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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
3.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117483, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261212

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with maternal and child health. Some air pollutants exhibit similar behavior in the atmosphere, and some interact with each other; thus, comprehensive assessments of individual air pollutants are required. In this study, we developed national-scale monthly models for six air pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, and suspended particulate matter (SPM)) to obtain accurate estimates of pollutant concentrations at 1 km × 1 km resolution from 2010 through 2015 for application to the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which is a large-scale birth cohort study. We developed our models in the land use regression framework using random forests in conjunction with kriging. We evaluated the model performance via 5-fold location-based cross-validation. We successfully predicted monthly NO (r2 = 0.65), NO2 (r2 = 0.84), O3 (r2 = 0.86), PM2.5 (r2 = 0.79), and SPM (r2 = 0.64) concentrations. For SO2, a satisfactory model could not be developed (r2 = 0.45) because of the low SO2 concentrations in Japan. The performance of our models is comparable to those reported in previous studies at similar temporal and spatial scales. The model predictions in conjunction with the JECS will reveal the critical windows of prenatal and infancy exposure to ambient air pollutants, thus contributing to the development of environmental policies on air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Japão , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199161

RESUMO

Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is considered a key moderator of cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about its association with granzyme B, which plays an important role in the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In the present study, we collected blood samples from 32 healthy adults before and after vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine in 2017/18 to measure the levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B, which play roles in cell-mediated immunity, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody, which plays a role in humoral immunity. The levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B were significantly correlated both before and after vaccination. Furthermore, the post-vaccine fold increases in the IFN-γ and granzyme B levels were significantly correlated. The levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B decreased five months after vaccination in more than half of the subjects who exhibited an increase in IFN-γ and granzyme B at two weeks post-vaccination. This is the first study to investigate the correlation between IFN-γ and granzyme B levels following influenza vaccination. Our study suggests that both IFN-γ and granzyme B can be used as markers of cell-mediated immunity.


Assuntos
Granzimas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação
5.
Allergol Int ; 70(4): 439-444, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheezing is a common symptom in infants, which may occasionally develop into asthma. There are many factors related to infant wheezing, including anatomical features, viral infections, and passive smoking. There are only a few reports on the association between renovation and pregnancy worldwide, and reports on this association are inadequate in Japan. This study aimed to examine the association between house renovation and new construction during pregnancy and wheezing in infants during the first year of life using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). METHODS: Data of pregnant women registered in JECS were collected using self-administered questionnaires during the second/third trimester and 1 month after delivery. Childbirth records were completed by the doctors. Similarly, wheezing in infants was evaluated using self-administered questionnaires 1 year after birth. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the primary outcome. RESULTS: In total, 75,731 infants, excluding those with unknown gender, who were not singleton infants, and who relocated during pregnancy and the first month of life, were examined in this study. Renovation during pregnancy increased the prevalence of wheezing (odds ratio [OR]: 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.48) and recurrent wheezing (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00-1.48) in the first year of life. The relationship between new construction during pregnancy and wheezing in infants was insignificant (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.90-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Renovation during pregnancy may be a risk factor for wheezing in infants, and should be avoided.

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 132-140, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116439

RESUMO

Feelings about pregnancy and mother-infant bonding are associated with maternal mental health before and after childbirth. The current study examined factors associated with persistent distress at 12 months after childbirth among mothers with psychological distress in the first trimester, using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). Feelings about pregnancy were assessed using a questionnaire in the first trimester, and maternal mental health was assessed using the Kessler 6 (K6) in the first trimester and at 12 months after childbirth. In addition, mother-infant bonding was assessed using the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale Japanese version (MIBS-J) at 12 months after childbirth, and 5 items from the MIBS-J at one and six months after childbirth. Among the 97,415 mothers registered in the JECS, 24,324 mothers with psychological distress (K6 ≥ 5) in the first trimester were included in this analysis. The relationships between persistence of psychological distress at 12 months after childbirth with feelings about pregnancy and mother-infant bonding were analyzed. Both maternal negative feelings about pregnancy in the first trimester and mother-infant bonding after childbirth were significantly associated with persistent psychological distress at 12 months after childbirth (ß = 0.02, p = 0.001 and ß = 0.35, p < 0.001, respectively). The indirect effect of feelings about pregnancy on persistent distress through mother-infant bonding was also observed (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that mother-infant bonding after childbirth may be important for improving the mental health of mothers with prenatal psychological distress.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Angústia Psicológica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez
7.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 75(5): 159-165, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459438

