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1.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(8): 553-558, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520791

RESUMO

AIM/OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Timely, accurate, and effective communications are critical to quality in contemporary medical practices. Radiation oncology incorporates the science and technology of complex integrated radiation treatment delivery and the art of managing individual patients. Through written physical and/or electronic reports and direct communication, radiation oncologists convey critical information regarding patient care, services provided, and quality of care. Applicable practice parameters need to be revised periodically regarding medical record documentation for professional and technical components of services delivered. METHODS: The ACR-ASTRO Practice Parameter for Communication: Radiation Oncology was revised according to the process described on the American College of Radiology (ACR) Web site ("The Process for Developing ACR Practice Parameters and Technical Standards," www.acr.org/ClinicalResources/Practice-Parametersand-Technical-Standards) by the Committee on Practice Parameters of the ACR Commission on Radiation Oncology in collaboration with the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). Both societies then reviewed and approved the document. RESULTS: This practice parameter addresses radiation oncology communications in general, including (a) medical record, (b) electronic, and (c) doctor-patient communications, as well as specific documentation for radiation oncology reports such as (a) consultation, (b) clinical treatment management notes (including inpatient communication), (c) treatment (completion) summary, and (d) follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: The radiation oncologist's participation in the multidisciplinary management of patients is reflected in timely, medically appropriate, and informative communication with the referring physician and other members of the health care team. The ACR-ASTRO Practice Parameter for Communication: Radiation Oncology is an educational tool designed to assist practitioners in providing appropriate communication regarding radiation oncology care for patients.

2.
Nat Med ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483359

RESUMO

An increasing fraction of patients with metastatic cancer develop leptomeningeal dissemination of disease (LMD), and survival is dismal1-3. We conducted a single-arm, phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with solid tumor malignancies and LMD (NCT02886585). Patients received 200 mg of pembrolizumab intravenously every 3 weeks until definitive progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was rate of overall survival at 3 months (OS3). Secondary objectives included toxicity, response rate and time to intracranial or extracranial disease progression. A Simon two-stage design was used to compare a null hypothesis OS3 of 18% against an alternative of 43%. Twenty patients-17 with breast cancer, two with lung cancer and one with ovarian cancer-were enrolled into the pre-specified evaluation group having received at least one dose of pembrolizumab. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.3 months (range, 2.2-12.5 months). The percentage of patients who experienced one (or more) grade 3 or higher adverse events at least possibly related to treatment was 40%, the most frequent being hyperglycemia (n = 6), nausea (n = 7) and vomiting (n = 7). The study met the primary endpoint, as 12 of 20 (OS3, 0.60; 90% confidence interval, 0.39-0.78) patients were alive at 3 months after enrollment. Pembrolizumab is safe and feasible and displays promising activity in patients with LMD. Further investigations are needed to identify which patients with LMD can benefit from pembrolizumab.

