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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111668, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243630

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex and multifactorial condition often characterised by obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycaemia. Collectively, MetS can increase the risk of atherosclerotic-cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, no animal model currently exists to study MetS in the context of atherosclerosis. In this study we developed a pre-clinical mouse model that recapitulates the spectrum of MetS features while developing atherosclerosis. When BPHx mice were placed on a western type diet for 16 weeks, all the classical characteristics of MetS were observed. Comprehensive metabolic analyses and atherosclerotic imaging revealed BPHx mice to be obese and hypertensive, with elevated total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, that accelerated atherosclerosis. Altogether, we demonstrate that the BPHx mouse has all the major components of MetS, and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5894, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723357

RESUMO

The aetiology and progression of hypertension involves various endogenous systems, such as the renin angiotensin system, the sympathetic nervous system, and endothelial dysfunction. Recent data suggest that vascular inflammation may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study sought to determine whether high intraluminal pressure results in vascular inflammation. Leukocyte adhesion was assessed in rat carotid arteries exposed to 1 h of high intraluminal pressure. The effect of intraluminal pressure on signaling mechanisms including reactive oxygen species production (ROS), arginase expression, and NFĸB translocation was monitored. 1 h exposure to high intraluminal pressure (120 mmHg) resulted in increased leukocyte adhesion and inflammatory gene expression in rat carotid arteries. High intraluminal pressure also resulted in a downstream signaling cascade of ROS production, arginase expression, and NFĸB translocation. This process was found to be angiotensin II-independent and mediated by the mechanosensor caveolae, as caveolin-1 (Cav1)-deficient endothelial cells and mice were protected from pressure-induced vascular inflammatory signaling and leukocyte adhesion. Cav1 deficiency also resulted in a reduction in pressure-induced glomerular macrophage infiltration in vivo. These findings demonstrate Cav1 is an important mechanosensor in pressure-induced vascular and renal inflammation.

4.
Circulation ; 141(17): 1393-1403, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) continues to be a major, poorly controlled but modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular death. Among key Western lifestyle factors, a diet poor in fiber is associated with prevalence of high BP. The impact of lack of prebiotic fiber and the associated mechanisms that lead to higher BP are unknown. Here we show that lack of prebiotic dietary fiber leads to the development of a hypertensinogenic gut microbiota, hypertension and its complications, and demonstrate a role for G-protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) that sense gut metabolites. METHODS: One hundred seventy-nine mice including C57BL/6J, gnotobiotic C57BL/6J, and knockout strains for GPR41, GPR43, GPR109A, and GPR43/109A were included. C57BL/6J mice were implanted with minipumps containing saline or a slow-pressor dose of angiotensin II (0.25 mg·kg-1·d-1). Mice were fed diets lacking prebiotic fiber with or without addition of gut metabolites called short-chain fatty acids ([SCFA)] produced during fermentation of prebiotic fiber in the large intestine), or high prebiotic fiber diets. Cardiac histology and function, BP, sodium and potassium excretion, gut microbiome, flow cytometry, catecholamines and methylation-wide changes were determined. RESULTS: Lack of prebiotic fiber predisposed mice to hypertension in the presence of a mild hypertensive stimulus, with resultant pathological cardiac remodeling. Transfer of a hypertensinogenic microbiota to gnotobiotic mice recapitulated the prebiotic-deprived hypertensive phenotype, including cardiac manifestations. Reintroduction of SCFAs to fiber-depleted mice had protective effects on the development of hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis. The cardioprotective effect of SCFAs were mediated via the cognate SCFA receptors GPR43/GPR109A, and modulated L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine levels and the abundance of T regulatory cells regulated by DNA methylation. CONCLUSIONS: The detrimental effects of low fiber Westernized diets may underlie hypertension, through deficient SCFA production and GPR43/109A signaling. Maintaining a healthy, SCFA-producing microbiota is important for cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão , Mucosa Intestinal , Prebióticos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2054, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555280

