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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the poor prognosis and increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer highlight the need for prevention strategies, few lifestyle risk factors for pancreatic cancer have yet been identified. Soybeans contain various bioactive compounds. However, the association between soy food intake and pancreatic cancer risk remains unknown. METHODS: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) is a cohort study conducted in a general Japanese population. To determine the association of soy food intake and pancreatic cancer incidence, we analyzed 90,185 participants who responded to a questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, including dietary factors based on a food-frequency questionnaire in 1995-1998, using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 577 cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. In the multivariate-adjusted model, total soy food intake was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for the highest versus lowest intake quartile: 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.92; P-trend = 0.007). Among soy foods, non-fermented soy food intake showed a statistically significant positive association with pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09-1.81; P-trend = 0.008), whereas fermented soy food intake showed no association (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.73-1.26; P-trend = 0.982). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of soy foods, particularly non-fermented soy foods, might increase pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: This study is the first to report an association between the intake of various soy foods and pancreatic cancer risk. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.

2.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 17, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to concerns of carcinogenicity, it is necessary to assess long-term acrylamide exposure in individuals. Whether the available methods of estimating acrylamide intake can indicate long-term exposure remains unknown. We examined variations in the estimated dietary acrylamide intake of the Japanese population. METHODS: The study included 240 participants aged 40-74 years who were a part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT). Twelve-day dietary records (DRs) were collected over a one-year period, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were collected twice during the year. Dietary acrylamide intake was estimated from an acrylamide content database. Within-individual variations and between-individual variations were calculated using the random effects model. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify foods with large between-individual variations. RESULTS: The ratios of within-individual variance to between-individual variation were 3.2 for men and 4.3 for women. Days of DRs required to estimate the usual individual intake within 20% of the true mean intake with 95% confidence were 60 days for men and 66 days for women. Coffee/cocoa, potato, and green tea contributed to between-individual variations, in that order, and seven foods contributed to 93% of the between-individual variation. CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the acrylamide intake using DRs requires an extended data collection period to estimate the intragroup ranking and habitual intake of individuals. Long-term exposure assessments should be based on methods with less potential for measurement errors, such as the use of biomarkers.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053666

RESUMO

Although their functional outcomes remain largely unknown, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) may interact with adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, to modify the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 375 colorectal cancer cases and 750 matched controls to examine the effects of SNPs in the FTO, either alone or in interaction with pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels. Using a conditional logistic regression model, we obtained odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer. Seven SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated a similarly positive association with colorectal cancer, and most evidently for rs1558902, rs8050136, rs3751812, and rs9939609 (Ptrend = 0.02). Of interest, we observed a statistically significant interaction of rs8050136 with plasma total adiponectin levels (Pinteraction = 0.03). Compared to non-carriers in the lowest quintile of plasma total adiponectin, A allele carriers in the same quintile showed a considerably elevated risk of colorectal cancer, with a body mass index-adjusted OR of 2.54 (95% CI, 1.36-4.75). This investigation of the interaction between SNPs in the FTO and pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels has revealed the importance of both genetic and hormonal factors associated with adiposity in colorectal carcinogenesis.

4.
Prev Med ; 133: 106026, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057954

RESUMO

Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for cancer. The degree of risk is increased in subjects showing the flushing response, which is due to aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism. The attributable risk of alcohol drinking for cancer in Japan has not been sufficiently investigated with consideration of flushing response. We followed 78,825 Japanese in JPHC study cohort II. The association between alcohol consumption and cancer incidence was assessed according to self-reported flushing response using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer incidence was also estimated. During 1993-2013 (average follow-up, 16.8 years), 8486 incident cancers (included 4386 alcohol-related cancers) were reported. Half of men and 36% of women had flushing response. In men with flushing response, moderate or higher alcohol drinking increased the risk of alcohol-related cancers compared with non-drinkers (150-299 g/week, HR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.43-1.99; 300-449 g/week, HR 2.02 95% CI, 1.67-2.44; ≥450 g/week, HR 1.75, 95% CI, 1.39-2.21). When flushing response was considered in comparisons between non-drinkers and non-flushers, non-flushing heavy drinkers had a slightly higher PAF than flushers (all cancers: flushers, 2.0% and non-flushers, 2.2%; alcohol-related cancers: flushers, 3.8% and non-flushers, 5.8%). Although the risk of alcohol-related cancer in men with flushing response increased with increasing alcohol consumption, heavy drinkers were also at high risk regardless of flushing response. Considering the PAF of alcohol consumption on cancer, efforts to discourage heavy alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of alcohol-related cancers appear warranted regardless of flushing response.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009104