3.
Oncologist ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudoprogression (PP) and treatment-induced brain tissue necrosis (TN) are challenging cancer treatment-related effects. Both phenomena remain insufficiently defined; differentiation from recurrent disease frequently necessitates tissue biopsy. We here characterize distinctive features of PP and TN to facilitate noninvasive diagnosis and clinical management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with glioma and confirmed PP (defined as appearance <5 months after radiotherapy [RT] completion) or TN (>5 months after RT) were retrospectively compared using clinical, radiographic, and histopathological data. Each imaging event/lesion (region of interest [ROI]) diagnosed as PP or TN was longitudinally evaluated by serial imaging. RESULTS: We identified 64 cases of mostly (80%) biopsy-confirmed PP (n = 27) and TN (n = 37), comprising 137 ROIs in total. Median time of onset for PP and TN was 1 and 11 months after RT, respectively. Clinically, PP occurred more frequently during active antineoplastic treatment, necessitated more steroid-based interventions, and was associated with glioblastoma (81 vs. 40%), fewer IDH1 mutations, and shorter median overall survival. Radiographically, TN lesions often initially manifested periventricularly (n = 22/37; 60%), were more numerous (median, 2 vs. 1 ROIs), and contained fewer malignant elements upon biopsy. By contrast, PP predominantly developed around the tumor resection cavity as a non-nodular, ring-like enhancing structure. Both PP and TN lesions almost exclusively developed in the main prior radiation field. Presence of either condition appeared to be associated with above-average overall survival. CONCLUSION: PP and TN occur in clinically distinct patient populations and exhibit differences in spatial radiographic pattern. Increased familiarity with both conditions and their unique features will improve patient management and may avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Pseudoprogression (PP) and treatment-induced brain tissue necrosis (TN) are challenging treatment-related effects mimicking tumor progression in patients with brain cancer. Affected patients frequently require surgery to guide management. PP and TN remain arbitrarily defined and insufficiently characterized. Lack of clear diagnostic criteria compromises treatment and may adversely affect outcome interpretation in clinical trials. The present findings in a cohort of patients with glioma with PP/TN suggest that both phenomena exhibit unique clinical and imaging characteristics, manifest in different patient populations, and should be classified as distinct clinical conditions. Increased familiarity with PP and TN key features may guide clinicians toward timely noninvasive diagnosis, circumvent potentially unnecessary surgical procedures, and improve response assessment in neuro-oncology.

5.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 30(3): 218-222, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503786

RESUMO

Treatment of recurrent gliomas is especially challenging, as many of these patients have previously been treated with extensive surgery, radiation, or systemic therapy. Due to this, the optimum therapy for patients with recurrent glioma is controversial, with widely variable practice patterns. In this opinion piece, a multidisciplinary panel of experts provides rationale for their treatment approach in a patient with recurrent glioma following subtotal resection with adjuvant chemoradiation for an anaplastic astrocytoma. In summary, the consensus of the panel was to recommend re-resection if possible with hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules, with re-irradiation and systemic therapy as directed by a multidisciplinary team through repeat analysis of the tumor specimen for an updated mutational burden.

6.
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6331, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286375

RESUMO

The paradigm for post-operative cavity radiation therapy has shifted to more targeted, less morbid approaches. Single-fraction or hypofractionated radiation therapy is a common approach to treating the postoperative cavity but is associated with a local failure rate 20-40%. We employed an alternative treatment strategy involving fractionated partial brain radiation therapy to the surgical cavity. Patients with brain metastases who underwent radiation treatment 30-42 Gy in 3 Gy/fraction regimens to surgical cavity were retrospectively identified. The 6-month and 12-month freedom from local failure rates were 97.0% and 88.2%. Three patients (7%) experienced local failure at 4, 6, and 22 months. Of these, the histologies were colorectal adenocarcinoma (N = 1) and breast adenocarcinoma (N = 2). The 6-month and 12-month freedom from distant brain metastases rates were 74.1% and 68.8%, respectively, and the 6-month and 12-month overall survival rates were 84.9% and 64.3% respectively. The median overall survival was 39 months, and there were no events of late radionecrosis. Fractionated partial brain irradiation to the surgical cavity of resected brain metastases results in low rates of local failure. This strategy represents an alternative to SRS and WBRT.