RESUMO

Monocytes in humans consist of 3 subsets; CD14+CD16- (classical), CD14+CD16+ (intermediate) and CD14dimCD16+ (non-classical), which exhibit distinct and heterogeneous responses to activation. During acute inflammation CD14+CD16- monocytes are significantly elevated and migrate to the sites of injury via the adhesion cascade. The field of immunometabolism has begun to elucidate the importance of the engagement of specific metabolic pathways in immune cell function. Yet, little is known about monocyte metabolism and the role of metabolism in mediating monocyte activation and adherence to vessels. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether manipulating the metabolism of CD14+CD16- monocytes alters their ability to become activated and adhere. We discovered that LPS stimulation increased the rate of glycolysis in human CD14+CD16- monocytes. Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose blunted LPS-induced activation and adhesion of monocytes. Mechanistically, we found that increased glycolysis was regulated by mTOR-induced glucose transporter (GLUT)-1. Furthermore, enhanced glycolysis increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK, which lead to activation and adhesion of monocytes. These findings reveal that glycolytic metabolism is critical for the activation of CD14+CD16- monocytes and contributes to our understanding of the interplay between metabolic substrate preference and immune cell function.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Desoxiglucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glicólise , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(9): 1435-1447, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951169

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the immune system has emerged as an important component in the aetiology of hypertension. There has been a blooming interest in the contribution of the gut microbiota, the microbes that inhabit our small and large intestine, to blood pressure (BP) regulation. The gastrointestinal tract houses the largest number of immune cells in our body, thus, it is no surprise that its microbiota plays an important functional role in the appropriate development of the immune system through a co-ordinated sequence of events leading to immune tolerance of commensal bacteria. Importantly, recent evidence supports that the gut microbiota can protect or promote the development of experimental hypertension and is likely to have a role in human hypertension. One of the major modulators of the gut microbiota is diet: diets that emphasize high intake of fermentable fibre, such as the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, promote expansion of protective microbes that release gut metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, which are immune-, BP-, and cardio-protective, likely acting through G-coupled protein receptors. In contrast, diets lacking fibre or high in salt and fat, such as the Western diet, reduce prevalence of commensal microbial species and support a pathogenic and pro-inflammatory environment, including the release of the pro-atherosclerotic trimethylamine N-oxide. Here, we review the current understanding of the gut microbiota-driven immune dysfunction in both experimental and clinical hypertension, and how these changes may be addressed through dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/imunologia , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Hipertensão/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Inflamação/imunologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899260

RESUMO

Elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels may promote endothelial dysfunction, which is linked to cardiovascular and renal pathologies. We investigated the effect of SAA on vascular and renal function in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. Male ApoE-/- mice received vehicle (control), low-level lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or recombinant human SAA by i.p. injection every third day for 2 weeks. Heart, aorta and kidney were harvested between 3 days and 18 weeks after treatment. SAA administration increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression and circulating monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and decreased aortic cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), consistent with SAA inhibiting nitric oxide bioactivity. In addition, binding of labeled leukocytes to excised aorta increased as monitored using an ex vivo leukocyte adhesion assay. Renal injury was evident 4 weeks after commencement of SAA treatment, manifesting as increased plasma urea, urinary protein, oxidized lipids, urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and multiple cytokines and chemokines in kidney tissue, relative to controls. Phosphorylation of nuclear-factor-kappa-beta (NFκB-p-P65), tissue factor (TF), and macrophage recruitment increased in kidneys from ApoE-/- mice 4 weeks after SAA treatment, confirming that SAA elicited a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic phenotype. These data indicate that SAA impairs endothelial and renal function in ApoE-/- mice in the absence of a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Biomarcadores , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Lipídeos/sangue , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo
8.
FASEB J ; 33(1): 1510-1521, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156911

