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1.
Diabetes ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820761

RESUMO

DNA methylation-based biological age (epigenetic age) has been suggested as a useful biomarker of age-related conditions including type 2 diabetes (T2D), and its newest iterations (GrimAge measurements) have shown early promise. In this study, we explored the association between epigenetic age and incident T2D, in the context of their relationships with obesity.A total of 1,057 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study were included in the current analyses. We stratified the participants into three groups; normal weight, overweight, and obese. A one-year increase of GrimAge was associated with higher 10-year (Y15 to Y25) incidence of T2D (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.01-1.11). GrimAge acceleration, which represents the deviation of GrimAge from chronological age, was derived from the residuals of a model of GrimAge and chronological age, and any GrimAge acceleration (Positive GrimAA; having GrimAge older than chronological age) was associated with significantly higher odds of 10-year incidence of T2D in obese participants (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.61-4.11). Cumulative obesity was estimated by years since obesity onset, and GrimAge partially mediated the statistical association between cumulative obesity and incident diabetes or prediabetes (proportion mediated = 8.0%).In conclusion, both older and accelerated GrimAge were associated with higher risk of T2D, particularly among obese participants. GrimAge also statistically mediated the associations between cumulative obesity and T2D. Our findings suggest that epigenetic age measurements with DNA methylation can potentially be utilized as a risk factor or biomarker associated with T2D development.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactation is associated with lower risks for cardiovascular disease in women. Organ-related adiposity, which plays significant roles in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, could help explain this observation. We evaluated the association of lactation duration with visceral (VAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat volumes in women. METHODS: Data were obtained from 910 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (1985-86) without diabetes prior to pregnancy who had ≥1 birth during 25 years of follow-up and had VAT and PAT measured from computed tomographic scans in 2010-2011. Cumulative lactation duration across all births since baseline was calculated from self-reports collected at periodic exams. RESULTS: At baseline, the average age of women (48% black, 52% white) was 24 ± 3.7 years. After controlling for baseline age, race, smoking status, body mass index, fasting glucose, family history of diabetes, fat intake, total cholesterol, physical activity and follow-up covariates (parity, gestational diabetes), the mean fat volumes across categories of lactation (none (n=221), 1 to 5 months (n=306), 6 to 11 months (n=210), and ≥12 months (n=173)) were 122.0, 113.7 105.0, and 110.1 cm3 for VAT and 52.2, 46.7, 44.5 and 43.4 cm3 for PAT, respectively. Changes in body weight from the first post-baseline birth to the end of follow-up mediated 21% and 18% of the associations of lactation with VAT and PAT, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, longer cumulative lactation duration was associated with lower VAT and PAT volumes, with weight gain partially mediating these associations.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e015553, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624505

RESUMO

Background Dietary recommendations regarding protein intake have been focused on the amount of protein. However, such recommendations without considering specific protein sources may be simplistic and insufficient. Methods and Results We included 102 521 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998, and followed them through February 2017. During 1 876 205 person-years of follow-up, 25 976 deaths occurred. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, plant protein intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91 [0.86, 0.96]), cardiovascular disease mortality (HR, 0.88 [0.79, 0.97]), and dementia mortality (HR, 0.79 [0.67, 0.94]). Among major protein sources, comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of consumption, processed red meat (HR, 1.06 [1.01, 1.10]) or eggs (HR, 1.14 [1.10, 1.19]) was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. Unprocessed red meat (HR, 1.12 [1.02, 1.23]), eggs (HR, 1.24 [1.14, 1.34]), or dairy products (HR, 1.11 [1.02, 1.22]) was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. Egg consumption was associated with higher risk of cancer mortality (HR, 1.10 [1.02, 1.19]). Processed red meat consumption was associated with higher risk of dementia mortality (HR, 1.20 [1.05, 1.32]), while consumption of poultry (HR, 0.85 [0.75, 0.97]) or eggs (HR, 0.86 [0.75, 0.98]) was associated with lower risk of dementia mortality. In substitution analysis, substituting of animal protein with plant protein was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and dementia mortality, and substitution of total red meat, eggs, or dairy products with nuts was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusions Different dietary protein sources have varying associations with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and dementia mortality. Our findings support the need for consideration of protein sources in future dietary guidelines.