RESUMO

BackgroundShort and long sleep durations are associated with mortality outcomes. The association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes may differ according to sex and age.MethodsParticipants of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC Study) were aged 40-69 years and had completed a detailed questionnaire on lifestyle factors. Sex- and age-stratified analyses on the association between habitual sleep duration and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer and other causes included 46,152 men and 53,708 women without a history of CVD or cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to determine hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.ResultsMean follow-up time was 19.9 years for men and 21.0 years for women. In the multivariable sex-stratified models, and compared with 7 hours, some categories of sleep durations ≥ 8 hours were positively associated with mortality from all-causes, CVD, and other causes in men and women.The sex- and age-stratified analyses did not reveal any major differences in the association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes in groups younger and older than 50 years of age. The only exception was the significant interaction between sleep duration and age in women for mortality from other causes.ConclusionsSleep durations ≥8 hours are associated with mortality outcomes in men and women. Age may be an effect modifier for the association between sleep duration and mortality from other causes in women.

6.
Cancer Sci ; 111(3): 974-984, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925977

RESUMO

Although occupational sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality, the association with cancer incidence remains unknown. This study investigated the association between occupational sitting time and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a Japanese population. We evaluated 33 307 participants aged 50-79 years who responded to a questionnaire in 2000-2003 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and were followed until 2013. Participants were grouped by sitting time at work. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer incidence were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. During 10.2 years of follow-up, 3807 newly diagnosed cases of cancer were identified. Occupational sitting time was marginally associated with total cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26; P for trend = .071) in men, but not women. Among findings for cancers at specific sites, long occupational sitting time was associated with increased risk of pancreas cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.17-4.34; P for trend = .021) in men, and lung cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.80 (95% CI, 1.33-5.90; P for trend = .013) in women. Extended sitting time at work was associated with an increased risk of pancreas cancer in men and lung cancer in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Postura Sentada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e032871, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A major concern is that few cancer survivors meet the guidelines for recommended levels of physical activity. No studies have investigated physical activity among breast cancer survivors nationwide in Japan. Therefore, the aims of this study are to identify the levels of physical activity among breast cancer survivors, to examine factors-related physical activity among breast cancer survivors and to identify breast cancer survivors' preferences for and interest in exercise programmes in order to inform the future programme development. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will administer a cross-sectional survey using a self-report questionnaire to breast cancer survivors. At each of 50 facilities selected to include a variety of institutional backgrounds according to the population distribution of different regions throughout Japan, we will consecutively distribute the questionnaire to 30 outpatients who have completed initial treatments, except for hormone therapy. The target sample size is 1500 survivors. We will calculate descriptive statistics for each measurement item and perform univariate and multivariate analyses using outcome measures (eg, physical activity and quality of life) related to physical, psychological, social and environmental factors. DISCUSSION: This is the first nationwide survey of physical activity levels among breast cancer survivors in Japan. Identifying the factors associated with physical activity will help us to develop, disseminate and implement programmes that encourage more survivors to adhere to physical activity guidelines. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the National Cancer Center on 11 January 2019 (ID: 2018-295). In addition, many of the participating facilities required ethical approval from their local IRBs, while others did not. Accordingly, approval from the local IRBs of individual facilities was obtained when required. The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of meat and fish consumption on cancer risk has been well studied in humans. However, studies related to biliary tract cancer (BTC) are scarce. METHODS: We examined the association between meat and fish consumption and the risk of BTC in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During 1995 and 1999, 43,177 men and 49,323 women ages 45 to 74 years were enrolled and followed up for 607,757.0 person-years (men) and 728,820.3 person-years (women) until 2012, during which time 217 male and 162 female BTC cases were identified. Higher total meat consumption was significantly associated with a decreased BTC risk in men (HR for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; P trend = 0.011) but not in women. Similar association was observed with red meat, but no association was observed with poultry. Fish was not associated with BTC risk. We further analyzed each BTC subtype to confirm the observed association with BTC. However, significant association with each BTC subtype was not observed, although a trend of decreased extrahepatic bile duct cancer risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: BTC risk was lower among men who consumed more meat, particularly red meat, in Japan. IMPACT: This is the first prospective study that evaluated the relationship between meat and BTC. This may provide important suggestions to elucidate the etiology of BTC.

