Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 223
Filtrar
1.
Ocul Surf ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845221

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether and how unhealthy sleep habits (i.e., the frequency of difficulty falling or staying asleep, and the frequency of waking up tired) and the duration of sleep are related to the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) in a general population. METHODS: This study included a total of 106,282 subjects aged 40-74 years who participated in a baseline survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. DED was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed DED or severe symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships of various components of sleep status with DED. RESULTS: Higher frequencies of having difficulty falling or staying asleep, and waking up tired were significantly related to increased DED in both sexes (Ptrend<0.001). Compared with those with 8 h/day of sleep, shorter sleepers had an increased prevalence of DED in both sexes, although DED was increased among men who slept ≥10 h/day. By comparing participants with the greatest vs. the least difficulty of falling asleep, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.99-2.49) for men and 1.91 (95% CI, 1.76-2.07) for women. When analyzed separately, the magnitude of each relationship was stronger with severe DED symptoms than with clinically diagnosed DED. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality were significantly related to DED in a Japanese population.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5599, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692383

RESUMO

Little is known about the risk of cerebrovascular disease in cancer survivors. We aimed to assess the association between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of stroke using a large-scale, population-based prospective study. 74,530 Japanese aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline study were matched by the status of cancer diagnosis during follow-up using propensity score nearest-neighbor matching with allowance for replacement. A total of 2242 strokes were reported during 557,885 person-years of follow-up. Associations between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on the propensity score-matched pairs. No significant association was observed between the status of cancer diagnosis of all types, gastric, colorectal and lung cancer, and subsequent occurrence of all strokes, cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage. However, analysis by discrete time periods suggested an elevated risk in cancer patients for one to three months after a cancer diagnosis in all stroke (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06, 4.74) and cerebral infarction (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.05, 6.53). This prospective cohort study found no association between the status of cancer diagnosis and the subsequent occurrence of all strokes and its subtypes during the entire follow-up period but suggested an increase in stroke risk during the active phase of malignancy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771848

RESUMO

Background Risk prediction models offer a promising approach to lifestyle modification. We evaluated the effect of personalized advice based on cancer risk prediction in improving five lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity, and body mass index) compared to standard advice without risk prediction among a Japanese general population with at least one unhealthy lifestyle habit. Methods In a parallel-design, single-blind, randomized controlled trial between February 2018 and July 2019, 5984 participants aged 40-64 years with unhealthy lifestyle habits were recruited from persons covered under a life insurance policy. They were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group and received personalized or standard advice, respectively. They were also sent an invitation to participate in a lifestyle modification program aimed at improving lifestyle. Primary outcome was an improvement in lifestyle, defined as an increase in healthy lifestyle habits within 6 months. Results The proportion of participants who improved their lifestyle within 6 months in the intervention group did not significantly differ from that in the control group (18.4% vs 17.7%; p=0.488). Among participants with low health literacy and two or fewer of five healthy habits, the proportion of participants subscribing to the lifestyle modification program was higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Conclusions Compared to standardized advice, personalized advice based on cancer risk prediction had no effect on improving lifestyle. Impact Provision of predicted cancer risk information did not induce change in unhealthy lifestyle.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660381

RESUMO

Antihypertensive drugs have been reported as both promotors and suppressors of cancers and this relationship has been known for several decades. We examined a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan to assess the relationship between long-term antihypertensive drug use, for 10 y, and carcinogenesis. We divided participants into 4 categories according to the period of antihypertensive drug use, and calculated the hazard ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and P trends using the Cox proportional hazard model. In all cancers, there was a significant difference in the medication period and the adjusted HR, as well as a significant difference in the P trend. Furthermore, more than 10 y use of antihypertensive drugs significantly increased the adjusted HR in colorectal cancer (multivariable HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.37 in the >10 y use group; P for trend = .033) and renal cancer (multivariable HR: 3.76, 95% CI: 2.32-6.10 in the 5-10 y use group; multivariable HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.29-3.56 in the >10 y use group; P for trend < .001). The highest adjusted HR in renal cancer among antihypertensive drug users was observed in the analysis performed on patients in which the outcomes were calculated from 3 y after the 10-y follow-up survey and by sex. A large-scale cohort study in Japan suggested that long-term use of antihypertensive drugs may be associated with an increased incidence of colorectal and renal cancer.