4.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that cadmium (Cd) may be involved in the etiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but available data in human is sparse. AIMS: We aimed to examine Cd exposure in young adulthood in relation to prevalent NAFLD in midlife among American adults. METHODS: This study included 2446 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study with toenail Cd measurement at exam year 2 (baseline) and computed tomography quantification of liver fat at exam year 25. Toenail Cd concentrations were considered as a reliable marker of long-term exposure. NAFLD was defined if liver attenuation < 51 Hounsfield units after excluding other possible causes of liver fat. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio of NAFLD by Cd exposure. RESULTS: Median toenail Cd concentration was 8.2 ppb (inter-quartile range 4.3-18.6 ppb). After 23 years from baseline, 580 participants with prevalent NAFLD (24% prevalence) in midlife were identified. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of toenail Cd had a significantly higher odds of NAFLD (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.99, P for trend: 0.04) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, major lifestyle factors, and baseline levels of body mass index, lipids, and fasting insulin. The association was not significantly modified by race, sex, BMI, or smoking status at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Toenail Cd concentration was associated with a higher odds of prevalent NAFLD23 years later in life in this cohort of US general population.

5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-7, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632366

RESUMO

The Southern dietary pattern, derived within the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, is characterised by high consumption of added fats, fried food, organ meats, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages and is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics of individuals with high adherence to this dietary pattern. We analysed data from REGARDS, a national cohort of 30 239 black and white adults ≥45 years of age living in the USA. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 FFQ. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate standardised beta coefficients across all covariates for the entire sample and stratified by race and region. We included 16 781 participants with complete dietary data. Among these, 34·6 % were black, 45·6 % male, 55·2 % resided in stroke belt region and the average age was 65 years. Black race was the factor with the largest magnitude of association with the Southern dietary pattern (Δ = 0·76 sd, P < 0·0001). Large differences in Southern dietary pattern adherence were observed between black participants and white participants in the stroke belt and non-belt (stroke belt Δ = 0·75 sd, non-belt Δ = 0·77 sd). There was a high consumption of the Southern dietary pattern in the US black population, regardless of other factors, underlying our previous findings showing the substantial contribution of this dietary pattern to racial disparities in incident hypertension and stroke.

6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 63: 126657, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether arsenic exerts adverse health effects on the kidney at low- and moderate- levels of exposure. We prospectively examined toenail arsenic concentrations measured during young adulthood in relation to incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in midlife. METHODS: A total of 3768 participants (53 % female and 48 % blacks) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study were included. Arsenic concentration in toenail clippings was assessed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at CARDIA exam year 2. Incident CKD was identified if having estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m² or albuminuria >30 mg/g. The association between toenail arsenic levels and CKD incidence over a mean of 24 years of follow-up was examined using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, socioeconomics, lifestyle factors, clinical measurements of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose, and medical history, arsenic exposure measured in toenails was not associated with CKD incidence (quintile 5 versus quintile 1: hazard ratio = 1.04, 95 % confidence interval = 0.78-1.40, P for trend = 0.38). CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study does not support the hypothesis that low- and moderate- levels of arsenic exposure are associated with elevated incidence of CKD in the US general population. Further studies are need to investigate species of arsenic biomarkers in relation to nephrotoxicity.