9.
Ocul Surf ; 18(1): 56-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of life-style modalities, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and visual display terminal (VDT) use, on the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: The study included a total of 102,582 participants aged 40-74 years, from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, a large nationwide prospective ongoing Japanese cohort study. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of total and leisure-time physical activity, duration of sedentary behaviors, and VDT use (hours/day) with DED. RESULTS: Among 47,346 men and 55,236 women, 25,234 (8315 males and 16,919 females) cases of DED were documented. Total physical activity was significantly related to decreased DED in both sexes; for the highest vs. lowest total physical activity quartiles, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for DED were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.97; Ptrend<0.03) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95; Ptrend<0.001) for men and women, respectively. Conversely, prolonged sedentary behaviors and VDT use had significantly higher prevalence of DED in both sexes (Ptrend<0.001). Notably, the favorable effect of total physical activity on decreased DED in women was more prevalent with prolonged VDT use (≥2 h/day) (Pinteraction<0.01). In men, the duration of VDT use or sitting was a significant modifier of the inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and DED (Pinteraction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Physical inactivity, prolonged sedentary behaviors, and use of VDT were related to increased susceptibility to DED among middle-aged to older Japanese adults.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 420-426, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serologic testing of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody, together with testing of pepsinogen I and II, is now widely used to stratify groups at high risk of gastric cancer in Japan. Those with a negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer, especially "high-negative" (3-<10 U/mL), are speculated to have higher risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to evaluate the association between a high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer and the long-term risk of gastric cancer in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) Cohort II. METHODS: The study population consisted of 19,106 Japanese men and women who were followed from 1993 to 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of gastric cancer for plasma anti-H. pylori IgG titers, together with the severity of atrophic gastritis by pepsinogen I and II levels. A total of 595 cases of gastric cancer occurred during an average of 18 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with those with a low-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer (≤3 U/mL), subjects with a high-negative titer (3-<10 U/mL) showed a significantly elevated risk of gastric cancer [HR = 2.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-4.89]. Among those with a high-negative titer, risk increase was observed under moderate or severe atrophic gastritis (HR = 18.73; 95% CI = 8.83-39.70). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that those with a high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer and moderate and severe atrophic gastritis are at increased long-term risk of gastric cancer. IMPACT: Development of moderate or severe atrophic gastritis in subjects with high-negative anti-H. pylori IgG titer is suggested to increase risk of gastric cancer.

