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1.
J Orthop Sci ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The loco-check has been widely used to raise awareness of locomotive syndrome (LS) not only in the general population but also among medical practitioners. However, a screening tool of the loco-check for LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3 has not yet been established. The present study developed a screening tool for use with the loco-check to detect LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1659 community-dwelling older adults (730 males, 929 females) with a mean age of 73.8 ± 6.0 years old (range, 65-96 years old) was conducted, based on the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD). All subjects underwent the loco-check as an index test and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) as a reference standard at the same time. Subjects with a GLFS-25 total score of ≤6 points, 7-15 points, 16-23 points, and ≥24 points were diagnosed with non-LS, LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3, respectively. A conventional receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to confirm the optimal cut-off values of the loco-check score and their sensitivity and specificity to identify LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3, with a preference for a slightly higher sensitivity as the tool is intended primarily for screening purposes. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off values of the loco-check score to discriminate LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3 as a screening tool were 1 point (sensitivity 85.4% and specificity 64.9%), 2 points (sensitivity 88.8% and specificity 75.1%), and 3 points (sensitivity 87.6% and specificity 84.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may help both the general population and medical practitioners become roughly aware of and estimate the severity of LS, which will contribute to its use in community health activities and the dissemination of the concept of LS.

2.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX)-associated pseudo-elevation and true nephrotoxicity by comparison of creatinine-estimated and cystatin C-estimated GFRs (glomerular filtration rates) before and after TMP/SMX administrations. METHODS: Patients in whom serum creatinine and cystatin C were simultaneously measured are the cohort of this study. A decreasing of creatinine-estimated GFR posterior to TMP/SMX by ≥ 20% and a decreasing of cystatine C-estimated GFR posterior to TMP/SMX by ≥ 20% were defined as true nephrotoxicity. A decreasing of creatinine-estimated GFR posterior to TMP/SMX by ≥ 20% and a decreasing of cystatine C-estimated GFR posterior to TMP/SMX by < 20% were defined as pseudo-elevation. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients were enrolled. Within the 19 patients in whom serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured simultaneously both before and after TMP/SMX administrations, 10 patients (52.6%) had nephrotoxicity. Fewer random error and systematic bias between creatinine- and cystatine C-estimated GFR were observed after TMP/SMX than before TMP/SMX by Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Using cystatin C, we reveled TMP/SMX-associated nephrotoxicity is not uncommon. We should equally pay attention to TMP/SMX-associated nephrotoxicity and pseudo-elevation. In spite of pseudo-elevation, creatinine-estimated GFR after receiving TMP/SMX is ironically reliable as surrogate maker for renal clearance.

3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 1-20, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727733

RESUMO

We aimed to determine available evidences in the literature regarding surgical approaches and methods, timing of surgical interventions, duration of perioperative antibiotics, and duration of nonsurgical treatments (antibiotics administration) in patients with upper cervical (occiput-C2) epidural abscess (UCEA). We performed a literature review of the articles on surgical interventions and antibiotic therapy to treat UCEA, searching the PubMed database for relevant articles published in the English language (as of March 2020). In total, 53 patients with UCEA were identified. Permanent limb paralysis or death was observed in 1/15 (6.7%) patients who received the transoral approach and 2/15 (13.3%) patients who received the transcervical approach, 1/26 (3.8%) patients who underwent surgery before the onset of paralysis, and 2/4 (50.0%) patients who underwent surgery after the onset of paralysis. In 85%-89% of cases, antibiotic administration was continued for 6-12 weeks, which was determined by the confirmation of reduced inflammatory response and/or abscess disappearance on imaging. Differences in surgical approaches may not be associated with the incidence of permanent limb paralysis or death. Surgical interventions before limb paralysis onset are recommended in UCEA patients. In perioperative and nonoperative treatments, antibiotic administration for 6-12 weeks may be supported based on the confirmation of reduced inflammatory response and/or abscess disappearance on imaging. Further investigations are needed.

4.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IVCRP and IVAsian, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IVCRP and IVAsian explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively. RESULTS: Using the IVCRP, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IVAsian, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IVCRP: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IVAsian: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.