7.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 64: 126683, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an essential micronutrient, zinc plays an important role in modulating the immune system. However, data on the association between zinc concentrations and asthma incidence are sparse, especially in adults. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 3682 individuals aged 20-32 years without history of asthma or current asthma at baseline from 1987-1988 to 2015-2016. Zinc concentrations were measured in toenail clippings collected at Exam Year 2 using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy. Asthma was diagnosed by a physician and/or reported medication use for asthma control with verification. Cox regression was used to model the association between toenail zinc concentrations and asthma incidence. RESULTS: Over an average of 22.5 years of follow-up, 508 incident cases of asthma were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, no statistically significant association was found between zinc concentration and asthma incidence (HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.07; Plinear trend = 0.26). The observed association was not materially modified by sex, body mass index, smoking or atopic status. When stratifying data by race, a significant inverse linear association was found among African Americans (per 1 standard deviation increment in toenail zinc concentrations: HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.99; Plinear trend = 0.03), but not in Caucasians (HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.25; Plinear trend = 0.42), though the test for interaction was not statistically significant (Pinteraction = 0.099). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this prospective cohort study do not support a significant longitudinal association between toenail zinc concentrations and incidence of asthma among American young adults. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Observational studies and clinical trials have shown cardiovascular benefits of nut consumption, including walnuts. However, the relations of walnut consumption with systolic and diastolic function, risk factors for heart failure, are unknown. We examined the associations of walnut consumption with cardiac structure and function parameters in black and white adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: After exclusions, the study population included 3341 participants. Dietary intake was assessed using the CARDIA Diet History questionnaire at baseline, year 7 and year 20 exams. Cardiac structure and function were measured by echocardiography at year 25. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the associations of walnut consumption with blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and cardiac phenotypes, adjusting for age, sex, race, lifestyle habits, and clinical characteristics. We found the majority of walnut consumers compared to non-consumers were females, whites, and more highly educated, and had lower waist circumference, diastolic BP, and heart rate, and higher diet quality score. Even though cardiac structure and function measures were generally within normal ranges among participants, walnut consumers had significantly better values for diastolic function parameters A wave, E/A ratio, septal and lateral e' than non-consumers. Further adjustment for body mass index and diabetes status did not materially change the significance between walnut consumer groups. Systolic function parameters did not differ by walnut group. CONCLUSION: Compared to non-consumers, walnut consumption is associated with better diastolic dysfunction in young to middle-aged adults.

9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary modification of insulin resistance may be a strategy for reducing chronic disease. For this study, we tested the hypothesis that higher fasting insulin, a marker for insulin resistance, would be related to diet patterns with a high proportion of carbohydrates, those with a high glycemic index, and those characterized by added sugar and processed starches. STUDY DESIGN: Data were analyzed on 13,528 nondiabetic participants of the REasons for Geographic and Ethnic Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), an observational study of adults aged ≥45 years residing in 1855 counties across the continental USA. Information on habitual diet was collected using the Block 98 Food Frequency Questionnaire. Percent energy from carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load were determined for each participant, as well as adherence to five established diet patterns. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of baseline diet characteristics with odds for high fasting insulin [quartiles 3 and 4 (median = 98.9 pmol/L) vs. quartile 1], after adjusting for covariates. RESULT: Greater percent carbohydrate, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and adherence to sweets/fat and southern diet patterns, was associated with greater odds for high insulin (P for trend <0.05 to <0.0001), whereas adherence to the plant-based and alcohol/salad patterns was associated with lower odds for high insulin (P for linear trend <0.0001). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, diet pattern is associated with fasting insulin. Future studies are needed to determine if diet interventions designed to lower insulin, perhaps based on the patterns identified in this study, can improve risk for chronic disease.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112362

