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3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with risk of stroke. This study aimed to define the morphological and functional characteristics of MAC that are related to stroke. METHODS: A total of 460 subjects with MAC from transthoracic echocardiography in a single center from 2012 to 2016 was retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were classified into two groups according to history of stroke [Group 1 (n = 366): without stroke; Group 2 (n = 94): with stroke]. Morphological and functional features of MAC on echocardiogram were scored from 0 to 3 according to MAC mobility, presence of echodense mass with central echolucencies in the periannular region suggesting caseous necrosis, and functional stenosis. RESULTS: Significantly more patients in group 2 were men and had history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, or infective endocarditis. Although MAC thickness and extent did not differ between the two groups, group 2 showed a considerably higher MAC score than group 1 (0.50 ± 0.77 vs. 0.23 ±0.52 p<0.001) as a result of the higher prevalence of each component in group 2 [mobility (22 vs. 11%, p = 0.003), echodense mass with central areas of echolucencies suggesting caseous necrosis (23 vs. 7%, p<0.001), and functional mitral stenosis (12 vs. 7%, p = 0.042)]. On logistic regression analysis, MAC score was independently associated with stroke and showed significant incremental value to demographic factors and comorbidities in association with stroke in a consecutive manner. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, morphological and functional characteristics of MAC had incremental value in association with stroke over traditional risk factors. MAC score consisting of MAC mobility, typical echodense mass with central echolucencies suggesting caseous necrosis, and functional mitral stenosis was independently associated with stroke. MAC with high-risk features may act as a source of stroke or more potent composite surrogate markers for stroke-related risk factors.

4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The percutaneous access site of transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures is commonly closed using a preclosure technique with suture-type closure devices. We sought to evaluate the predictors and outcomes of percutaneous closure device (PCD) failure during transfemoral TAVI. METHODS AND RESULTS: This single-center retrospective analysis included 184 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI using 2 ProGlide sutures for severe aortic stenosis between July 2011 and September 2018. PCD failure was observed in 11.4%. The causes of PCD failure included 5 cases of insufficient hemostasis, 13 cases of arterial stenosis or occlusion, and 3 cases of dissection. Closure failures were managed by surgical repair in 10 patients and endovascular treatment in 11 patients. In a multivariate binary logistic model, a minimum lumen diameter of the common femoral artery (CFA) (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.83, P = 0.017) and left femoral access (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.01-8.30, P = 0.048) was identified as a predictor of PCD failure. PCD failure was not associated with increased mortality (0% vs. 2.5%, P = 1.000) or a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; 4.8% vs. 4.3%, P = 1.000) at 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: PCD failures were not uncommon in patients undergoing percutaneous transfemoral TAVI. Small CFA diameter and left femoral access are predictors of PCD failure. However, PCD failures were not associated with increased mortality or MACE.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 41(1): 193, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893478
8.
Circ J ; 84(1): 119-126, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the flow-gradient pattern characteristics and associated factors in severe bicuspid aortic stenosis (AS) compared with severe tricuspid AS.Methods and Results:A total of 252 patients with severe AS (115 bicuspid vs. 137 tricuspid) who underwent aortic valve (AV) replacement were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to stroke volume index and mean pressure gradient across the AV [normal-flow-high-gradient (NF-HG), low-flow-high-gradient, normal-flow-low-gradient, low-flow-low-gradient (LF-LG)]. In 89 patients who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT), influential structural parameters of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), AV and ascending aorta were assessed. Bicuspid AS was more likely to present a NF-HG pattern (83.5% vs. 64.2%, P<0.001), and significantly fewer presented a LF-LG pattern compared with tricuspid AS. In bicuspid AS, there was a significant mismatch between geometric orifice area (GOA) on CT planimetry and effective orifice area (EOA) calculated using the echocardiographic continuity equation. Bicuspid AS presented with a larger angle between the LVOT-AV and aorta. Multivariate analysis of bicuspid AS revealed that systemic arterial compliance (ß=-0.350, P=0.031) and the LVOT-AV-aorta angle (ß=-0.538, P=0.001), and stroke volume index (ß=0.409, P=0.008) were associated with a discrepancy between GOA and EOA. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-gradient patterns in bicuspid AS differ from those of tricuspid AS and are associated with the structural and functional characteristics of the aorta.