6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 125: 105125, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late life depression and perceived stress could influence disease pathways via reduced 11ß-HSD2 activity, particularly given suggestions that reduced 11ß-HSD2 activity, which is reflected in the cortisol-to-cortisone ratio, is a risk factor of disease. To date, however, examination of the relationship between the cortisol-to-cortisone ratio and perceived stress or depressive symptoms is insufficient. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol-to-cortisone ratio with perceived stress and depressive symptoms, and analyzed whether cortisol levels modify this association, in 6878 participants aged 45-74 years. Cortisol and cortisone in spot urine were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Perceived stress during the past year was measured using a self-reported questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Analyses were performed with adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and sleeping hours), and physical health factors (body mass index [kg/m2] and medical history [diabetes, hypertension, and medication for hyperlipidemia or corticosteroids]). RESULTS: Cortisol-to-cortisone ratio and cortisol were positively associated with perceived stress (% change: 2.33, Ptrend = 0.003; and 4.74, Ptrend = 0.001, respectively), but were not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Further, the relationship between cortisol-to-cortisone ratio and perceived stress was modified by cortisol level and sex: the positive association between perceived stress and the cortisol-to-cortisone ratio was more evident in subjects with lower cortisol levels (Pinteraction = 0.009) and in men (Pinteraction = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the cortisol-to-cortisone ratio in spot urine may be a useful marker for non-acute perceived stress in daily life against a possible background of reduced 11ß-HSD2 in older adults.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

8.
Alcohol ; 89: 129-138, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991979

RESUMO

To investigate the association between alcohol intake pattern in amount and frequency and metabolic syndrome (Mets) components, we simulated the change in the prevalence of Mets components by intake reduction. In order to manage Mets, alcohol intake reduction with moderation of intake pattern is required. However, evidence investigating the comparative impact of alcohol intake reduction in amount and frequency for Mets components is limited. We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study in the general Japanese population. The study subjects included 37,371 non-drinkers and current drinkers recruited in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Odds ratios (ORs) for Mets components according to alcohol intake amount and frequency were estimated using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of Mets components was estimated after assumed alcohol intake reduction of a) none, b) 10 g/day (men) or 5 g/day (women), c) 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women), d) less than 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women) for moderate-to-heavy drinkers, e) 1-2 times/week, and f) 3-4 times/week. The ORs with alcohol intake amount and frequency increased with high blood pressure while decreasing with dyslipidemia. A J-shaped association was observed between intake amount and Mets. The estimated prevalence (%) of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in men were a) 45.2, b) 43.0, c) 41.4, d) 40.4, e) 42.9, and f) 42.0; and a) 50.3, b) 51.8, c) 52.9, d) 50.2, e) 52.7, and f) 53.4 in women. The estimated prevalence of high blood pressure in women did not evidently decrease. Simulated alcohol intake reduction showed decreased prevalence for high blood pressure and increased prevalence for dyslipidemia in men after reduced intake amount and frequency. The largest decreased prevalence for high blood pressure was observed in men when all moderate-to-heavy drinkers reduced their alcohol intake amount to less than 20 g/day.

9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

10.
Mitochondrion ; 53: 234-242, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565400

RESUMO

Mitochondrial haplogroups F, A, and M7a are associated with increased risks of lifestyle diseases, while haplogroups N9 and D are associated with decreased risks of lifestyle diseases or with longevity. The current study determined the existence of interactions between 5 selected haplogroups and physical activity (PA) on total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in 3,994 men and 6,014 women. The interactions between haplogroups (M7a/D) and PA on adiponectin were significant in men (total and HMW: P-interaction = 0.041 and 0.011). The positive association of PA with adiponectin in men carrying haplogroup M7a is attenuated in comparison to men carrying haplogroup D.

11.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 27(10): 1097-1107, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269208