5.
Cancer Med ; 10(6): 2153-2163, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

6.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared working cancer survivors' self-rated health status (SRHS), physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and happiness to those of cancer-free workers. METHODS: A nationwide general population-based cross-sectional study on a sample of Japanese was conducted. Prevalence of deteriorated SRHS, restricted physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, and perceived happiness were compared between working cancer survivors and cancer-free workers with multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sociodemographic and health-related backgrounds. RESULTS: Of the 28,311 male and 26,068 female workers, 977 (3.5%) and 1267 (4.9%) were cancer survivors, respectively. Working cancer survivors reported deteriorated SRHS more frequently than cancer-free workers: 21.3% vs. 13.8%, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.64 (1.39-1.95) for men, 23.8% vs. 17.5%, 1.34 (1.16-1.54) for women. Restricted physical functional capacity was reported more frequently in working cancer survivors than cancer-free workers: 6.8% vs. 2.6%, 1.76 (1.34-2.32) for men, 4.9% vs. 2.0%, 2.06 (1.56-2.71) for women. No significant difference was found for depressive symptoms: 21.6% vs. 22.9% in men, 30.0% vs. 28.5% in women. Working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free survivors in men (77.3% vs. 71.7%, 1.21 (1.01-1.45)) but not in women (76.1% vs. 74.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Working cancer survivors had worse SRHS and more restricted physical functional capacity than cancer-free workers. In men, working cancer survivors felt happiness more frequently than cancer-free workers. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Continuous support to improve cancer survivors' SRHS and physical functional capacity would be necessary even while they are working.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2736-2747, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497475

RESUMO

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2664-2673, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348433

RESUMO

Evidence of the association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk from prospective studies is limited. We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and GC risk in a large prospective study. A total of 91 946 eligible Japanese aged 45 to 74 years (42 773 men and 49 173 women) participated in a population-based cohort study (Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study). From a validated food frequency questionnaire with 138 food items, total and food source-specific dietary fiber intake was calculated as exposure. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of GC incidence according to quintile of dietary fiber intake were examined after adjusting for confounding factors. In total, 2228 GC cases (1559 men and 669 women) were observed during the 15.0 years follow-up. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk; however, a marginally increased risk trend because of high HR in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was found in women (HR [95% CI] in Q5 vs Q1: 0.95 [0.79-1.14], P for trend .30 in men, HR [95% CI] 1.25 [0.98-1.61], P for trend .05 in women). Stratification by tumor location did not change the results. A marginal but not significant inverse trend was observed regarding cereal fiber intake and GC risk in men. Total dietary fiber intake was not associated with GC risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm this association.

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(2): 757-771, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preclinical studies suggest that fermented soy foods may have a protective effect against breast cancer, no prospective cohort studies have examined this association. OBJECTIVE: Our study examined the association between fermented and nonfermented soy food intake and breast cancer risk using a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. METHODS: We included a total of 47,614 women aged 45-74 years in an analysis of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for the assessment of dietary intake. Breast cancer incidence was analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: During an average of 15.5 years of follow-up, 825 breast cancer cases were newly identified. We found no association of intake of soy foods with breast cancer risk, regardless of fermentation, with multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest quartiles of fermented and nonfermented soy food intake of 0.94 (0.67, 1.32) and 1.15 (0.85, 1.57) compared with the lowest quartile (p for trend = 0.305 and 0.393). Unlike nonfermented soy, higher intake of fermented soy foods was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of nonlocalized breast cancer. The HR and 95% CI in the highest compared to lowest intake category of fermented soy foods was 0.53 (0.28, 0.99) versus nonfermented soy foods 0.85 (0.51, 1.42) (p for trend = 0.026 and 0.797). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses showed that fermented soy foods had no association with overall breast cancer but may be associated with decreased risk of nonlocalized breast cancer.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the association between meat intake and mortality due to all-cause and major causes of death using a population-based cohort study in Japan. METHODS: 87,507 Japanese aged between 45 and 74 years old at 5-year follow-up study were followed for 14.0 years on average. Associations between meat intake and mortality risk were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A heavy intake of total meat was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality relative to the lowest quartile intake in men (Q4: HR,1.18; 95%CIs, 1.06-1.31). A higher intake of total meat was associated with a lower risk of stroke mortality in women (Q2: HR, 0.70; 95%CIs, 0.51-0.94, Q3: HR, 0.68; 95%CIs, 0.50-0.95, Q4: HR, 0.66; 95%CIs, 0.44-0.99). A heavy intake of red meat was also associated with all-cause mortality (Q4: HR, 1.13; 95%CIs, 1.02-1.26) and heart disease mortality (Q4: HR, 1.51; 95%CIs, 1.11-2.06) in men but not in women. Heavy intake of chicken was inversely associated with cancer mortality in men. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy intakes of total and red meat were associated with an increase in all-cause and heart disease mortality in men, while total meat intake was associated with a lower risk of stroke mortality in women.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many epidemiological studies have reported the preventive effects of soy products and isoflavones on prostate cancer, our previous studies reported that the association between soy and isoflavones and prostate cancer incidence differed according to stage. It is more important to identify modifiable risk factors related to lethal prostate cancer. Here, we investigated the association between soy, soy products and isoflavones intake and prostate cancer mortality, in a prospective study in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study in 43 580 Japanese men with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease (aged 45-74 years). Participants completed a validated questionnaire which included 138 food items. We followed participants from 1995 to 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prostate cancer mortality were calculated according to quintiles of soy products and isoflavones intake, using Cox hazard proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During 16.9 years follow-up, we registered 221 deaths from prostate cancer. Isoflavones and soy products intake was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death, with multivariate HRQ5 vs. Q1=1.39, 95% CI = 0.87-2.20, p for trend = 0.04 for isoflavones and multivariate HRQ5 vs. Q1=1.76, 95% CI = 1.10-2.82, p for trend = 0.04 for soy food. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that high intake of soy and isoflavones might increase the risk of prostate cancer mortality.