RESUMO

AIM: Patients with major depression present with an increased serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration. However, the longitudinal relationship between serum IGF-1 levels and depression development remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between the serum IGF-1 concentration in the first trimester of pregnancy and postpartum depression development using data obtained from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). METHODS: The JECS included 97 415 pregnant women; among them, 8791 were enrolled in this study. Data regarding depression in the first trimester, postpartum depression development at 1 month after childbirth, and other covariates were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Serum IGF-1 levels were measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. The participants were divided into four groups according to the serum IGF-1 level. RESULTS: In the first trimester, serum IGF-1 levels were not significantly associated with psychological distress in pregnant women. In the longitudinal analyses, however, postpartum depression development in mothers within the highest quartile for serum IGF-1 concentration in the first trimester was significantly less common than in those within the lowest quartile (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.79). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with a high serum IGF-1 concentration in the first trimester were less likely to develop postpartum depression than those with a low concentration. A high serum IGF-1 concentration during pregnancy may help to protect against postpartum depression development.

8.
Ind Health ; 59(1): 54-62, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229857

RESUMO

Physical function impairment in patients with low back pain (LBP) occurs due to the influence of psychosocial factors. Only a few studies have objectively evaluated physical function. We aimed to objectively assess the physical functions of individuals subjects with LBP, and clarify the association between physical function and psychosocial factors. We enrolled 411 individuals with LBP working in special needs schools. We examined their degree of pain, and the psychosocial factors strength through the STarT Back Tool, which categorized them into the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups. We assessed their abdominal muscle endurance, lower limb muscle strength, and hip joint flexibility. The relationships between these physical functions and psychosocial factors were analyzed by logistic regression models. Those in the high-risk group had significantly lower abdominal muscle and lower limb muscle strength (p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios of the high-risk compared to the low-risk group for low abdominal muscle endurance, lower limb muscle strength, and restricted right and left Straight Leg Raising were 5.47, 3.14, 2.65, and 3.12, respectively (95% CIs: 2.35-12.74, 1.43-6.89, 1.08-6.55, and 1.20-8.11, respectively). Therefore, the low physical function observed in the high-risk group was associated with their psychosocial factors.

9.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(9): 1361-1366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879210

RESUMO

We examined the association of biological components in airborne particles, i.e., proteins and endotoxins, in outdoor air with asthma exacerbation in the Fukuoka metropolitan area, Fukuoka, Japan. Data on emergency department (ED) visits for asthma in children (age, 0-14 years) and adults (age, 15-64 years) were collected at a medical center from December 2014 to November 2015. One hundred eighty-one children and 143 adults visited the ED for asthma, and the weekly number of ED visits in children increased in autumn, i.e., September (second week) to November (first week). Fine (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and coarse (≥2.5 µm) particles were collected for 3 or 4 weeks per month, and protein and endotoxin concentrations were analyzed. Protein was largely prevalent in fine particles (0.34-7.33 µg/m3), and concentrations were high in April, May, June, and October. In contrast, endotoxin was mainly included in coarse particles (0.0010-0.0246 EU/m3), and concentrations were high in September (third week), October (first, second, and fourth weeks), February (fourth week), and July (first week). The results of a Poisson regression analysis indicated that endotoxin (in fine and coarse particles alike) was a significant factor for ED visits related to asthma in children, even after adjusting for meteorological factors, i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. However, there was no association between environmental factors and ED visits for asthma in adults. These results suggest that endotoxin in outdoor air is significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbation in children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Endotoxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Proteínas/análise , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(12): 1283-1287, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibody tests for detecting varicella-zoster virus include the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) assay, immune adherence hemagglutination assay (IAHA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and the glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). Although FAMA and gpELISA are highly sensitive, FAMA is not available commercially. Therefore, this study was performed to compare potential high-sensitivity tests with commercially available tests. METHODS: Four antibody tests, FAMA, gpELISA, EIA, and IAHA, were performed using sera collected from 32 children aged 7 months-10 years. Using FAMA as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of gpELISA, EIA, and IAHA were assessed. Subsequently, using gpELISA as a reference, the positive agreement rate of EIA and IAHA was assessed. RESULTS: On a reference scale with FAMA set at 100%, the sensitivity and specificity of the antibody tests were as follows: gpELISA, 67% and 100%; EIA, 67% and 100%; and IAHA, 47% and 100%, respectively. The positive agreement rates of EIA and IAHA relative to gpELISA were 86% and 64%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: gpELISA had a lower positive rate than did FAMA, and showed comparable sensitivity to that of EIA.