RESUMO

AIM: Accumulating evidence reveals that sedentary behavior is associated with mortality and cardiometabolic disease; however, there are potential age and sex differences in sedentary behavior and health outcomes that have not been adequately addressed. This study aimed to determine the association of sedentary behavior with cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and its risk factors in a large Japanese population according to age and sex. METHODS: Using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study obtained from baseline surveys, data of 62,754 participants (27,930 males, 34,824 females) were analyzed. This study uses a cross-sectional design and self-administered questionnaires to evaluate sedentary time and anamnesis. For the logistic regression analysis, sedentary time <5 h/day was used as the reference and then adjusted for age, research areas, leisure-time metabolic equivalents, and alcohol and smoking status. From the analysis of anthropometric and blood examinations, 35,973 participants (17,109 males, 18,864 females) were analyzed. RESULTS: For hypertension and diabetes, sedentary time was associated with a significantly higher proportion of male participants. Both sexes were associated with a significantly higher proportion of participants with dyslipidemia. Participants who had longer sedentary time tended to have increased levels of blood pressure, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and decreased levels of HDL-C, especially in the 60-69 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time was associated with cardiometabolic diseases in a large Japanese population classified by age and sex. Our findings indicate that regularly interrupting and replacing sedentary time may contribute to better physical health-related quality of life.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(5): 657-665, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide meta-analyses of clinically defined gout were performed to identify subtype-specific susceptibility loci. Evaluation using selection pressure analysis with these loci was also conducted to investigate genetic risks characteristic of the Japanese population over the last 2000-3000 years. METHODS: Two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 3053 clinically defined gout cases and 4554 controls from Japanese males were performed using the Japonica Array and Illumina Array platforms. About 7.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms were meta-analysed after imputation. Patients were then divided into four clinical subtypes (the renal underexcretion type, renal overload type, combined type and normal type), and meta-analyses were conducted in the same manner. Selection pressure analyses using singleton density score were also performed on each subtype. RESULTS: In addition to the eight loci we reported previously, two novel loci, PIBF1 and ACSM2B, were identified at a genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10-8) from a GWAS meta-analysis of all gout patients, and other two novel intergenic loci, CD2-PTGFRN and SLC28A3-NTRK2, from normal type gout patients. Subtype-dependent patterns of Manhattan plots were observed with subtype GWASs of gout patients, indicating that these subtype-specific loci suggest differences in pathophysiology along patients' gout subtypes. Selection pressure analysis revealed significant enrichment of selection pressure on ABCG2 in addition to ALDH2 loci for all subtypes except for normal type gout. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on subtype GWAS meta-analyses and selection pressure analysis of gout will assist elucidation of the subtype-dependent molecular targets and evolutionary involvement among genotype, phenotype and subtype-specific tailor-made medicine/prevention of gout and hyperuricaemia.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gota/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a reported risk factor for various health problems. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous independent loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, most of these have been focused on Europeans, and little evidence is available on the genetic effects across the life course of other ethnicities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of 282 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with three BMI-related traits, current BMI, BMI at 20 years old (BMI at 20) and change in BMI (BMI change), among 11 586 Japanese individuals enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: We found a significant association (P < 0.05/282 = 1.77×10-4) between BMI and 11 polymorphisms in or near FTO, BDNF, TMEM18, HS6ST3, and BORCS7. The trend was similar between current BMI and BMI change, but differed from that of the BMI at 20. Among the significant variants, those on FTO were associated with all BMI traits, whereas those on TMEM18 and HS6SR3 were only associated with BMI at 20. The association of FTO loci with BMI remained even after additional adjustment for dietary energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported BMI-associated loci discovered in Europeans were also identified in the Japanese population. Additionally, our results suggest that the effects of each loci on BMI may vary across the life course and that this variation may be caused by the differential effects of individual genes on BMI via different pathways.

14.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 86-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only one interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction [P-interaction = 0.001 (α = 0.05/21 = 0.002)]. The per-major-allele (C allele) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

15.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(10): 670-677, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342477

RESUMO

Apoptosis-associated, speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) plays an important role in inflammatory cytokine synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the expression of ASC is suppressed by increased methylation of its CpG sites. The current study investigated the longitudinal association of replacing sedentary time with light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) on the ASC methylation in middle-aged people. We investigated 1 238 individuals who participated in baseline and 5-year follow-up surveys of a population-based cohort study. Sedentary, LPA and MVPA time were objectively measured using accelerometers. ASC methylation in PBMCs was measured by pyrosequencing. Using a multiple linear regression and employing an isotemporal substitution model, the longitudinal associations of changes in the sedentary time, LPA and MVPA on the changes in the ASC methylation were analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders. Substituting 60 min per day of LPA for sedentary time was associated with 1.17 times (95% confidence interval 1.07, 1.27) higher ASC methylation levels (mean of 7 CpG sites, P<0.001). However, such effects were not seen for MVPA. These results suggest that substituting LPA for sedentary time may be linked with increased (favorable) ASC methylation as a potential biomarker of systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/química , Metilação de DNA , Exercício Físico , Acelerometria , Idoso , Antropometria , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário
16.
Commun Biol ; 2: 115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993211

RESUMO

Gout is a common arthritis caused by elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels. Here we investigated loci influencing SUA in a genome-wide meta-analysis with 121,745 Japanese subjects. We identified 8948 variants at 36 genomic loci (P<5 × 10-8) including eight novel loci. Of these, missense variants of SESN2 and PNPLA3 were predicted to be damaging to the function of these proteins; another five loci-TMEM18, TM4SF4, MXD3-LMAN2, PSORS1C1-PSORS1C2, and HNF4A-are related to cell metabolism, proliferation, or oxidative stress; and the remaining locus, LINC01578, is unknown. We also identified 132 correlated genes whose expression levels are associated with SUA-increasing alleles. These genes are enriched for the UniProt transport term, suggesting the importance of transport-related genes in SUA regulation. Furthermore, trans-ethnic meta-analysis across our own meta-analysis and the Global Urate Genetics Consortium has revealed 15 more novel loci associated with SUA. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of hyperuricemia/gout.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Genótipo , Gota/sangue , Gota/etiologia , Gota/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Endocrine ; 64(3): 552-563, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate independent relationships of daily non-exercise life activity and leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits in Japanese adults. METHODS: Data of 24,625 eligible subjects (12,709 men, 11,916 women) who participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study were analyzed. Information about lifestyle characteristics was obtained from a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent associations of daily life activity as well as leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits by sex. RESULTS: Male subjects with higher daily life activity as well as with higher leisure-time exercise volume had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, independently with each other. Female subjects with higher daily life activity also had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Particularly, male and female subjects with the highest daily life activity quartile showed considerably low odds ratios of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81) and 0.64 (0.52-0.79), respectively, for low HDL-cholesterol even after the adjustment for BMI compared with the first quartile. Meanwhile, male subjects with the higher leisure-time exercise showed a quite lower prevalence of elevated triglycerides. Higher moderate-intensity exercise was more intensely associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its traits in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher daily life activity and higher moderate-intensity exercise may be independently associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(1): 13-26, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560225