8.
J Neurooncol ; 148(1): 81-88, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cranial irradiation results in cognitive decline, which is hypothesized to be partially attributable to hippocampal injury and stem cell loss. Recent advances allow for targeted reduction of radiation dose to the hippocampi while maintaining adequate dose coverage to the brain parenchyma and additional increasing dose to brain metastases, a approach called hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (HA-WBRT + SIB.) We review our early clinical experience with HA-WBRT + SIB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated treatments and clinical outcomes for patients treated with HA-WBRT + SIB between 2014 and 2018. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients (median age, 63.5 years, range 45.3-78.8 years) completed HA-WBRT + SIB. Median follow-up for patients alive at the time of analysis was 11.3 months. The most common histology was non-small cell lung cancer (n = 22). Most patients (n = 25) were prescribed with WBRT dose of 30 Gy with SIB to 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions. Volumetric modulated arc therapy reduced treatment time (p < 0.0001). Median freedom from intracranial progression and overall survival from completion of treatment were 11.4 months and 19.6 months, respectively. Karnofsky Performance Status was associated with improved survival (p = 0.008). The most common toxicities were alopecia, fatigue, and nausea. Five patients developed cognitive impairment, including grade 1 (n = 3), grade 2 (n = 1), and grade 3 (n = 1). CONCLUSION: HA-WBRT + SIB demonstrated durable intracranial disease control with modest side effects and merits further investigation as a means of WBRT toxicity reduction while improving long-term locoregional control in the brain.

9.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277236

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak is posing unprecedented risks and challenges for all communities and healthcare systems, worldwide. There are unique considerations for many adult patients with gliomas who are vulnerable to the novel coronavirus due to older age and immunosuppression. As patients with terminal illnesses, they present ethical challenges for centers that may need to ration access to ventilator care due to insufficient critical care capacity. It is urgent for the neuro-oncology community to develop a pro-active and coordinated approach to the care of adults with gliomas in order to provide them with the best possible oncologic care while also reducing their risk of viral infection during times of potential healthcare system failure. In this article, we present an approach developed by an international multi-disciplinary group to optimize the care of adults with gliomas during this pandemic. We recommend measures to promote strict social distancing and minimize exposures for patients, address risk and benefit of all therapeutic interventions, pro-actively develop end of life plans, educate patients and caregivers and ensure the health of the multi-disciplinary neuro-oncology workforce. This pandemic is already changing neuro-oncologic care delivery around the globe. It is important to highlight opportunities to maximize the benefit and minimize the risk of glioma management during this pandemic and potentially, in the future.

10.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(3): 149-159, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028342

RESUMO

AIM/OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: The American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) have jointly developed the following practice parameter for proton beam radiation therapy. Proton radiotherapy is the application of a high-energy proton beam to a patient in a clinical setting with therapeutic intent. Proton radiotherapy may permit improved therapeutic ratios with lower doses to sensitive normal structures and greater dose to target tumor tissues. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify published articles regarding clinical outcomes, reviews, quality assurance methodologies, and guidelines and standards for proton radiation therapy. Selected articles are referenced in the text. The following recommendations are based on firsthand experiences of multiple clinical authorities who employ proton therapy and have been peer reviewed by experts at different practicing institutions. RESULTS: This practice parameter is developed to serve as a tool in the appropriate application of this evolving technology in the care of cancer patients or other patients with conditions where radiation therapy is indicated. It addresses clinical implementation of proton radiation therapy, including personnel qualifications, quality assurance standards, indications, and suggested documentation. CONCLUSIONS: This practice parameter is a tool to guide technical use of proton therapy and does not assess the relative clinical indication of proton radiotherapy when compared with other forms of radiotherapy, but to focus on the best practices required to deliver proton therapy safely and effectively, when clinically indicated. Costs of proton treatments are high, and the economic costs of proton radiotherapy may also need to be considered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/normas , Humanos
11.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment is based on receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). At the time of metastasis, receptor status can be discordant from that at initial diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of discordance and its effect on survival and subsequent treatment in patients with breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM). METHODS: A retrospective database of 316 patients who underwent craniotomy for BCBM between 2006 and 2017 was created. Discordance was considered present if the ER, PR or HER2 receptor status differed between the primary tumor and the BCBM. RESULTS: The overall receptor discordance rate was 132/316 (42%) and the subtype discordance rate was 100/316 (32%). Hormone receptors (HR, either ER or PR) were gained in 40/160 (25%) of patients with HR-negative primary tumors. HER2 was gained in 22/173 (13%) of patients with HER2-negative primary tumors. Subsequent treatment was not adjusted for most patients who gained receptors nonetheless median survival (MS) improved but did not reach statistical significance [HR (17 to 28 months, p=0.12), HER2 (15 to 19 months, p=0.39)]. MS for patients who lost receptors was worse [(HR (27 to 18 months, p=0.02), HER2 (30 to 18 months, p=0.08)). CONCLUSIONS: Receptor discordance between primary tumor and BCBM is common, adversely affects survival if receptors are lost and represents a missed opportunity for use of effective treatments if receptors are gained. Receptor analysis of BCBM is indicated when clinically appropriate. Treatment should be adjusted accordingly.

