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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635593

RESUMO

The family Reoviridae is a nonenveloped virus group with a double-stranded (ds) RNA genome comprising 9 to 12 segments. In the family Reoviridae, the genera Cardoreovirus, Phytoreovirus, Seadornavirus, Mycoreovirus, and Coltivirus contain virus species having 12-segmented dsRNA genomes. Reverse genetics systems used to generate recombinant infectious viruses are powerful tools for investigating viral gene function and for developing vaccines and therapeutic interventions. Generally, this methodology has been utilized for Reoviridae viruses such as Orthoreovirus, Orbivirus, Cypovirus, and Rotavirus, which have genomes with 10 or 11 segments, respectively. However, no reverse genetics system has been developed for Reoviridae viruses with a genome harboring 12 segments. Herein, we describe development of an entire plasmid-based reverse genetics system for Tarumizu tick virus (TarTV) (genus Coltivirus, family Reoviridae), which has a genome of 12 segments. Recombinant TarTVs were generated by transfection of 12 cloned complementary DNAs encoding the TarTV genome into baby hamster kidney cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. Using this technology, we generated VP12 mutant viruses and demonstrated that VP12 is an N-glycosylated protein. We also generated a reporter virus expressing the HiBiT-tagged VP8 protein. This reverse genetics system will increase our understanding of not only the biology of the genus Coltivirus but also the replication machinery of the family Reoviridae.

2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641404

RESUMO

Tomatoes are widely consumed, however, studies on tomato seeds are limited. In this study, we isolated 11 compounds including saponins and flavonol glycosides from tomato seeds and evaluated their effects on epidermal hydration. Among the isolated compounds, tomato seed saponins (10 µM) significantly increased the mRNA expression of proteins related to epidermal hydration, including filaggrin, involucrin, and enzymes for ceramide synthesis, by 1.32- to 1.91-fold compared with the control in HaCaT cells. Tomato seed saponins (10 µM) also decreased transepidermal water loss by 7 to 13 g/m2·h in the reconstructed human epidermal keratinization (RHEK) models. Quantitative analysis of the ceramide content in the stratum corneum (SC) revealed that lycoperoside H (1-10 µM) is a promising candidate to stimulate ceramide synthesis via the upregulation of ceramide synthase-3, glucosylceramide synthase, and ß-glucocerebrosidase, which led to an increase in the total SC ceramides (approximately 1.5-fold) in concert with ceramide (NP) (approximately 2-fold) in the RHEK models. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of lycoperoside H demonstrated that lycoperoside H is suggested to act as a partial agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects (10 mg/kg in animal test). These findings indicate that lycoperoside H can improve epidermal dehydration and suppress inflammation by increasing SC ceramide and steroidal anti-inflammatory activity.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17989, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504254

RESUMO

Prevascularized artificial three-dimensional (3D) tissues are effective biomaterials for regenerative medicine. We have previously established a scaffold-free 3D artificial vascular tissue from normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and umbilical vein-derived endothelial cells (HUVECs) by layer-by-layer cell coating technique. In this study, we constructed an artificial vascular tissue constructed by human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hASCs) and HUVECs (ASCVT) by a modified technique with cryopreservation. ASCVT showed a higher thickness with more dense vascular networks than the 3D tissue based on NHDFs. Correspondingly, 3D-cultured ASCs showed higher expression of several angiogenesis-related factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor-A and hepatic growth factor, compared to that of NHDFs. Moreover, perivascular cells in ASCVT were detected by pericyte markers, suggesting the differentiation of hASCs into pericyte-like cells. Subcutaneous transplantation of ASCVTs to nude mice resulted in an engraftment with anastomosis of host's vascular structures at 2 weeks after operation. In the engrafted tissue, the vascular network was surrounded by mural-like structure-forming hASCs, in which some parts developed to form vein-like structures at 4 weeks, suggesting the generation of functional vessel networks. These results demonstrated that cryopreserved human cells, including hASCs, could be used directly to construct the artificial transplantable tissue for regenerative medicine.