11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(1): 54-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating a variety of foods has been recommended in the dietary guidelines of many developed nations, as well as global dietary guidelines. We investigated the potential effect of dietary diversity on the risk of total mortality and major causes of mortality in a large-scale cohort study involving the Japanese population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From 1995 to 2012, 79,904 participants (37,240 men and 42,664 women) aged 45 to 74 years, without histories of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or cancer were followed-up for a median of 14.9 years. We used 133 food and beverage items listed on a 5-year follow-up food frequency questionnaire, and the daily frequency of consumption for each item (excluding five alcoholic beverages) was counted. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compare the highest and lowest quintiles. RESULTS: An inverse association was identified between total dietary diversity and mortality rates in women (highest quintile HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92; p for trend = 0.002) but the same trend was not observed in men (highest quintile HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.10; p for trend = 0.266). In addition, fruit diversity was associated with lower mortality rates in men (highest quintile HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95; p for trend = 0.006), whereas soy diversity was associated with lower mortality rates in women (highest quintile HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.00; p for trend = 0.004). With regard to men, meat and fish diversity were associated with higher mortality rates (highest quintiles of meat and fish diversity HR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.25] and 1.12 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.22], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that consuming a greater diversity of total foods and increasing the diversity of fruit and soy consumed have considerable public health implications.

12.
J Epidemiol ; 30(1): 46-54, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle and life-environment factors have undergone drastic changes in Japan over the last few decades. Further, many molecular epidemiologic studies have reported that genetic, epigenetic, and other biomarker information may be useful in predicting individual disease risk. METHODS: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) was launched in 2011 to identify risk factors for lifestyle-related disease, elucidate factors that extend healthy life expectancy, and contribute toward personalized healthcare based on our more than 20 years' experience with the JPHC Study. From 2011 through 2016, a baseline survey was conducted at 16 municipalities in seven prefectures across the country. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all registered residents aged 40-74, which mainly asked about lifestyle factors, such as socio-demographic situation, personal medical history, smoking, alcohol and dietary habits. We obtained informed consent from each participant to participate in this long follow-up study of at least 20 years, including consent to the potential use of their residence registry, medical records, medical fee receipts, care insurance etc., and to the provision of biospecimens (blood and urine), including genomic analysis. RESULTS: As of December 31, 2016, we have established a population-based cohort of 115,385 persons (Response rate 44.1%), among whom 55,278 (47.9% of participants) have provided blood and urine samples. The participation rate was slightly higher among females and in the older age group. CONCLUSION: We have established a large-scale population-based cohort for next-generation epidemiological study in Japan.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 712-719, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927373

RESUMO

Earlier cohort studies using conventional regression models have consistently shown an increased cancer risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, reverse causality and residual confounding due to common risk factors could exist, and it remains unclear whether diabetes per se contributes to cancer development. Mendelian randomization analyses might clarify the true association between diabetes and cancer risk. We conducted a case-cohort study with 10,536 subcohort subjects and 3,541 newly diagnosed cancer cases derived from 32,949 eligible participants aged 40-69 years within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. With 29 known type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, we used an inverse variance-weighted method to estimate hazard ratios for the associations of diabetes with risks of total and site-specific cancers. The hazard ratios of cancer per doubling of the probability of diabetes were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.15) overall, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.73-1.59) for the pancreas, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.57-1.14) for the liver and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.74-1.10) for the colorectum. Additional analyses, using publicly available large-scale genome-wide association study data on colorectal cancer in Japan, resulted in a narrower CI (hazard ratio: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93-1.07). In this prospective Mendelian randomization study with a large number of incident cancer cases, we found no strong evidence to support associations between diabetes and overall and site-specific cancer risks. Our findings suggest that there is little evidence to support the genetic role of type 2 diabetes in cancer development in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(10): 972-984, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and green tea, two popular drinks in the Japanese, have recently drawn much attention as potential protective factors against the occurrence of liver cancer. METHODS: We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on coffee, green tea and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented with manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible', or 'insufficient'), together with biological plausibility. RESULTS: We identified four cohort and four case-control studies on coffee and liver cancer and six cohort and one case-control studies on green tea and liver cancer. All cohort and case-control studies on coffee reported a weak to strong inverse association, with a summary relative risk (RR) for one cup increase being 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.79). Conversely, all studies but two cohort studies on green tea reported no association, with a corresponding summary RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01, P = 0.37). CONCLUSION: Coffee drinking 'probably' decreases the risk of primary liver cancer among the Japanese population whereas the evidence on an association between green tea and liver cancer is 'insufficient' in this population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Café/química , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Chá/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop consensus-based components used in the first evidence-based cancer survivorship guidelines in Japan. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit a panel of experts in oncology clinical practice, nursing, health science, epidemiology, and patient advocacy. The panel engaged in a modified Delphi process to (1) generate consensus related to the definition of survivorship, (2) determine the aim and target users of the guideline, and (3) identify clinical issues for inclusion. A Web-based survey and panel meeting were conducted to obtain the panelists' feedback on the initial draft proposed by the secretariat. Multiple online votes were then completed until all elements of the proposed guidelines reached an approval rate of 80% or higher. Following each round, iterative refinements were made based on all panelists' feedback. RESULTS: Twenty-two experts were enrolled in the panel and participated in four rounds of online voting and two face-to-face meetings. Ultimately, the panel reached consensus on the definition of survivorship, the aim of the guidelines, and target users. Moreover, 11 of the original 17 clinical issues were retained. Finally, the panel selected two priority areas to implement immediately. CONCLUSION: The panel's consensus on the definition of survivorship, aim and target users of the guideline, and 11 clinical issues will serve as a compass for the development of comprehensive cancer survivorship guidelines in Japan. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: A culturally sensitive consensus approach was developed to improve the long term health and well- being of cancer survivors in Japan.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671219