9.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(9): 816-823, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433579

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical significance of concomitant specific cardiomyopathies in subjects with bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1186 adults with BAV (850 males, mean age 56±14 years) at a single tertiary center were comprehensively reviewed. Left ventricular non-compaction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were confirmed when patients fulfilled current clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, including comorbidities, heart failure presentation, BAV morphology, function, and aorta phenotypes, in BAV subjects with or without specific cardiomyopathies were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 67 subjects (5.6%) had concomitant cardiomyopathies: 40 (3.4%) patients with left ventricular non-compaction, 17 (1.4%) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and 10 (0.8%) with dilated cardiomyopathy. BAV subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had higher prevalences of diabetes mellitus and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and tended to have type 0 phenotype, while BAV subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy showed higher prevalences of chronic kidney disease and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. BAV subjects with left ventricular non-compaction were significantly younger and predominantly male, and had greater BAV dysfunction and a higher prevalence of normal aorta shape. In multiple regression analysis, cardiomyopathy was independently associated with heart failure (odds ratio 2.795, 95% confidential interval 1.603-4.873, p<0.001) after controlling for confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Concomitant cardiomyopathies were observed in 5.6% of subjects with BAV. A few different clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were found. The presence of cardiomyopathy was independently associated with heart failure.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
10.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450580

RESUMO

We aimed to develop a mathematical model to predict the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic dilatation (AD) in bicuspid aortic valve patients. Bicuspid AS patients who underwent at least two serial echocardiograms from 2005 to 2017 were enrolled. Mathematical modeling was undertaken to assess (1) the non-linearity associated with the disease progression and (2) the importance of first visit echocardiogram in predicting the overall prognosis. Models were trained in 126 patients and validated in an additional cohort of 43 patients. AS was best described by a logistic function of time. Patients who showed an increase in mean pressure gradient (MPG) at their first visit relative to baseline (denoted as rapid progressors) showed a significantly faster disease progression overall. The core model parameter reflecting the rate of disease progression, α, was 0.012/month in the rapid progressors and 0.0032/month in the slow progressors (p < 0.0001). AD progression was best described by a simple linear function, with an increment rate of 0.019 mm/month. Validation of models in a separate prospective cohort yielded comparable R squared statistics for predicted outcomes. Our novel disease progression model for bicuspid AS significantly increased prediction power by including subsequent follow-up visit information rather than baseline information alone.

11.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(7): 826-835, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy might decrease left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) loads and improve cardiac mechanical function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the benefits of CPAP therapy for cardiac mechanical function in patients with OSA have not previously been proved in a randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. This study therefore investigated the effects of CPAP therapy on LV and RV mechanical function in patients with severe OSA and compared them with the effects of a sham intervention. METHODS: In this randomized sham-controlled trial, we analyzed LV and RV function by conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography before and after 3 months of treatment in 52 patients with severe OSA. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either CPAP or sham treatment for 3 months. The main investigator and patients were masked to the trial randomization. RESULTS: After 3 months, CPAP treatment significantly improved LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) compared with the sham treatment (-20.0% ± 2.1% vs -18.0% ± 2.5%; P = .004), although there were no differences in LV dimension or ejection fraction. CPAP treatment reduced RV size and improved the fractional area change (51.3% ± 7.9% vs 46.9% ± 6.7%; P = .038) compared with the sham treatment. CPAP treatment did not ameliorate the RV GLS compared with the sham treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe OSA, CPAP treatment for 3 months improved LV and RV function compared with sham treatment. LV mechanical function assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography and RV fractional area change assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography were significantly improved by CPAP treatment.

