body to external and internal stressors by reduced functional and structural tissue reserves, and by impairing normal organ crosstalk, thus providing an explanation for the greatly increased risk of homeostatic breakdown in this population. In this review, the relationship between uremic inflammation and a premature aging phenotype, as well as potential causes and consequences, are discussed.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Uremia/complicações , Uremia/imunologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Uremia/fisiopatologia
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