Assuntos
Varicela , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 32, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neurotoxicity of general anesthesia to the developing human brains is controversial. We assessed the associations between surgery under general anesthesia in infancy and development at age 1 year using the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), a large-scale birth cohort study. METHODS: In the JECS, 103,062 pregnancies and 104,065 fetuses were enrolled between January 2011 and March 2014. Of the 100,144 registered live births, we excluded preterm or post-term infants, multiple births, and infants with chromosomal anomalies and/or anomalies of the head or brain. Data on surgical procedures under general anesthesia in infancy were collected from self-administered questionnaires by parents at the 1-year follow-up. Developmental delay at age 1 year was assessed using the Japanese translation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3), comprising five developmental domains. RESULTS: Among the 64,141 infants included, 746 infants had surgery under general anesthesia once, 90 twice, and 71 three or more times. The percentage of developmental delay in the five domains of the J-ASQ-3 significantly increased with the number of surgical procedures. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the risk of developmental delays in all five domains was significantly increased in infants who had surgery under general anesthesia three times or more (adjusted odds ratios: for communication domain 3.32; gross motor domain 4.69; fine motor domain 2.99; problem solving domain 2.47; personal-social domain 2.55). CONCLUSIONS: Surgery under general anesthesia in infancy was associated with an increased likelihood of developmental delay in all five domains of the J-ASQ-3, especially the gross motor domain at age 1 year. The neurodevelopment with the growth should be further evaluated among the children who had surgery under general anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number: UMIN000030786 ).


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Gerais/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456250

RESUMO

Air purifiers have become popular among ordinary families. However, it remains controversial whether indoor air purification improves the respiratory health of healthy adults. A randomized crossover intervention study was conducted with 32 healthy individuals. The subjects were categorized into two groups. One group continuously used true air purifiers, and the other followed with sham air purifiers for 4 weeks. Following this first intervention, all the subjects underwent a 4-week washout period and continued with the second 4-week intervention with the alternate air purifiers. We collected fine particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), coarse particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10-2.5) and ozone (O3). The subjects' pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured during the study period. The indoor PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 11% with the true air purifiers compared to those with sham air purifiers. However, this decrease was not significant (p = 0.08). The air purification did not significantly improve the pulmonary function of the study subjects. In contrast, an increase in the indoor PM10-2.5 and O3 concentration led to a significant decrease in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0)/forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), respectively. In conclusion, air purification slightly improved the indoor PM2.5 concentrations in ordinary homes but had no demonstrable impact on improving health.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ozônio , Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória
13.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114454, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247922

RESUMO

Natural aeolian dust (AD) particles are potential carriers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere. The heterogeneous interaction between them may lead to worsened air quality and enhanced cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ambient particulates in downwind areas, and this topic requires in-depth exploration. In this study, AD samples were collected from four Asian dust sources, and their physical properties and compositions were determined, showing great regional differences. The physical and chemical interactions of different AD particles with naphthalene (Nap; model PAH) were observed in aqueous systems. The results showed that AD particles from the Loess Plateau had weak adsorption to Nap, which was fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. There was no obvious adsorption to Nap found for the other three AD samples. This difference seemed to depend mainly on the specific surface area and/or the total pore volume. In addition, the Nap in the aqueous solution did not undergo chemical reactions under dark conditions and longwave ultraviolet (UV) radiation but degraded under shortwave UV radiation, and 2-formylcinnamaldehyde and 1,4-naphthoquinone were the first-generated products. The degradation of Nap in the aqueous solution was probably initiated by photoionization, and the reaction rate constant (between 1.44 × 10-4 min-1 and 8.55 × 10-4 min-1) was much lower than that of Nap with hydroxyl radicals. Instead of inducing or promoting the chemical change in Nap, the AD particles slowed photodegradation due to the extinction of radiation. Therefore, it is inferred that natural AD particles have no substantial effect on the transportation and transformation of PAHs in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Atmosfera , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Naftalenos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135840, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972919