4.
Virus Genes ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432209

RESUMO

Bats serve as natural hosts of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV), an emerging group of bat-borne, zoonotic viruses. Bats appear to possess unique innate immune system responses that can inhibit viral replication, thus reducing clinical symptoms. We examined the innate immune response against PRV and assessed viral replication in cell lines derived from four bat species (Miniopterus fuliginosus, Pteropus dasymallus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and Rousettus leschenaultii), one rodent (Mesocricetous auratus), and human (Homo sapiens). The expression levels of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) (TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA5) and interferons (IFNB1 and IFNL1) were higher and PRV replication was lower in cell lines derived from M. fuliginosus, R. ferrumequinum, and R. leschenaultii. Reduction of IFNB1 expression by the knockdown of PRRs in the cell line derived from R. ferrumequinum was associated with increased PRV replication. The knockdown of RIG-I led to the most significant reduction in viral replication for all cell lines. These results suggest that RIG-I production is important for antiviral response against PRV in R. ferrumequinum.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5059, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429413

RESUMO

With the current interest in cultured meat, mammalian cell-based meat has mostly been unstructured. There is thus still a high demand for artificial steak-like meat. We demonstrate in vitro construction of engineered steak-like tissue assembled of three types of bovine cell fibers (muscle, fat, and vessel). Because actual meat is an aligned assembly of the fibers connected to the tendon for the actions of contraction and relaxation, tendon-gel integrated bioprinting was developed to construct tendon-like gels. In this study, a total of 72 fibers comprising 42 muscles, 28 adipose tissues, and 2 blood capillaries were constructed by tendon-gel integrated bioprinting and manually assembled to fabricate steak-like meat with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 10 mm inspired by a meat cut. The developed tendon-gel integrated bioprinting here could be a promising technology for the fabrication of the desired types of steak-like cultured meats.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Géis , Carne , Tendões , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colágeno , Células Endoteliais , Músculos/citologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Células-Tronco , Tendões/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual
6.
J Food Biochem ; 45(9): e13877, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296450

RESUMO

Tomato seeds contain steroidal saponins called lycoperosides. However, it currently remains unclear whether lycoperosides exert anti-inflammatory or anti-allergic effects. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of tomato seed extract (TSE) and lycoperoside H (LH) in Interleukin (IL)-33 transgenic mice. TSE (500 mg/kg) or LH (10 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 101 days and then evaluated mouse behavior, skin symptoms, and blood and skin inflammatory cytokines. TSE slightly suppressed scratching behavior, while TSE and LH both increased locomotive activity. LH also significantly suppressed inflammation scores in the limbs, and TSE and LH reduced transepidermal water loss. Epidermal hyperplasia and the accumulation of eosinophils and mast cells were decreased by TSE and LH. Skin Th2/Th1 cytokine ratio and serum IgE concentrations were significantly reduced by TSE and LH. The present results suggest that the oral administration of LH derived from tomato seeds effectively ameliorates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: It has been reported that tomato seeds contain steroidal saponins, lycoperosides, though the effects of lycoperosides on anti-inflammatory or anti-allergic have not yet been revealed. In this study, we demonstrated that the oral administration of lycoperoside H derived from tomato seeds suppressed atopic dermatitis symptoms in IL-33 transgenic mice.