RESUMO

Despite its well-known antithrombotic properties, the effect of aspirin on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension pathology is unclear. The hugely varying doses used clinically have contributed to this confusion, with high-dose aspirin still commonly used due to concerns about the efficacy of low-dose aspirin. Because prostaglandins have been shown to both promote and inhibit T-cell activation, we also explored the immunomodulatory properties of aspirin in hypertension. Although the common preclinical high dose of 100 mg/kg/d improved vascular dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy, this effect was accompanied by indices of elevated adaptive immunity, renal T-cell infiltration, renal fibrosis, and BP elevation in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. The cardioprotective effects of aspirin were conserved with a lower dose (10 mg/kg/d) while circumventing heightened adaptive immunity and elevated BP. We also show that low-dose aspirin improves renal fibrosis. Differential inhibition of the COX-2 isoform may underlie the disparate effects of the 2 doses. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in treating a vast array of cardiovascular parameters and suggest modulation of adaptive immunity as a novel mechanism underlying adverse cardiovascular profiles associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Clinical studies should identify the dose of aspirin that achieves maximal cardioprotection with a new awareness that higher doses of aspirin could trigger undesired autoimmunity in hypertensive individuals. This work also warrants an evaluation of high-dose aspirin and COX-2 inhibitor therapy in sufferers of inflammatory conditions who are already at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.-Khan, S. I., Shihata, W. A., Andrews, K. L., Lee, M. K. S., Moore, X.-L., Jefferis, A.-M., Vinh, A., Gaspari, T., Dragoljevic, D., Jennings, G. L., Murphy, A. J., Chin-Dusting, J. P. F. Effects of high- and low-dose aspirin on adaptive immunity and hypertension in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspirina/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Citocinas/sangue , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epoprostenol/biossíntese , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sístole , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tromboxanos/sangue
9.
Haematologica ; 104(3): 456-467, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361420

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major, independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, this pathology can arise through multiple pathways, which could influence vascular disease through distinct mechanisms. An overactive sympathetic nervous system is a dominant pathway that can precipitate in elevated blood pressure. We aimed to determine how the sympathetic nervous system directly promotes atherosclerosis in the setting of hypertension. We used a mouse model of sympathetic nervous system-driven hypertension on the atherosclerotic-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient background. When mice were placed on a western type diet for 16 weeks, we showed the evolution of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. Fortuitously, the changes in lesion composition were independent of endothelial dysfunction, allowing for the discovery of alternative mechanisms. With the use of flow cytometry and bone marrow imaging, we found that sympathetic activation caused deterioration of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell niche in the bone marrow, promoting the liberation of these cells into the circulation and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Specifically, sympathetic activation reduced the abundance of key hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell niche cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Additionally, sympathetic bone marrow activity prompted neutrophils to secrete proteases to cleave the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell surface receptor CXCR4. All these effects could be reversed using the ß-blocker propranolol during the feeding period. These findings suggest that elevated blood pressure driven by the sympathetic nervous system can influence mechanisms that modulate the hematopoietic system to promote atherosclerosis and contribute to cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Hematopoese , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/etiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mielopoese , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicho de Células-Tronco
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(1)2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597899

RESUMO

The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and early-stage atherogenesis. Stimulation of vascular cells with SAA increases gene expression of pro-inflammation cytokines and tissue factor (TF). Activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB), may be central to SAA-mediated endothelial cell inflammation, dysfunction and pro-thrombotic responses, while targeting NFκB with a pharmacologic inhibitor, BAY11-7082, may mitigate SAA activity. Human carotid artery endothelial cells (HCtAEC) were pre-incubated (1.5 h) with 10 µM BAY11-7082 or vehicle (control) followed by SAA (10 µg/mL; 4.5 h). Under these conditions gene expression for TF and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) increased in SAA-treated HCtAEC and pre-treatment with BAY11-7082 significantly (TNF) and marginally (TF) reduced mRNA expression. Intracellular TNF and interleukin 6 (IL-6) protein also increased in HCtAEC supplemented with SAA and this expression was inhibited by BAY11-7082. Supplemented BAY11-7082 also significantly decreased SAA-mediated leukocyte adhesion to apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse aorta in ex vivo vascular flow studies. In vascular function studies, isolated aortic rings pre-treated with BAY11-7082 prior to incubation with SAA showed improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and increased vascular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content. Together these data suggest that inhibition of NFκB activation may protect endothelial function by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic activities of SAA.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Adesão Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mediadores da Inflamação , Leucócitos/imunologia , Ratos
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 567, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970796