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic subtype of esophageal cancer worldwide. Measurements of circulating inflammation-related biomarkers may inform etiology or provide noninvasive signatures for early diagnosis. We therefore examined levels of inflammation molecules for associations with ESCC risk. Using a case-cohort study designed within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, we measured baseline plasma levels of 92 biomarkers using a multiplex assay in a subcohort of 410 randomly selected participants and 66 participants with incident ESCC (including four cases that occurred in the subcohort). ESCC hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for 2-4 quantiles of each biomarker by Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric, adjusted for sex, smoking and alcohol use. Twenty analytes were undetectable in nearly all samples. Of the remaining 72, 12 biomarkers (FGF19, ST1A1, STAMBP, AXIN1, CASP8, NT3, CD6, CDCP1, CD5, SLAMF1, OPG and CSF1) were associated with increased ESCC risk (ptrend < 0.05) with HRs per quantile 1.28-1.65. Seven biomarkers (CXCL6, CCL23, CXCL5, TGFA, CXCL1, OSM and CCL4) were inversely associated with HRs 0.57-0.72. FGF19, CASP8, STAMBP, ST1A1 and CCL-4 met statistical significance with false discovery rate correction. Associations did not differ <5 vs. ≥5 years between blood collection and ESCC diagnosis. CASP8, STAMBP and ST1A1 were strongly correlated (p < 0.05). Our study expands the range of inflammation molecules associated with the development of this highly lethal neoplasia. Correlations among these novel biomarkers suggest a possible shared pathway. These findings need replication and could further delineate ESCCs molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032955, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the reasons for the high mortality rate from cancer in people with schizophrenia is delay in diagnosis. Many studies have shown lower cancer screening rates in people with schizophrenia; however, there are no interventions for people with schizophrenia to increase cancer screening. Therefore, we developed a case management (CM) intervention to encourage participation in cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of CM to encourage participation in cancer screening for people with schizophrenia, with particular focus on colorectal cancer screening by faecal occult blood testing, compared with usual intervention (UI), namely, municipal public education. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an individually randomised, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessments. The participants will be randomly allocated to either the CM plus UI group or UI alone group in a 1:1 ratio using a web-based program at a data management centre. The primary end point of the study is participation in colorectal cancer screening in the year of intervention, which will be assessed based on municipal records. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is performed in accordance with Ethical Guidelines for Medical and Health Research Involving Human Subjects published by Japan's Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology and the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare and the modified Act on the Protection of Personal Information as well as the Declaration of Helsinki. This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee at the Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Okayama University Hospital on 23 April 2019 (approval number: RIN1904-003). The findings of this trial will be submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000036017.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745972