12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association of fermented soy products, separately from total soy products, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total cancer has not been reported. We examined this association in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 79,648 participants (42,788 women; 36,860 men) aged 45-74 years without a history of cancer, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (1995-1998) and were followed to 2009-2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incidence of CVD and total cancer according to quartiles of total soy products, nonfermented soy products, fermented soy products, miso soup, natto, total isoflavones from soy products, isoflavones from nonfermented soy products, and isoflavones from fermented soy products. RESULTS: In women, we observed a significant inverse association between fermented soy product intake and the risk of CVD (multivariate HR in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of fermented soy product intake: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.95; P for trend = 0.010), and also found significant inverse associations for natto and isoflavones among fermented soy products. In site-specific analysis, we observed a similar, significant inverse association between fermented soy product intake and the risk of stroke in women. We found no significant association between any soy product and risk of CVD in men or total cancer in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of fermented soy products such as natto was inversely associated with the risk of CVD in women.

13.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863295

RESUMO

AIM: The fact that low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease is well known, but high-density lipoprotein metabolism has not been fully understood. Apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) is the second-most dominant apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein. We tested the hypothesis that ApoA2 isoforms are inversely associated with myocardial infarction. METHODS: We measured the plasma levels of three ApoA2 isoforms (ApoA2-ATQ/ATQ, ApoA2-ATQ/AT, ApoA2-AT/AT) in nested case-control study samples of 1:2 from the Japan Public Health-Center-based Study (JPHC Study): 106 myocardial infarction incidence cases and 212 controls. RESULTS: ApoA2-AT/AT was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, in a matched model (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.26-6.09 for lowest compared with the highest quartile), but its association was attenuated after adjustment for smoking only (OR=2.13; 95% CI, 0.91-4.97) or drinking only (OR=2.07; 0.91-4.74), and the multivariable OR was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.41-3.57). Neither ApoA2-ATQ/ATQ nor ApoA2-ATQ/AT was associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Our nested case-control study did not show a significant association of ApoA2 isoforms with a risk of myocardial infarction.

14.
Ann Epidemiol ; 51: 1-6, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822852

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although height and body mass index (BMI) are reported to be positively associated with several common cancers, evidence regarding their association with brain tumor risk remains sparse, particularly in Asian populations. In this study, we analyzed the association between height and BMI and brain tumor risk in a Japanese population using a large population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 102,925 participants (48,213 men and 54,712 women) enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were followed from baseline, namely 1990 for cohort I and 1993 for cohort II, until 2012. Information on participants' dietary and lifestyle habits, including height and body weight, was collected through survey questionnaires administered at baseline. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for brain tumor incidence, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 157 (70 men and 87 women) cases of brain tumor were newly diagnosed. BMI showed a statistically insignificant positive association with the risk of brain tumor. In addition, statistically significant positive trends were seen for men and meningioma, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for a BMI of 27.5 to less than 40 versus 18.5 to less than 23 kg per m2 of 2.14 (95% CI = 0.99-4.59) (P = 0.03) and 1.98 (95% CI = 0.84-4.67) (P = 0.046), respectively. In contrast, height showed no clear association with brain tumor risk, overall or in subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a BMI of 18 to less than 23.5 kg per m2, a higher BMI was associated with higher risk of brain tumor, particularly in men and with meningioma.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(6-7): 346-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741221