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a process of dysfunctional wound repair, described by a failure of tissue regeneration and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, resulting in tissue scarring and subsequent organ deterioration. There are a broad range of stimuli that may trigger, and exacerbate the process of fibrosis, which can contribute to the growing rates of morbidity and mortality. Whilst the process of fibrosis is widely described and understood, there are no current standard treatments that can reduce or reverse the process effectively, likely due to the continuing knowledge gaps surrounding the cellular mechanisms involved. Several cellular targets have been implicated in the regulation of the fibrotic process including membrane domains, ion channels and more recently mechanosensors, specifically caveolae, particularly since these latter contain various signaling components, such as members of the TGFß and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, all of which are key players in the process of fibrosis. This review explores the anti-fibrotic influences of the caveola, and in particular the key underpinning protein, caveolin-1, and its potential as a novel therapeutic target.

12.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 130(18): 1629-40, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27231254

RESUMO

Nitroxyl anion (HNO) donors are currently being assessed for their therapeutic utility in several cardiovascular disorders including heart failure. Here, we examine their effect on factors that precede atherosclerosis including endothelial cell and monocyte activation, leucocyte adhesion to the endothelium and macrophage polarization. Similar to the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), the HNO donors Angeli's salt (AS) and isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) decreased leucocyte adhesion to activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse isolated aorta. This reduction in adhesion was accompanied by a reduction in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) which was inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) α (IκBα)- and subsequently NFκB-dependent. Intriguingly, the effects of AS on leucocyte adhesion, like those on vasodilation, were found to not be susceptible to pharmacological tolerance, unlike those observed with GTN. As well, HNO reduces monocyte activation and promotes polarization of M2 macrophages. Taken together, our data demonstrate that HNO donors can reduce factors that are associated with and which precede atherosclerosis and may thus be useful therapeutically. Furthermore, since the effects of the HNO donors were not subject to tolerance, this confers an additional advantage over NO donors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/imunologia , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/imunologia
13.
Front Physiol ; 7: 628, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28066261

RESUMO

Vascular inflammation and disease progression, such as atherosclerosis, are in part a consequence of haemodynamic forces generated by changes in blood flow. The haemodynamic forces, such as shear stress or stretch, interact with vascular endothelial cells, which transduce the mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals via mechanosensors, which can induce an upregulation in pathways involved in inflammatory signaling. However, it is unclear how these mechanosensors respond to shear stress and most significantly what cellular mechanisms are involved in sensing the haemodynamic stimuli. This review explores the transition from shear forces, stretch and pressure to endothelial inflammation and the process of mechanotransduction, specifically highlighting evidence to suggest that caveolae play as a role as mechanosensors.

14.
Br J Pharmacol ; 173(4): 729-40, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Angiotensin AT2 receptors are upregulated in disease states such as atherosclerosis and blockade of the AT2 receptors exacerbates plaque formation. Direct stimulation of these receptors is anti-atherogenic but the mechanisms and pathways involved remain unknown. We examined the effect of direct AT2 receptor stimulation with Compound 21 (C21) on the leukocyte adhesion cascade in vitro, right through to plaque formation in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of C21 on TNFα-induced inflammation were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), activation of monocytes, polarisation of monocyte-derived macrophages and in intact mouse aortae. KEY RESULTS: C21 attenuated TNFα-induced: monocyte adhesion to cultured HUVECs, adhesion molecule expression and abolished TNFα-induced ROS production. TNFα-induced NFκB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, essential for cytokine production, was prevented by C21. C21 did not influence monocyte activation or macrophage polarisation but did reduce TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in M1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of C21 were abolished by an AT2 receptor antagonist confirming that the effects of C21 were AT2 receptor-mediated. Also, leukocyte adhesion and cytokine gene expression, induced by high-fat diet (HFD), was attenuated in ApoE(-/-) mice treated with C21. Plaque size and stability were improved with C21 treatment with increased smooth muscle cell composition and decreased lipid size, compared with HFD-saline treated mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: C21 prevented TNFα-induced and HFD-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide strong evidence that the anti-atherosclerotic actions of C21 were due to vascular anti-inflammatory effects, mediated by AT2 receptors.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/agonistas , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/química , Tiofenos/química
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