RESUMO

PM2.5 samples were collected inside and outside a primary school classroom in Beijing in 2015 and analysed for 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 nitro-PAHs (NPAHs). In the sampling period in the heating season (namely, the heating period), the median concentrations of indoor and outdoor PAHs were 223 ng/m3 and 264 ng/m3, respectively, and those of indoor and outdoor NPAHs were 3.61 ng/m3 and 5.12 ng/m3, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs were consistently higher in the heating period than those (indoor PAHs: 8.75 ng/m3, outdoor PAHs: 8.95 ng/m3, indoor NPAHs: 0.25 ng/m3, outdoor NPAHs: 0.40 ng/m3) in the sampling period in the non-heating season (namely, the non-heating period). In both periods, total PAHs and total NPAHs in indoor PM2.5, as well as most individual PAHs and NPAHs, were positively correlated with the outdoor PAH and NPAH concentrations (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that indoor PAHs and NPAHs are largely dependent on outdoor inputs. It is inferred from the diagnostic ratios that PAHs and NPAHs in indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were affected jointly by coal combustion and vehicular emission in the heating period and mainly derived from vehicle exhaust in the non-heating period. Both indoor and outdoor PM2.5 showed considerable benzo[a]pyrene equivalent toxicity (BaPeq), especially in the heating period. Benzo[c]fluorene (BcFE) had relatively low concentrations but large contributions to BaPeq in both periods. This is the first report of PM2.5-bound BcFE inside and outside classrooms in Beijing. This result indicates that neglecting PAHs with low abundance but high toxicity leads to a significant underestimation of the overall PAH toxicity. The inhalation cancer risk (CR) of PAHs and NPAHs in PM2.5 during the primary school year exceeded the acceptable level as defined by the U.S. EPA, emphasizing its impact on the lifetime CR in schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114476, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618487