12.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(2): 334-343, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain metastases are a common sequelae of breast cancer. Survival varies widely based on diagnosis-specific prognostic factors (PF). We previously published a prognostic index (Graded Prognostic Assessment [GPA]) for patients with breast cancer with brain metastases (BCBM), based on cohort A (1985-2007, n = 642), then updated it, reporting the effect of tumor subtype in cohort B (1993-2010, n = 400). The purpose of this study is to update the Breast GPA with a larger contemporary cohort (C) and compare treatment and survival across the 3 cohorts. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A multi-institutional (19), multinational (3), retrospective database of 2473 patients with breast cancer with newly diagnosed brain metastases (BCBM) diagnosed from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2017, was created and compared with prior cohorts. Associations of PF and treatment with survival were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were compared with log-rank tests. PF were weighted and the Breast GPA was updated such that a GPA of 0 and 4.0 correlate with the worst and best prognoses, respectively. RESULTS: Median survival (MS) for cohorts A, B, and C improved over time (from 11, to 14 to 16 months, respectively; P < .01), despite the subtype distribution becoming less favorable. PF significant for survival were tumor subtype, Karnofsky Performance Status, age, number of BCBMs, and extracranial metastases (all P < .01). MS for GPA 0 to 1.0, 1.5-2.0, 2.5-3.0, and 3.5-4.0 was 6, 13, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Between cohorts B and C, the proportion of human epidermal receptor 2 + subtype decreased from 31% to 18% (P < .01) and MS in this subtype increased from 18 to 25 months (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: MS has improved modestly but varies widely by diagnosis-specific PF. New PF are identified and incorporated into an updated Breast GPA (free online calculator available at brainmetgpa.com). The Breast GPA facilitates clinical decision-making and will be useful for stratification of future clinical trials. Furthermore, these data suggest human epidermal receptor 2-targeted therapies improve clinical outcomes in some patients with BCBM.

13.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 51(1): 40-46, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The logistical burdens of appointment scheduling and travel add to the psychological and emotional distress among patients with a new cancer diagnosis. This may be heightened among patients needing radiation therapy (RT), who must travel to and from a treatment facility daily for several weeks. Here, we studied the association between RT appointment waiting time and patient-reported pain and anxiety and explored additional factors that may influence daily waiting time. METHODS: Ninety-four patients undergoing RT at a single, academic institution were surveyed in the first and final weeks of treatment. On the day of the survey, patients were asked to report: pain (Likert scale: 0-10), anxiety (0-10), commute mode/time, and estimated waiting time for RT. Actual waiting times were calculated per review of the electronic scheduling system. RESULTS: Increased objective waiting time was associated with higher pain scores at the start (P = .05) and end (P = 0.004) of RT, although overall pain scores were low at both time points (mean 1.4 and 1.5, respectively). Anxiety scores were also low (mean 1.2 at both time points) and were not associated with objective waiting time (P > .05). Of note, patients reported perceived waiting times that were considerably shorter than actual waiting times (mean 15 vs. 26 minutes, respectively, at first survey early in the RT course). Time of day and tumor site were not associated with waiting time. CONCLUSION: Daily waiting time may play a role in pain and/or anxiety experienced by patients with cancer during RT. Perceived waiting time may differ substantially from actual waiting time and represents a potential area for intervention to improve patients' quality of life.