7.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198717

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) infection in cats in Nagasaki, Japan. In total, 44 of 133 (33.1%) cats with suspected SFTS were confirmed to be infected with SFTSV. Phylogenetic analyses of SFTSV isolates from cats indicated that the main genotype in Nagasaki was J1 and that unique reassortant strains with J2 (S segment) and unclassified genotypes (M and L segments) were also present. There were no significant differences in virus growth in cell cultures or fatality in SFTSV-infected mice between the SFTSV strains that were isolated from recovered and fatal cat cases. Remarkably, SFTSV RNAs were detected in the swabs from cats, indicating that the body fluids contain SFTSV. To evaluate the risk of SFTSV infection when providing animal care, we further examined the seroprevalence of SFTSV infection in veterinarian staff members; 3 of 71 (4.2%) were seropositive for SFTSV-specific antibodies. Our results provide useful information on the possibility of using cats as sentinel animals and raised concerns of the zoonotic risk of catching SFTSV from animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/classificação , Phlebovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/virologia
8.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 15(9): 798-803, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028181

RESUMO

Tissue-engineered skin equivalents are reconstructed the functions of human skin and can be used as an alternative to animal experiments in basic study or as cultured skin for regenerative medicine. Recent studies confirmed that epidermal tight junctions (TJs), which are complex intercellular junctions formed in the stratum granulosum of human skin, play an important part in the formation of the skin barrier function. In well-formed reconstructed human skin models, there are several reports on the expression of TJ proteins and their localization in epidermal layer, however, the morphological features of TJ, showing tight junctional contacts and the process of TJ formation have yet to be investigated. In this study, we systematically examined and identified TJ-related proteins and TJ structure in three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalents reconstructed by layer-by-layer (LbL) cell coating technique (LbL-3D Skin). We demonstrate localization of TJ-related proteins and time course of formation of TJ structure with typical junctional morphology in LbL-3D Skin. These data provide evidence that the LbL-3D Skin is an in vitro model with structure and function extremely similar to living skin.

9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(7): 1068-1074, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994419

RESUMO

Here, we performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) on six large flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) collected in Indonesia. Seventy-five virus species in the liver tissue of each specimen were listed. Viral homologous sequences in the bat genome were identified from the listed viruses. This finding provides collateral evidence of viral endogenization into the host genome. We found that two of the six specimens bore partial sequences that were homologous to the plant pathogens Geminiviridae and Luteoviridae. These sequences were absent in the P. vampyrus chromosomal sequences. Hence, plant viral homologous sequences were localized to the hepatocytes as extrachromosomal DNA fragments. Therefore, this suggests that the bat is a potential carrier or vector of plant viruses. The present investigation on wild animals offered novel perspectives on viral invasion, variation, and host interaction.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Animais Selvagens , DNA Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Indonésia
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(5): 841-845, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828005

RESUMO

Twenty-three of 42 European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), belonging to the same rabbit colony, died in March 2020 (55% mortality) in Chiba prefecture, Japan. The disease course was extremely acute without indicators of death or hemorrhage. Necropsy revealed liver swelling, discoloration, cloudiness and fragility, and pulmonary edema. Histologically, severe hepatocellular necrosis (mainly peripheral) and intra-glomerular capillary hyalin thrombi were observed. On molecular-biological examination, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of RNA from tissues detected a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, confirmed as a RHDV-2 VP60 fragment, which shared 99.42% nucleotide identity with the homologous fragment of RHDV-2 German isolate by nucleotide sequence analysis. This report shows the outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease caused by RHDV-2, an emerging infectious disease, in Japan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Epidemias , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Epidemias/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Coelhos
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1068-1076, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754983

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tickborne infectious disease caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV). We report 7 cases of spontaneous fatal SFTS in felines. Necropsies revealed characteristic lesions, including necrotizing lymphadenitis in 5 cases and necrotizing splenitis and SFTSV-positive blastic lymphocytes in all cases. We detected hemorrhagic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract in 6 cases and lungs in 3 cases, suggesting a more severe clinical course of SFTS in felids than in humans. We noted necrotic or ulcerative foci in the gastrointestinal tract in 3 cases, the lung in 2 cases, and the liver in 4 cases. We clarified that blastic lymphocytes are predominant targets of SFTSV and involved in induction of necrotic foci. We also found that thymic epithelial cells were additional targets of SFTSV. These results provide insights for diagnosing feline SFTS during pathological examination and demonstrate the similarity of feline and human SFTS cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Autopsia , Gatos , Humanos , Japão
12.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101695, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677233