RESUMO

Accurate estimation of historical PM2.5 exposures for epidemiological studies is challenging when extensive monitoring data are limited in duration. Here, we develop a national-scale PM2.5 exposure model for Japan using measurements recorded between 2014 and 2016 to estimate monthly means for 1987 through 2016. Our objective is to obtain accurate PM2.5 estimates for years prior to implementation of extensive PM2.5 monitoring, using observations from a limited period. We utilize a neural network to convey the non-linear relationship between the target pollutant and predictors, while incorporating the associated air pollutants. We obtain high R2 values of 0.76 and 0.73 through spatial and temporal cross validation, respectively. We evaluate estimation accuracy using an independent data set and achieve an R2 of 0.75. Moreover, monthly variations for 2000-2013 are well reproduced with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.78, obtained through a comparison with observations. We estimate monthly means at 1 × 1 km resolution from 1987 through 2016. The estimates show decreases in the area and population weighted means beginning in the 1990s. We successfully estimate monthly mean PM2.5 concentrations over three decades with outstanding predictive accuracy. Our findings illustrate that the presented approach achieves accurate long-term historical estimations using observations limited in duration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Japão , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(12): e529-e538, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declining proportions of male births have been reported in several industrialised countries. Previous reports have shown that exposure to certain chemical substances might influence the secondary sex ratio (SSR). We assessed the associations between paternal occupational exposure to chemicals and the SSR of their children using the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), a large-scale birth cohort study. METHODS: Data on paternal occupational exposure to various agents and other covariates were collected using a self-administered questionnaire to partners of pregnant female participants enrolled in the JECS. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between paternal occupational exposures and the SSR of their children. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, number UMIN000030786. FINDINGS: The JECS study gathered data on 103 062 pregnancies, 104 065 fetuses, and 51 898 partners of pregnant women. Among 50 283 children with data on paternal occupational exposures, 25 657 were male and 24 626 were female. The proportion of boys whose fathers were regularly occupationally exposed to insecticides was 0·445 (males, n=293; females, n=366; 95% CI 0·406-0·483), which was lower than the proportion of boys whose fathers were not exposed to insecticides. After adjusting for confounding factors, regular paternal occupational exposure to insecticides (adjusted relative risk 0·86, 95% CI 0·78-0·96) and medical disinfectants (0·95, 0·90-1·00) were significantly associated with lower SSRs among their offspring compared with the offspring of fathers not exposed to these substances. INTERPRETATION: A declining proportion of boys could potentially be due to fathers working in environments in which they are exposed to chemicals. The associations between poorer semen quality and levels of reproductive and thyroid hormones require investigation. FUNDING: Ministry of the Environment of Japan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Pai , Inseticidas/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Razão de Masculinidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 66, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in Ulaanbaatar are exposed to air pollution, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted on the effects of environmental risk factors on children's health. Also, no studies have yet examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children in suburban areas, where air quality-monitoring stations have not yet been installed. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between outdoor air pollution and respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren in urban and suburban districts of Ulaanbaatar. METHODS: The ATS-DLD-78 C questionnaire was used to investigate the respiratory symptoms of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years (n = 1190) who lived in one of three urban districts or a suburban district of Ulaanbaatar. In each district, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured at two sites (at ≤100 m and > 100 m from the nearest major road) in the 2-year period from 2015 to 2016. The associations between health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants were estimated using the multinomial logistic regression method. RESULTS: The outdoor concentration of SO2 was significantly associated with persistent cough symptom (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). Furthermore, the outdoor concentration of NO2 was significantly associated with the current wheezing symptom (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.75) among children in urban and suburban. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of persistent cough symptom was markedly high among the schoolchildren in urban/suburban districts of Ulaanbaatar. Overall, the increases in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among children might be associated with ambient air pollution in Ulaanbaatar.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Prevalência , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113147, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522002

RESUMO

This study investigated the spatial and temporal distributions of particulate and gaseous air pollutants in a primary school in Beijing and assessed their health impact on the children. The results show that air quality inside the classroom was greatly affected by the input of outdoor pollutants; high levels of pollution were observed during both the heating and nonheating periods and indicate that indoor and outdoor air pollution posed a threat to the children's health. Traffic sources near the primary school were the main contributors to indoor and outdoor pollutants during both periods. Moreover, air quality in this primary school was affected by coal combustion and atmospheric reactions during the heating and nonheating periods, respectively. Based on the estimation by exposure-response functions and the weighting of indoor and outdoor pollutants during different periods, the levels of PM2.5, PM 10 and O3 at school had adverse respiratory health effects on children. Longer exposures during the nonheating period contributed to higher health risks. These results emphasized that emission sources nearby had a direct impact on air quality in school and children's respiratory health. Therefore, measures should be taken for double control on air pollution inside and outside the classroom to protect children from it.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394804

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) was collected in three different areas, SY-1, SY-2, and SY-3, in Shenyang, China, during the warm and cold seasons from 2012 to 2014. SY-1 was located beside a thermal power plant, far from the central area. SY-2 was near a coal heating boiler on the main road, close to the central area. SY-3 was on the main road, without fixed emission sources. Nine PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of total PAHs was higher in the cold season (92.6-316 ng m-3) than in the warm season (18.4-32.2 ng m-3). Five- and six-ring PAHs occupied a large percentage at all sites in the warm season, and four-ring PAHs were the dominant components in the cold season. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs in Shenyang in the warm and cold seasons were not only coal burning but also vehicle emission. In this study, we suggest that a benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene ratio ([BaP]/[BgPe]) of 0.6 was a useful indicator to speculate the relative significance of coal burning and vehicle exhaust. Although the Shenyang government has undertaken actions to address air pollution, the PM and PAH concentrations did not decrease significantly compared to those in our previous studies. The cancer risk calculated from the BaP equivalent total concentration at all three sites in the warm and cold seasons exceeded the acceptable limit established by the US EPA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano
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