14.
Cancer Med ; 9(1): 3-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of patients with high-risk lower grade gliomas (LGG) are treated with single-agent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy despite three randomized trials showing a striking overall survival benefit with adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This article aims to evaluate the evidence and rationale for the widespread use of TMZ instead of PCV for high-risk LGG. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a literature search utilizing PubMed for articles investigating the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk LGG and analyzed the results of these studies. RESULTS: For patients with IDH mutant 1p/19q codeleted LGG tumors, there is limited evidence to support the use of TMZ. In medically fit patients with codeleted disease, existing data demonstrate a large survival benefit for PCV as compared to adjuvant radiation therapy alone. For patients with non-1p/19q codeleted LGG, early data from the CATNON study supports inclusion of adjuvant TMZ for 12 months. Subset analyses of the RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951 do not demonstrate a survival benefit for adjuvant PCV for non-1p/19q codeleted gliomas, however secondary analyses of RTOG 9802 and RTOG 9402 demonstrated survival benefit in any IDH mutant lower grade gliomas, regardless of 1p/19q codeletion status. CONCLUSIONS: At present, we conclude that current evidence does not support the widespread use of TMZ over PCV for all patients with high-risk LGG, and we instead recommend tailoring chemotherapy recommendation based on IDH status, favoring adjuvant PCV for patients with any IDH mutant tumors, both those that harbor 1p/19q codeletion and those non-1p/19q codeleted. Given the critical role radiation plays in the treatment of LGG, radiation oncologists should be actively involved in discussions regarding chemotherapy choice in order to optimize treatment for their patients.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e804-e812, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histopathological grading of meningiomas is insufficient for optimal risk stratification. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic value of atypical histopathological features across all nonmalignant meningiomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grade I-II). METHODS: The data from 334 patients with WHO grade I (n = 275) and grade II (n = 59) meningiomas who had undergone surgical resection from 2001 to 2015 at 2 academic centers were pooled. Progression/recurrence (P/R) was determined radiographically and measured from the date of surgery. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 52 months. The patients were stratified by the number of atypical features: 0 (n = 151), 1 (n = 71), 2 (n = 66), 3 (n = 22), and 4 or 5 (n = 24). The risk of P/R increased with an increasing number of atypical features (log-rank test, P = 0.001). The 5-year actuarial rates of P/R stratified by the number of atypical features were as follows: 0, 16.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.7-24.4); 1, 21.7% (95% CI, 12.8-35.2); 2, 28.2% (95% CI, 18.4-41.7); 3, 30.4% (95% CI, 13.8-58.7); and 4 or 5, 51.4% (95% CI, 31.7-74.5). On univariate analysis, the presence of high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (P = 0.007), prominent nucleoli (P = 0.007), and necrosis (P < 0.00005) were associated with an increased risk of P/R. On multivariate analysis, the number of atypical features (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.63; P = 0.03), ≥4 mitoses per high-power fields (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.17-5.15; P = 0.02), subtotal resection (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.5-6.3; P < 0.0005), and the lack of adjuvant radiotherapy (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.19-4.80; P = 0.01) were associated with an increased risk of P/R. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of atypical features, ≥4 mitoses per 10 high-power fields, subtotal resection, and the lack of adjuvant radiotherapy were independently associated with P/R of WHO grade I-II meningiomas. Patients with these features might benefit from intensified therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Meningioma/patologia , Meningioma/radioterapia , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento
16.
Radiother Oncol ; 142: 154-161, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-dose fractionated radiotherapy is often necessary to achieve long-term tumor control in several types of tumors involving or within close proximity to the brain. There is limited data to guide on optimal constraints to the adjacent nontarget brain. This investigation explored the significance of the three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution of passive scattering proton therapy to the brain with other clinicopathological factors on the development of symptomatic radiation necrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with head and neck, skull base, or intracranial tumors who underwent proton therapy (minimum prescription dose of 59.4 Gy(RBE)) with collateral moderate to high dose radiation exposure to the nontarget brain were retrospectively reviewed. A mixture cure model with respect to necrosis-free survival was used to derive estimates for the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model while adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Of 179 identified patients, 83 patients had intracranial tumors and 96 patients had primary extracranial tumors. The optimal dose measure obtained to describe the occurrence of radiation necrosis was the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) with parameter a = 9. The best-fit parameters of logistic NTCP models revealed D50 = 57.7 Gy for intracranial tumors, D50 = 39.5 Gy for extracranial tumors, and γ50 = 2.5 for both tumor locations. Multivariable analysis revealed EUD and primary tumor location to be the strongest predictors of brain radiation necrosis. CONCLUSION: In the current clinical volumetric data analyses with multivariable modelling, EUD was identified as an independent and strong predictor for brain radiation necrosis from proton therapy.