RESUMO

Wild animals often act as reservoirs of tick-borne Babesia and Theileria spp., which cause piroplasmosis. Therefore, epidemiological investigations about the distribution of these parasites in wild animals are important for evaluating the transmission risk to humans and livestock. In this study, we surveyed Babesia and Theileria spp. infecting wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Kagoshima and Yamaguchi prefectures and Tsushima island, which are all in western Japan, and performed molecular genetic analyses on the samples. DNA was extracted from either blood or liver samples of wild boar captured in Kagoshima prefecture in 2015, 2016, and 2018 and from blood samples from wild boar captured in Yamaguchi prefecture in 2013-2015 and Tsushima island in 2018. PCR screening for the partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) of both Babesia and Theileria spp. in wild boar revealed that 63.9 % (140 of 219 samples) were positive. Sequencing of all positive samples revealed that they were all the same Babesia species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the parasite is closely related to Babesia sp. previously detected in the hard tick, Amblyomma testudinarium in Kagoshima, and further analyses suggested that this species is genetically related to Babesia gibsoni. On the other hand, no Theileria were detected in any of the samples. In summary, we observed a high prevalence of B. gibsoni-like Babesia sp. in wild boar in western regions of Japan. The host range, distribution, pathogenicity, and life cycle of this protozoan should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Citocromos b/análise , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684145

RESUMO

ß-Sitosterol 3-O-d-glucoside (BSG) is known to act as an agonist by binding to estrogen receptors, and estrogen has been reported to enhance the activity of ß-glucocerebrosidase, an epidermal ceramide metabolizing enzyme. In this study, we determined whether BSG up-regulates ceramide levels in the stratum corneum (SC) of a reconstructed human epidermal keratinization (RHEK) model. Treatment with BSG significantly increased the total ceramide content by 1.2-fold compared to that in the control in the SC of the RHEK model, accompanied by a significant increase of the ceramide species, Cer[EOS] by 2.1-fold compared to that in the control. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that BSG significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT)2, ceramide synthase (CerS)3, glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) and acid sphingomyelinase by 1.41-1.89, 1.35-1.44, 1.19 and 2.06-fold, respectively, compared to that in the control in the RHEK model. Meanwhile, BSG significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS)2 by 0.87-0.89-fold. RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that BSG significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of CerS3 and GCS by 1.19-1.55 and 1.20-fold, respectively, but not of SPT2 and significantly down-regulated that of SMS2 by 0.74-fold in HaCaT keratinocytes. Western blotting analysis revealed that BSG significantly increased the protein expression levels of CerS3 and GCS by 1.78 and 1.28-1.32-fold, respectively, compared to that in the control in HaCaT cells. These findings indicate that BSG stimulates ceramide synthesis via the up-regulated expression levels of CerS3 and GCS in the glucosylceramide pathway, which results in a significantly increased level of total ceramides in the SC accompanied by significantly increased levels of acylceramide species such as Cer[EOS].


Assuntos
Ceramidas/biossíntese , Epiderme/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosiltransferases/biossíntese , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Ceramidas/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/genética
14.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(6): 1334-1345, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570769

