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Nano Lett ; 22(18): 7363-7369, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124418


Graphene and its heterostructures provide a unique and versatile playground for explorations of strongly correlated electronic phases, ranging from unconventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states in a monolayer system to a plethora of superconducting and insulating states in twisted bilayers. However, the access to those fascinating phases has been thus far entirely restricted to transport techniques, due to the lack of a robust energy bandgap that makes graphene hard to access optically. Here we demonstrate an all-optical, noninvasive spectroscopic tool for probing electronic correlations in graphene using excited Rydberg excitons in an adjacent transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer. These excitons are highly susceptible to the compressibility of graphene electrons, allowing us to detect the formation of odd-denominator FQH states at high magnetic fields. Owing to its submicron spatial resolution, the technique we demonstrate circumvents spatial inhomogeneities and paves the way for optical studies of correlated states in optically inactive atomically thin materials.

Science ; 374(6565): 336-340, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648319


Moiré superlattices in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers provide a platform for exploring strong correlations with optical spectroscopy. Despite the observation of rich Mott-Wigner physics stemming from an interplay between the periodic potential and Coulomb interactions, the absence of tunnel coupling­induced hybridization of electronic states has ensured a classical layer degree of freedom. We investigated a MoSe2 homobilayer structure where interlayer coherent tunneling allows for electric field­controlled manipulation and measurement of the ground-state hole-layer pseudospin. We observed an electrically tunable two-dimensional Feshbach resonance in exciton-hole scattering, which allowed us to control the strength of interactions between excitons and holes located in different layers. Our results may enable the realization of degenerate Bose-Fermi mixtures with tunable interactions.

Nature ; 595(7865): 53-57, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194018


When the Coulomb repulsion between electrons dominates over their kinetic energy, electrons in two-dimensional systems are predicted to spontaneously break continuous-translation symmetry and form a quantum crystal1. Efforts to observe2-12 this elusive state of matter, termed a Wigner crystal, in two-dimensional extended systems have primarily focused on conductivity measurements on electrons confined to a single Landau level at high magnetic fields. Here we use optical spectroscopy to demonstrate that electrons in a monolayer semiconductor with density lower than 3 × 1011 per centimetre squared form a Wigner crystal. The combination of a high electron effective mass and reduced dielectric screening enables us to observe electronic charge order even in the absence of a moiré potential or an external magnetic field. The interactions between a resonantly injected exciton and electrons arranged in a periodic lattice modify the exciton bandstructure so that an umklapp resonance arises in the optical reflection spectrum, heralding the presence of charge order13. Our findings demonstrate that charge-tunable transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers14 enable the investigation of previously uncharted territory for many-body physics where interaction energy dominates over kinetic energy.

Phys Rev Lett ; 126(1): 016801, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480769


The intrinsic Hall effect allows for the generation of a nondissipative charge neutral current, such as a pure spin current generated via the spin Hall effect. Breaking of the spatial inversion or time reversal symmetries, or the spin-orbit interaction is generally considered necessary for the generation of such a charge neutral current. Here, we challenge this general concept and present generation and detection of a charge neutral current in a centrosymmetric material with little spin-orbit interaction. We employ bilayer graphene, and find enhanced nonlocal transport in the quantum Hall antiferromagnetic state, where spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs due to the electronic correlation.

Nature ; 580(7804): 472-477, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322064


Two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures constitute a promising platform to study correlated electronic states, as well as the many-body physics of excitons. Transport measurements on twisted graphene bilayers have revealed a plethora of intertwined electronic phases, including Mott insulators, strange metals and superconductors1-5. However, signatures of such strong electronic correlations in optical spectroscopy have hitherto remained unexplored. Here we present experiments showing how excitons that are dynamically screened by itinerant electrons to form exciton-polarons6,7 can be used as a spectroscopic tool to investigate interaction-induced incompressible states of electrons. We study a molybdenum diselenide/hexagonal boron nitride/molybdenum diselenide heterostructure that exhibits a long-period moiré superlattice, as evidenced by coherent hole-tunnelling-mediated avoided crossings of an intralayer exciton with three interlayer exciton resonances separated by about five millielectronvolts. For electron densities corresponding to half-filling of the lowest moiré subband, we observe strong layer pseudospin paramagnetism, demonstrated by an abrupt transfer of all the (roughly 1,500) electrons from one molybdenum diselenide layer to the other on application of a small perpendicular electric field. Remarkably, the electronic state at half-filling of each molybdenum diselenide layer is resilient towards charge redistribution by the applied electric field, demonstrating an incompressible Mott-like state of electrons. Our experiments demonstrate that optical spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for investigating strongly correlated electron physics in the bulk and paves the way for investigating Bose-Fermi mixtures of degenerate electrons and dipolar excitons.