RESUMO

Importance: High blood pressure (BP) during sleep (asleep blood pressure) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but a national prevalence estimate of masked asleep hypertension (high BP while sleeping but without high BP measured in the clinic [clinic BP]) for the United States is lacking. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of masked asleep hypertension among US adults by using BP thresholds from the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) and the 2017 American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association (ACC-AHA) BP guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort analysis pooled data from 3000 participants in 4 US population-based studies that conducted 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and 17 969 participants in the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) without ABPM. Masked asleep hypertension status in NHANES was imputed using a 2-stage multiple imputation process. Data were collected from 2000 to 2016 and analyzed from March 4, 2019, to June 29, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: High clinic BP was defined as clinic systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) of at least 140/90 mm Hg using JNC7 and at least 130/80 mm Hg using 2017 ACC-AHA guidelines. High asleep BP was defined as mean asleep SBP/DBP of at least 120/70 mm Hg for JNC7 and at least 110/65 mm Hg for the 2017 ACC-AHA guidelines. Masked asleep hypertension was defined as high asleep BP without high clinic BP. Results: For the 3000 pooled cohort participants, the mean (SD) age was 52.0 (12.0) years, and 62.6% were women. For the 17 969 NHANES participants, the mean (SD) age was 46.7 (17.5) years, and 51.8% (weighted) were women. The estimated prevalence of masked asleep hypertension among US adults was 18.8% (95% CI, 16.7%-20.8%; 44.4 million US adults) using the JNC7 guideline and 22.7% (95% CI, 20.6%-24.8%; 53.7 million US adults) using the 2017 ACC-AHA guideline criteria. The prevalence of masked asleep hypertension was higher among older adults (aged ≥65 years, 24.4% [95% CI, 20.7%-28.0%]), men (27.0% [95% CI, 24.1%-29.9%]), non-Hispanic Black individuals (28.7% [95% CI, 25.4%-32.0%]), those who were taking antihypertensives (24.4% [95% CI, 21.1%-27.8%]), those who had masked daytime hypertension (44.7% [95% CI, 40.1%-49.3%]), and those with diabetes (27.6% [95% CI, 23.5%-31.8%]), obesity (24.3% [95% CI, 21.8%-26.9%]), or chronic kidney disease (21.5% [95% CI, 17.3%-25.6%]) using the 2017 ACC-AHA guideline. An estimated 11.9% of US adults (28.2 million) had isolated masked asleep hypertension (masked asleep hypertension but without high awake BP) using JNC7 guideline criteria, as did an estimated 13.3% (31.5 million) using 2017 ACC-AHA guideline criteria. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the prevalence of masked asleep hypertension is high among US adults. Data are needed on the cardiovascular risk reduction benefits of treating asleep hypertension.

11.
Prev Med ; 139: 106234, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795644

RESUMO

Older adults have physical and social barriers to eating but whether this affects functional status is unknown. We examined associations between eating barriers and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). In 2012-14, a subset of alive and participating women (n = 5910) completed an in-home examination including the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) (grip strength, balance, timed walking speed, chair stand). WHI participants complete annual mailed questionnaires; the 2013-14 questionnaire included items on eating alone, eating < two meals/day, dentition problems affecting eating, physical difficulties with cooking/shopping and monetary resources for food. Linear regression tested associations of these eating barriers with SPPB, adjusting for BMI, age, race/ethnicity, and medical multimorbidities. Over half (56.8%) of participants were ≥ 75 years, 98.8% had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and 66% had multimorbidities. Eating barriers, excluding eating alone, were associated with significantly lower total (all p < .001) and component-specific, multivariate-adjusted SPPB scores (all p < .05). Compared to no barriers, eating < two meals/day (7.83 vs. 8.38, p < .0002), dentition problems (7.69 vs. 8.38, p < .0001), inability to shop/prepare meals (7.74 vs. 8.38, p < .0001) and insufficient resources (7.84 vs. 8.37 p < .001) were significantly associated with multivariate-adjusted mean SPPB score < 8. Models additionally adjusting for Healthy Eating Index-2010 had little influence on scores. As barriers increased, scores declined further for grip strength (16.10 kg for 4-5 barriers, p = .001), timed walk (0.58 m/s for 4-5 barriers, p = .001) and total SPPB (7.27 for 4-5 barriers, p < .0001). In conclusion, in this WHI subset, eating barriers were associated with poor SPPB scores.