RESUMO

Context: The effects of intensity-specific physical activity (PA) and its interaction with other lifestyle factors on serum adiponectin are currently unclear. Objective: To investigate the effects of replacing sedentary time with either light-intensity PA (LPA) or moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) on total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and to examine interactions with smoking, alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, and menopausal status in a general population. Design/Setting: Cross-sectional study of 4013 men and 6050 women (40 to 69 years of age). Main Outcome Measures: The associations of replacing sedentary time with LPA or MVPA on total and HMW adiponectin were analyzed using an isotemporal substitution model. Results: In men, reallocating 60 minutes of sedentary time to 60 minutes of LPA was associated with 9% and 13% higher total and HMW adiponectin levels even after adjusting for confounders, although such associations were not observed for MVPA. A similar pattern of results was also seen in women. The effect of replacing sedentary time with LPA on adiponectin was clearer in middle/high coffee consumers than in low coffee consumers among women. Although increasing the effect of replacing sedentary time with MVPA on adiponectin was clearer in former/current smokers than in never smokers among men, the replacement effect for MVPA on total adiponectin was clearer in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Replacing sedentary time with LPA resulted in increased levels of total and HMW adiponectin. The replacement effects for LPA or MVPA were found to be multiply modified by smoking, coffee consumption, and menopausal status.

19.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 24(6): 670-673, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide including Japan. Recent genome-wide association studies have discovered CKD susceptibility variants. We developed a genetic risk score (GRS) based on CKD-associated variants and assessed a possibility that the GRS can improve the discrimination capability for the prevalence of CKD in a Japanese population. The present study consists of 11 283 participants randomly selected from 12 Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study sites. Individual GRS was constructed combining 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in a Japanese population. Participants with eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 was defined as case (stage 3 CKD or higher) in this study. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between the GRS and CKD risk with adjustment for sex, age, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The frequency of individuals with CKD was 8.3%, which was relatively low compared with those previously reported in a Japanese population. The odds ratio of having CKD was 1.120 (95% confidence interval: 1.042-1.203) per 10 GRS increment in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.002). The C-statistic was significantly increased in the model with the GRS, comparing with the model without the GRS (0.720 vs 0.719, Pdifference = 0.008). Increment of the GRS was associated with increased risk of CKD. Additionally, the GRS significantly improved the discriminatory ability of CKD prevalence in a Japanese population; however, the improvement of discriminatory ability brought about by the GRS seemed to be small compared with that of non-genetic CKD risk factors.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Epidemiol ; 29(8): 282-287, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selection of test-negative controls takes less time and costs less than traditional control selection for evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE). Here, rotavirus VE was evaluated using hospital controls and compared with test-negative controls to determine whether using the latter can substitute for the former. METHODS: We recorded gastroenteritis in children from 2 months to 2 years of age at six medical facilities in Saga City between January 4th and May 31st, 2014. Stools from all identified acute gastroenteritis patients were tested for rotavirus using immunochromatography. Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases had test-positive stool, whereas test-negative controls had gastroenteritis but no rotavirus infection; hospital controls were outpatients visiting the same facility for indications other than gastroenteritis. Vaccination status was verified by inspecting maternal and child health records, and demographic data were obtained from a questionnaire completed by the patients' guardians or from the medical records. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: Sixty-four RVGE cases, 260 test-negative controls, and 589 hospital controls were enrolled. The characteristics of the two control groups, including RV vaccination history, were similar. The RVGE cases were more likely to have used daycare services than children from either of the two control groups. The VE against RVGE estimated using hospital controls was 86.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.9-96.0%), very similar to the VE using test-negative controls (84.9% [95% CI, 49.6-95.5%]). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated VE using test-negative controls and hospital controls is similar. Therefore, test-negative controls are considered appropriate for establishing VE.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem
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