RESUMO

The association between body mass index (BMI) and noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC) risk remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to examine the association of BMI with NCGC risk with consideration of Helicobacter pylori (HP) biomarkers. This international nested case-control study, composed of 1,591 incident NCGC cases and 1,953 matched controls, was established from eight cohorts in China, Japan and Korea, where the majority of NCGCs are diagnosed worldwide. HP antibody biomarkers were measured in blood collected at cohort enrollment by multiplex serology. The NCGC risk according to baseline BMI was estimated using logistic regression to produce odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found a U-shaped association between BMI category and NCGC risk. Compared to those with reference BMI (22.6-25.0 kg/m2 ), those with lower and higher BMI had an increased NCGC risk (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 , OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.04-2.34; BMI >27.5 kg/m2 , OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15-1.91; adjusted for age, sex and smoking). The U-shaped association was persistent among subjects with HP infection and high-risk biomarkers (HP+ CagA+: BMI <18.5 kg/m2 , OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00-2.55; BMI >27.5 kg/m2 , OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.21-2.11; and Omp+ HP0305+: BMI <18.5 kg/m2 , OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.04-3.42; BMI >27.5 kg/m2 , OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.20-2.42, respectively). Our study provides evidence of significantly increased NCGC risk among individuals with low or high BMI, including in subjects with high-risk HP biomarkers (HP+ CagA+, Omp+ HP0305+) in the high-risk area of East Asia.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101622, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body fatness and weight gain are considered probable causes of gastric cancer, specifically in the cardia region. However, limited evidence is available in Asia, where the burden of gastric cancer is high. The objective of this study was to determine an association between body-mass index (BMI) and gastric cancer risk using a large population prospective cohort. METHODS: 92,056 subjects enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study who reported their height and weight were followed up until the end of 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk for gastric cancer and its subsite based on baseline BMI. A subgroup analysis was conducted taking account of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and atrophic gastritis status. RESULTS: 2,860 gastric cancer cases (2,047 men, 813 women), 307 proximal gastric cancer cases (244 men, 63 women), and 1967 distal gastric cancer cases (1,405 men, 562 women) were found during the follow-up period. Among men, baseline BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 increased the risk of overall gastric cancer (hazards ratio (HR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.53). For both sexes, U-shaped increase in the risk was observed for proximal gastric cancer. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant association between the risk of proximal gastric cancer and BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 among those who were atrophic gastritis positive, H. pylori antibody positive, and those who tested positive to either or both atrophic gastritis and H. pylori antibody. CONCLUSION: Our result suggests that gastric cancer risk increases for men with BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14329, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586153

RESUMO

Although empirical data suggest a possible link between female reproductive events and risk of nonfatal accidents and suicidal behaviors, evidence to determine these effects on mortality is scarce. This study investigated the association between female reproductive factors and the risk of external causes of death among middle-aged Japanese women. We used a population-based cohort study consisting of 71 698 women residing in 11 public health center areas across Japan between 1990 and 1994. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of all external causes, suicide, and accidents according to female reproductive factors at the baseline survey. During 1 028 583 person-years of follow-up for 49 279 eligible subjects (average 20.9 years), we identified 328 deaths by all injuries. Among parous women, ever versus never breastfeeding [0.67 (95% CI: 0.49-0.92)] was associated with a decreased risk of all injuries. Risk of suicide was inversely associated with ever versus never parity [0.53 (95% CI: 0.32-0.88)]. A lower risk of death by accidents was seen in ever breastfeeding [0.63 (95% CI: 0.40-0.97)] compared to never breastfeeding. This study suggests that parity and breastfeeding are associated with reduced risk of death by all external causes, suicide and/or accidents among Japanese women.

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