12.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory and animal studies suggest an inverse association between chocolate consumption and the risk of cancer. Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent evidence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of chocolate candy consumption with incident, invasive total, breast, colorectal, and lung cancers in a large cohort of postmenopausal American women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with a mean 14.8-year follow-up. Chocolate candy intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Invasive cancer events were assessed by physician adjudication. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The Women's Health Initiative Study enrolled 161,808 postmenopausal women at 40 clinical centers nationwide between 1993 and 1998. Of these women, 114,281 with plausible food frequency or biometric data and no missing data on chocolate candy exposure were selected for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer risk in quartiles of chocolate candy consumption with the first quartile as referent. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There were 16,164 documented incident invasive cancers, representing an incidence rate of 17.0 per 100 participants and 12.3 per 1000 person years during follow-up among participants without any preexisting cancers or missing outcome data. There were no statistically significant associations for total invasive cancer (P-linear = .47, P-curvature = .14), or invasive breast cancer (P-linear = .77, P-curvature = .26). For colorectal cancer P-linear was .02, P-curvature was .03, and compared with women eating a 1 oz (28.4 g) chocolate candy serving <1 time per month, the hazard ratio for ≥1.5 times/wk was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.35). This result may be attributable to the excess adiposity associated with frequent chocolate candy consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In the Women's Health Initiative, there was no significant association between chocolate candy consumption and invasive total or breast cancer. There was a modest 18% higher risk of invasive colorectal cancer for women who ate chocolate candy at least 1.5 times/wk. These results require confirmation.

13.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(8): nzaa126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832844

RESUMO

Background: Over 23 million Americans have type 2 diabetes (T2D). Eating habits such as breakfast consumption, time-restricted eating, and limiting daily eating occasions have been explored as behaviors for reducing T2D risk, but prior evidence is inconclusive. Objectives: Our objectives were to examine associations between number of daily eating occasions and T2D risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) and whether associations vary by BMI, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods: Participants were postmenopausal women in the WHI-DM who comprised a 4.6% subsample completing 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) at years 3 and 6 as part of trial adherence activities (n = 2159). Numbers of eating occasions per day were obtained from the year 3 24HRs, and participants were grouped into approximate tertiles as 1-3 (n = 795), 4 (n = 713), and ≥5 (n = 651) daily eating occasions as the exposure. Incident diabetes was self-reported on semiannual questionnaires as the outcome. Results: Approximately 15% (15.4%, n = 332) of the WHI-DM 24HR cohort reported incident diabetes at follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression tested associations of eating occasions with T2D adjusted for neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, waist circumference, race/ethnicity, family history of T2D, recreational physical activity, Healthy Eating Index-2005, 24HR energy intake, and WHI-DM arm. Compared with women reporting 1-3 meals/d, those consuming 4 meals/d had a T2D HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.84) without further increases in risk for ≥5 meals/d. In stratified analyses, associations for 4 meals/d compared with 1-3 meals/d were stronger in women with BMI <30.0 kg/m2 (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.39) and women aged ≥60 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.33). Conclusions: Four meals per day compared with 1-3 meals/d was associated with increased risk of T2D in postmenopausal women, but no dose-response effect was observed for additional eating occasions. Further studies are needed to understand eating occasions in relation to T2D risk.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2796-2803, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between change in plant-centered diet quality and type 2 diabetes risk and change in body size. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective study conducted in the U.S. enrolled adults ages 18-30 years in 1985-1986 (examination year [Y0]) and followed them through 2015-2016. We analyzed the associations between change in plant-centered diet quality over 20 years (Y0-Y20) and diabetes (Y20-30; n = 2,534) and change (Y0-Y20 and Y20-30) in BMI, waist circumference (WC), and weight (n > 2,434). Plant-centered diet quality was measured using the A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS); a higher score favors nutritionally rich plant foods. Cox regression models were used to assess diabetes risk, and linear regression models were used to examine change in body size. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 9.3 (± 1.7) years, 206 case subjects with incident diabetes were observed. In multivariable analysis, participants with the largest increase in APDQS over 20 years had a 48% (95% CI 0.31-0.85; P trend < 0.001) lower risk of diabetes over the subsequent 10 years compared with participants whose score remained stable. Each 1-SD increment in APDQS over 20 years was associated with lower gains in BMI (-0.39 kg/m2; SE 0.14; P = 0.004), WC (-0.90 cm; SE 0.27; P < 0.001) and weight (-1.14 kg; SE 0.33; P < 0.001) during the same period, but not with subsequent changes. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults who increased plant-centered diet quality had a lower diabetes risk and gained less weight by middle adulthood.