18.
Head Neck ; 42(4): 670-677, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although slow growing, head and neck paragangliomas (HNPG) can cause significant morbidity. We evaluated the efficacy of proton therapy in the management of HNPG. METHODS: Retrospective review of an institutional proton therapy experience of treating patients between 1997 and 2016; 37 patients and 40 tumors were included. RESULTS: Proton therapy was delivered to a median of 50.4 Gy(RBE) (range: 45-68). Having a genetic/family predisposition for HNPG was associated with multifocal tumors (P = .02) and younger diagnosis age (P = .02). Twenty-six (70%) patients had symptom improvement posttreatment, and 65% of treated tumors showed ≥20% volumetric shrinkage. The 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates were both 97%. Grade 2 to grade 3 toxicities (54%) included subjective hearing impairment (19%), middle ear inflammation (14%), and dry mouth (8%). There were no grade 4-5 toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HNPGs can be effectively and safely treated with proton therapy with excellent tumor control, successful volumetric tumor reduction, and symptomatic improvement.

19.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 23(5): 514-521, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pain among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) is not well described. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and management of pain in patients undergoing RT. METHODS: 94 patients undergoing RT were surveyed at two time points during the course of their treatment. Patients reported on pain, fatigue, nausea, headache, and depressive symptoms, as well as on the use of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic or alternative methods for symptom management. FINDINGS: The mean severity of pain did not change significantly between the first week of RT and the final week. Severity of pain was associated with worse fatigue, nausea, headaches, and depressive symptoms, providing opportunities for providers to address multiple co-occurring symptoms. Rates of opioid and marijuana use remained similar between the two time points. More than half of the patients reported use of at least one nonpharmacologic method for pain management, with use increasing during the course of RT.

20.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 18: 39-45, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341974

RESUMO

Background: Patients with gastrointestinal cancers and brain metastases (BM) represent a unique and heterogeneous population. Our group previously published the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for patients with GI cancers (GI-GPA) (1985-2007, n = 209). The purpose of this study is to update the GI-GPA based on a larger contemporary database. Methods: An IRB-approved consortium database analysis was performed using a multi-institutional (18), multi-national (3) cohort of 792 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, with newly-diagnosed BM diagnosed between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2017. Survival was measured from date of first treatment for BM. Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios. These factors were incorporated into the updated GI-GPA. Results: Median survival (MS) varied widely by primary site and other prognostic factors. Four significant factors (KPS, age, extracranial metastases and number of BM) were used to formulate the updated GI-GPA. Overall MS for this cohort remains poor; 8 months. MS by GPA was 3, 7, 11 and 17 months for GPA 0-1, 1.5-2, 2.5-3.0 and 3.5-4.0, respectively. >30% present in the worst prognostic group (GI-GPA of ≤1.0). Conclusions: Brain metastases are not uncommon in GI cancer patients and MS varies widely among them. This updated GI-GPA index improves our ability to estimate survival for these patients and will be useful for therapy selection, end-of-life decision-making and stratification for future clinical trials. A user-friendly, free, on-line app to calculate the GPA score and estimate survival for an individual patient is available at brainmetgpa.com.

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