12.
Am J Med ; 132(11): 1320-1326.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the relapse of statin intolerance after resumption of statins. We aimed to evaluate the relapse rates of statin intolerance in patients who subsequently received pravastatin or fluvastatin and to identify associated factors. METHODS: This retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study screened data obtained from a tertiary university hospital between 2006 and 2015. Of 8073 patients screened, 488 with statin intolerance who received pravastatin or fluvastatin with regular follow-up were enrolled. After propensity score matching of patients, 384 were finally analyzed. The primary outcome variables were relapse of statin intolerance and stopping (ie, discontinuation or switching to other statins) rate for the 2 statins. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 37 months, the rate of relapse of intolerance was 10.4% and 18.2% among users of pravastatin and fluvastatin, respectively (P = 0.04). However, the log-rank test showed no difference in the relapse-free rates between the 2 groups (P = 0.34). The stopping rates of the 2 statins were 36.5% and 42.2% (P = 0.30), respectively, for various reasons, including low efficacy of the drugs. After adjustment, chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.83, P = 0.03) and previous creatine kinase elevation (HR 3.13, P = 0.001) were identified as independent determinants of relapse. Older age (HR 1.03, P = 0.057) and female sex (HR 1.70, P = 0.059) were associated, but not significantly, with relapse. CONCLUSION: Although a small proportion of patients taking pravastatin or fluvastatin experienced a relapse of intolerance, many patients eventually discontinued or changed these agents. Chronic kidney disease and history of creatine kinase elevation were independent determinants of relapse.

13.
Atherosclerosis ; 284: 31-36, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited data is available on the benefit of statin for primary prevention in the elderly. The aim of this study is to investigate whether statin for primary prevention is effective in lowering the cardiovascular risk and all-cause death in individuals aged >75 years. METHODS: This was a retrospective, propensity score-matched study and data were acquired between 2005 and 2016 in a tertiary university hospital. Of the 6414 patients screened, 1559 statin-naïve patients without a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease before the index visit were included. After propensity score matching, 1278 patients (639 statin users, 639 statin non-users) were finally analyzed. Primary outcome variables included major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and all-cause death. MACCE included cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and nonfatal stroke or transient ischemic attack. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5.2 years, statin users had lower rates of MACCE (2.15 vs. 1.25 events/100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.59; p = 0.005) and all-cause death (1.19 vs. 0.65 events/100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.56; p = 0.02), as well as lower levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than did non-users. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed lower event rates in statin users (hazard ratio: 0.59 for MACCE and 0.56 for all-cause death). The incidence of myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization were lower in statin users. CONCLUSIONS: Statin therapy for primary prevention was clearly associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause death in individuals aged >75 years. These results support more active statin use in this population.

14.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(2): 267-274, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832817

RESUMO

The heart and blood vessels are constantly interfering with each other in a closed system. For a few decades, the concept of ventricular-arterial coupling has been considered as a key pathogenesis of heart failure especially in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 288: 44-50, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the predictive value of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-derived tricuspid annular and right ventricular (RV) parameters for postoperative RV dysfunction in patients undergoing tricuspid valve (TV) surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and CT data of 100 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac CT and subsequently received TV surgery. Preoperative cardiac CT and TTE parameters were analyzed, including TV annulus diameter and RV size. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors for postoperative RV dysfunction, both in the entire study population and in the subgroup of patients without preoperative RV dysfunction. RESULTS: Postoperative RV dysfunction occurred in 46% of all patients. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, longer TV annulus diameter (>29.3 mm/m2 on four-chamber view; (odds ratio [OR] 3.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-11.24), larger RV volume (RV end-diastolic volume/body surface area > 128.8 ml/m2) on CT (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.24-11.98) and presence of preoperative RV dysfunction on TTE (OR 11.96, 95% CI 2.8-50.99) were independent predictors for postoperative RV dysfunction in the entire study population (P < 0.05). Among patients without preoperative RV dysfunction, longer TV annulus diameter (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.20-13.41) and larger RV volume on CT (OR 6.09, 95% CI 1.87-19.80) were independent predictors for postoperative RV dysfunction (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative assessment of cardiac CT imaging-based TV annular diameter and RV volume can provide independent information for predicting postoperative RV dysfunction in patients undergoing TV surgery.