15.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(11): 1011-1020, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors are associated with awake and nocturnal hypertension. METHODS: We assessed the association between a composite ASCVD risk score and awake or nocturnal hypertension using data from participants aged 40-79 years who completed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at the Year 30 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study exam in 2015-2016 (n = 716) and the baseline Jackson Heart Study exam in 2000-2004 (n = 770). Ten-year predicted ASCVD risk was calculated using the Pooled Cohort risk equations. Awake hypertension was defined as mean awake systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85 mm Hg and nocturnal hypertension was defined as mean asleep SBP ≥120 mm Hg or DBP ≥70 mm Hg. RESULTS: Among participants with a 10-year predicted ASCVD risk <5%, 5% to <7.5%, 7.5% to <10%, and ≥10%, the prevalence of awake or nocturnal hypertension as a composite outcome was 29.5%, 47.8%, 62.2%, and 69.7%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, higher ASCVD risk was associated with higher prevalence ratios for awake or nocturnal hypertension among participants with clinic-measured SBP/DBP <130/85 mm Hg but not ≥130/85 mm Hg. The C-statistic for discriminating between participants with vs. without awake or nocturnal hypertension was 0.012 (95% confidence interval 0.003, 0.016) higher when comparing a model with ASCVD risk and clinic-measured blood pressure (BP) together vs. clinic-measured BP without ASCVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Using 10-year predicted ASCVD risk in conjunction with clinic BP improves discrimination between individuals with and without awake or nocturnal hypertension.

16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(8): 1397-1404, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study hypothesized that both preconception and postchildbearing patterns of cardiometabolic risk factors may be different for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with women without GDM. METHODS: Among 1,302 (51% black) women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study with births and followed for 30 years, this study evaluated changes in cardiometabolic factors (BMI, waist circumference [WC], lipids, blood pressure) during prechildbearing (prior to the first postbaseline birth) and postchildbearing periods (after the last birth) by GDM status using piecewise linear mixed models adjusted for sociodemographics, parity, and time-varying covariates. RESULTS: Compared with women who did not develop GDM, weight and WC increases in women who developed GDM (n = 152, 12%) were faster (BMI difference: +0.12 kg/m2 /y, P = 0.04; WC difference: +0.28 cm/y, P = 0.04) during the prechildbearing period, accounting for covariates. This translated to an average of 1.3 kg of excess weight gain across 4 years among women with subsequent GDM versus non-GDM births. In contrast, slopes after childbearing did not differ by GDM status, nor were there other cardiometabolic differences. CONCLUSIONS: Women with GDM exhibited an increasing prepregnancy pattern of weight gain and central adiposity. Absolute postchildbearing weight was also higher in GDM-affected women, but the slope of gain after GDM was not.

17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(7): 1353-1361, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns, macronutrient intake, and measures of muscle mass and lean mass in older men. METHODS: Participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort (n = 903; mean ± SD age 84.2 ± 4 years) completed brief Block food frequency questionnaires (May 2014-May 2016); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. The D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution method was used to measure muscle mass; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure appendicular lean mass (ALM). Generalized linear models were used to report adjusted means of outcomes by dietary pattern. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine associations between macronutrients and D3Cr muscle mass and DXA ALM. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, clinic site, education, depression, total energy intake, height, and percent body fat. RESULTS: Greater adherence to a Western dietary pattern (high factor loadings for red meat, fried foods, and high-fat dairy) was associated with higher D3Cr muscle mass (p-trend = .026). Adherence to the Healthy dietary pattern (high factor loadings for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats) was not associated with D3Cr muscle mass or DXA ALM. Total protein (ß = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.14) and nondairy animal protein (ß = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.21) were positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass. Nondairy animal protein (ß = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.002, 0.11) was positively associated with DXA ALM. Associations with other macronutrients were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Nondairy animal protein intake (within a Western dietary pattern and alone) was positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass in older men.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(18): 2016-2023, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594762