RESUMO

This study evaluated the validity of self-reported periodontitis measures among 2404 Japanese adults aged 40 to 75 years. A self-administered questionnaire survey and a clinical periodontal examination were conducted from 2013 through 2016. The self-reported periodontitis questions included 3 sociodemographic, 3 health, and 5 periodontal health-related items. Based on the clinical case definition of periodontitis, 26.5% of participants were found to be periodontally healthy, 2.7% had mild periodontitis, 55.2% moderate periodontitis, and 15.6% severe periodontitis. No single self-reported question demonstrated satisfactory validity in predicting the presence or absence of periodontitis. The predictive ability in mild and/or moderate periodontitis was poor even after combining multiple sociodemographic, health, and periodontal health-related questions. In severe periodontitis, the model including age, sex, education level, smoking status, diabetes history, body mass index, informed by a dentist, gingival bleeding, calculus deposit, and tooth mobility, presented moderate predictive performance (C-statistic: 0.676, sensitivity: 65.2%, and specificity: 61.1%). An age-stratified analysis on severe periodontitis showed that sensitivity was higher, and specificity was lower in older age group (60-75 years) than younger age group (40-59 years). Further refinement of questions in the self-report is required to increase the accuracy of the prediction of clinical periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of fermented and unfermented soy intake, based on the following soy-derived products: tofu, soymilk, natto, and miso, on the risk of liver cancer among Japanese adults. METHODS: 75,089 Participants of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) were followed from the time of the 5-year follow-up questionnaire until the end of 2012-2013. Subjects with available data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status from blood samples (n = 14,016) and those who were anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV) or hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) positive (n = 1033) were also analyzed separately. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During 1,145,453 person-years, 534 newly diagnosed cases of liver cancer were identified in the JPHC Study. For miso intake among men, the multivariate-adjusted highest versus lowest quartile HR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89); p for trend = 0.006. Results were similar in those who were anti-HCV or HBsAg positive, 0.24 (0.08-0.70); p for trend = 0.004 highest versus lowest tertile. For the sub-analysis among only participants with known hepatitis infection status and HCV and HBsAg adjustment, a similar association was observed. In the multivariate complete cohort analysis, among women, the highest intake of fried tofu was inversely associated with the risk of liver cancer, HR = 0.45 (0.26-0.80); p for trend = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between total soy intake, fermented and unfermented, and risk of liver cancer, and only an inverse association between miso intake and liver cancer among men.

19.
J Nutr ; 150(9): 2442-2450, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soy is commonly consumed in east Asian countries and is suggested to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconsistent, despite the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties of soy isoflavones and soy protein. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between soy isoflavones and soy protein and CRC risk using 4 prospective cohort studies from China and Japan. METHODS: Data were pooled from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Cohort 1 (JPHC1), and Cohort 2 (JPHC2). Cox proportional hazards models estimated HRs and corresponding 95% CIs for the association of soy protein and isoflavone intake with CRC risk. The study included 205,060 individuals, among whom 2971 were diagnosed with incident CRC over an average follow-up of 12.7 y. RESULTS: No statistically significant associations with CRC risk were observed for soy protein or isoflavone intake. No association was observed among ever smokers consuming higher isoflavones (HRisoflavones: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.00) and soy protein (HRsoy protein: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.10). However, risk reductions were observed among premenopausal women with a body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)] <23.0 at baseline for higher isoflavone (HRisoflavones: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence for an overall reduction in CRC risk by increasing soy food intake (i.e., protein or isoflavones) was observed. However, the association between soy and CRC risk may vary by BMI, smoking, and menopausal status among women. Future investigations are needed to further understand the biologic mechanisms observed.

20.
Cancer Sci ; 111(10): 3835-3844, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662535

RESUMO

The well-known gene-environment interaction between alcohol consumption and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotype in upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk may improve our ability to identify high-risk subjects. Here, we developed and validated risk prediction models for this cancer in Japanese men and evaluated whether adding the gene-environment interaction to the model improved the predictive performance. We developed two case-cohort datasets in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study: one from subjects in the baseline survey for model development (108 cases and 4049 subcohort subjects) and the second from subjects in the 5-year follow-up survey for model validation (31 cases and 1527 subcohort subjects). We developed an environmental model including age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, and a gene-environment interaction model including age, smoking status, and the combination of alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 genotype. We found a statistically significant gene-environment interaction for alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 genotype. The c-index for the gene-environment interaction model (0.71) was slightly higher than that for the environmental model (0.67). The values of integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement for the gene-environment interaction model were also slightly higher than those for the environmental model. Goodness-of-fit tests suggested that the models were well calibrated. Results from external model validation by the 5-year follow-up survey were consistent with those from the model development by the baseline survey. The addition of a gene-environment interaction to a lifestyle-based model might improve the performance to estimate the probability of developing upper aerodigestive tract cancer for Japanese men.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...