16.
Korean J Radiol ; 20(3): 352-363, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) for the detection of mitral valve (MV) prolapse in mitral regurgitation (MR) with surgical findings as the standard reference, and to assess the predictability of MV replacement based on morphologic CT findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 156 patients who had undergone preoperative cardiac CT and subsequently received MV surgery due to severe MR were retrospectively enrolled. Non-repairable MV was defined when at least one of the following conditions was met: 1) anterior leaflet prolapse, 2) bi-leaflet prolapse, or 3) valve morphology (leaflet thickening, calcification, or mitral annular calcification [MAC]). Diagnostic performance of CT for the detection of the prolapsed segment was assessed with surgical findings as the standard reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the value of CT findings to predict actual valve replacement. RESULTS: During surgery, MV prolapse was identified in 72.1%. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of MV prolapse were 99.1%, 81.4%, and 94.2%, respectively, per patient. One-hundred eighteen patients (75.6%) underwent MV repair and the remaining 38 patients received MV replacement. Bi-leaflet prolapse and valve morphology were independent predictors of valve replacement after adjusting for clinical variables (adjusted odds ratio, [OR] 8.63 for bi-leaflet prolapse; OR, 4.14 for leaflet thickening; and OR, 5.37 for leaflet calcium score > 5.6; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac CT can have high diagnostic performance for detecting the prolapsed segment of the MV and predictability of valve replacement before surgery. Bi-leaflet prolapse and valve morphology, such as leaflet thickening, or calcification or MAC, are the most important predictors of valve replacement.


Assuntos
Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/patologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(1): 102-108, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the current study was to elucidate the effects of the accessory pathways (APs) on the left ventricular (LV) wall motion and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) on AP-related regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 348 consecutive patients (age, 37.6 ± 17.3 years; men, 58.3%) with WPW syndrome who underwent RFCA for AP. We analyzed electrocardiographic data, the AP location, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and RWMA patterns and their changes after RFCA. The locations of APs were right, septal, and left in 78, 94, and 176 patients, respectively. RWMA at the AP location (44.9%, 51.1%, and 17.6%, respectively; P < 0.001), decreased LVEF (10.3%, 6.4%, and 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.004), and dyskinesia (16.7%, 16.0%, and 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with a right or septal AP than in those with a left AP. In 31 of 50 patients with RWMA who underwent post-RFCA echocardiography (62.0%), RWMA was completely improved after RFCA. Right AP (odds ratio [OR], 22.084; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.628-134.420; P = 0.001) and dyskinesia (OR, 6.275; 95% CI, 1.186-33.213; P = 0.031) were significantly associated with the absence of RWMA improvement after RFCA. CONCLUSIONS: AP-related RWMA is frequent in patients with right or septal APs. A substantial number of patients with right AP or dyskinesia may show no improvement in RWMA after RFCA.


Assuntos
Feixe Acessório Atrioventricular , Ablação por Cateter , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/cirurgia , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/complicações , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(1): E23-E29, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate neurological disability after ischemic cerebrovascular events in patients treated with left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion compared with those on warfarin. BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrated that cerebrovascular events after LAA occlusion in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is largely nondisabling. METHODS: From the 1,189 patients in the Korean LAA Occlusion and European Amplatzer Cardiac Plug Multi-Center Registry, 24 patients who experienced ischemic cerebrovascular events after LAA occlusion were enrolled. The neurological outcomes were compared with those in 68 patients who experienced an ischemic cerebrovascular event while on warfarin (Yonsei Stroke Registry). A modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 3-6 categorized the cerebrovascular event as disabling. The mRS at discharge and at 3 and 12 months postcerebrovascular event in the two groups was compared. RESULTS: The percentages of disabling cerebrovascular events were 37.5% and 58.8% at discharge (P = 0.07), 20.8% and 42.6% at 3 months (P = 0.08), and 12.5% and 39.7% at 12 months (P = 0.02) in the LAA occlusion and warfarin groups, respectively. The mRS was significantly lower in the LAA occlusion group at discharge and at 3 months (P < 0.01) and 12 months (P < 0.01) postcerebrovascular event despite no significant difference in mRS before cerebrovascular events (P = 0.98). Patients in the LAA occlusion group demonstrated a significant reduction in mRS between discharge and 12 months (P < 0.01), unlike patients in the warfarin group (P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic cerebrovascular events in patients who previously underwent percutaneous LAA occlusion for NVAF were more favorable than in patients on warfarin.

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