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of pericardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue volume with added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes. We hypothesized that both added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with pericardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue volumes in black and white men and women enrolled in the prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary intake was assessed by diet history at baseline, year 7 and year 20 examinations in 3070 participants aged 18-30 and generally healthy at baseline. After 25 years follow-up, participants underwent a computed tomography scan of chest and abdomen; the computed tomography scans were read, and pericardial adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes were calculated. Quintiles were created for the average of baseline, year 7 and year 20 added sugar and for the average of sugar-sweetened beverages. General linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of pericardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue volumes across quintiles of added sugar and across quintiles of sugar-sweetened beverage intakes adjusted for potential confounding factors. In a multivariable model, pericardial adipose tissue volume was higher across increasing quintiles of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes (ptrend = 0.001 and ptrend < 0.001, respectively). A similar relation was observed for visceral adipose tissue (ptrend < 0.001 for both added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term intakes of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher pericardial adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes. Because these ectopic fat depots are associated with greater risk of disease incidence, these findings support limiting intakes of added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages.

19.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(7): 878-887.e3, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between long-term obesity and left atrial (LA) structure and function is not entirely understood. We examined the association of cumulative body mass index (cBMI) with LA remodeling using three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE). METHODS: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a community-based cohort of black and white, men and women, ages 18-30 years at baseline in 1985-86 from four U.S. centers. This study included 2,144 participants who had satisfactory image quality and body mass index measurements during the entire follow-up period. The 3D STE-derived LA parameters were maximum, minimum, and pretrial contraction volumes; total, passive, and active emptying fraction; maximum systolic longitudinal strain; and early and late diastolic longitudinal strain rates. Multivariable linear regression analyses stratified by sex assessed the relationship between cBMI and 3D STE-derived LA parameters, adjusting for demographics and traditional cardiovascular. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 55 ± 3.6 years; 54.8% were women, and 46.5% were black. There were statistically significant additive sex interactions for the association between cBMI and LA minimum contraction value, maximum systolic longitudinal strain, and early and late diastolic longitudinal strain rates. In the fully adjusted model, greater cBMI was associated with lower magnitude LA longitudinal deformation (maximum systolic longitudinal strain and early and late diastolic longitudinal strain rates) in men and with higher LA emptying fraction in women. In addition, greater cBMI was associated with higher LA phasic volumes indices in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that while greater cBMI from early adulthood throughout middle age was associated with higher LA volumes in both genders, differences were found for LA function, with lower longitudinal deformation in men and higher reservoir and active LA function in women.

20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(8): 1803-1810, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractures associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) are associated with pain, disability, and increased mortality. A recent, nationwide evaluation of racial difference in outcomes after fracture has not been performed. OBJECTIVE: To determine if 1-year death, debility, and destitution rates differ by race. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: US Medicare data from 2010 to 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Non-Hispanic black and white women with PMO who have sustained a fragility fracture of interest: hip, pelvis, femur, radius, ulna, humerus, and clinical vertebral. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes included 1-year: (1) mortality, identified by date of death in Medicare vital status information, (2) debility, identified as new placement in long-term nursing facilities, and (3) destitution, identified as becoming newly eligible for Medicaid. RESULTS: Among black and white women with PMO (n = 4,523,112), we identified 399,000 (8.8%) women who sustained a major fragility fracture. Black women had a higher prevalence of femur (9.0% vs 3.9%; P < .001) and hip (30.7% vs 28.0%; P < .001) fractures and lower prevalence of radius/ulna (14.7% vs 17.0%; P < .001) and clinical vertebral fractures (28.8% vs 33.5%; P < .001) compared with white women. We observed racial differences in the incidence of 1-year outcomes after fracture. After adjusting for age, black women had significantly higher risk of mortality 1 year after femur, hip, humerus, and radius/ulna fractures; significantly higher risk of debility 1 year after femur and hip fractures; and significantly higher risk of destitution for all fractures types. CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of Medicare data from 2010 to 2016, black women with PMO had significantly higher rates of mortality, debility, and destitution after fracture than white women. These findings are a first step toward understanding and reducing disparities in PMO management, fracture prevention, and clinical outcomes after fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1803-1810, 2020.

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