RESUMO

AIM: Abdominoperineal resection is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer. This study aimed to analyse the functional lymphovascular network and tissue drainage in the anorectal region. METHODS: In this descriptive study, we performed microanatomical evaluations and intra-operative imaging analysis in a cadaver and patients with rectal cancer. Specimens with India ink injection were collected from a cadaver and from six patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. Intra-operative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging was performed on four patients who underwent surgery for lower rectal cancer. India ink was injected into the submucosa at the dentate line of specimens. Tissue sections were examined by immunohistochemistry for D2-40 and CD31. Intra-operative indocyanine green was injected into the submucosa at the dentate line. Lymph flow was traced using a near-infrared camera system. RESULTS: Fascia branching from the rectal longitudinal muscle layer extended to the posterior hiatal ligament and lateral endopelvic fascia connective tissue lamina on the surface of the levator ani muscle. The fascia contained veins labelled with ink in their lumina and initial lymphatics. Intra-operative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging revealed extensive lymph flow from the muscle layer of the anal canal to the hiatal ligament and endopelvic fascia along the longitudinal muscle layer fibres. CONCLUSIONS: The anorectal region contained widespread venous and lymphatic networks in proportion to its specific connective tissue framework around the longitudinal-muscle-layer-extending muscle bundles, which provides extensive networks for tissue fluid and cells.


Assuntos
Carbono , Verde de Indocianina , Drenagem , Humanos , Imagem Óptica
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617130

RESUMO

Getah virus (GETV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. GETV infection causes diarrhoea and death in piglets, and reproductive failure and abortion in sows. This study conducted a serological survey of GETV infection among domestic pig populations in Thailand. ELISA was used to analyse 1,188 pig serum samples collected from 11 provinces of Thailand during 2017-2018, with 23.1% of the samples being positive for anti-GETV antibodies. The positive ratio of anti-GETV antibodies was significantly higher in nursery (67.9%) and older stages (84.5%) of pigs than in finishing stage (14.2%). Furthermore, we successfully isolated GETV from one pig serum, designated as GETV strain GETV/SW/Thailand/2017, and determined the complete genome sequence (11,689 nt). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that our isolate was different from the recent GETV group spreading among pig populations in East Asia and formed a cluster with two GETV strains, namely YN12031 (China, 2015) and LEIV16275Mar (Far-East Russia, 2007). We concluded that two different GETV groups are currently spreading among pig populations in Asian countries.

16.
J Surg Res ; 261: 351-360, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is considered as one of the most malignant types of cancer with rapid metastasis and invasion of the cancer cells, having peritoneal metastasis (PM) as a dominant factor of poor prognosis. Although the prevention of peritoneal dissemination would result in the inhibition of the initial metastatic process and contribute in improving the poor prognosis of the pancreatic cancer, the initial dynamics of PM are still unclear because of the lack of adequate models in studying the morphological and molecular details of pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The artificial human peritoneal tissue (AHPT) that can be applied in studying for the spatial dynamics of cancer PM in vitro has been established previously. In this study, the initial dynamics of the three pancreatic cell lines, undifferentiated carcinoma MIA PaCa-2, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma Panc-1, and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma BxPC3 on AHPT are examined. RESULTS: In a morphological analysis using light and electron microscopy, MIA PaCa-2 cells spread on the mesothelial layer with disruption of the sheet structure and infiltrated into the stroma-like tissue in AHPT. On the other hand, BxPC3 cells changed shapes from round into flat ones with rapid proliferation and formed sheet structure at the surface of the tissue replacing the mesothelial layer without vertical invasion into the tissue. Panc-1 cells demonstrated the intermediate characteristics of MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC3 on AHPT. These diverse morphological characteristics were verified by the correspondence with the results in a mouse model and were reflected by the profile of secreted oncogenic proteins of the three pancreatic cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: The initial dynamics in the peritoneal dissemination of these pancreatic cancer cell lines were demonstrated by AHPT, showing the morphological and molecular diversity depending on the degree of differentiation or the properties of oncogenic protein secretion.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/secundário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Animais , Carcinoma/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos Nus , Metástase Neoplásica
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244006, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444317

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the role of the eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) in the dispersion of bat adenovirus and bat alphacoronavirus in east Asia, considering their gene flows and divergence times (based on deep-sequencing data), using bat fecal guano samples. Bats in China moved to Jeju Island and/or Taiwan in the last 20,000 years via the Korean Peninsula and/or Japan. The phylogenies of host mitochondrial D-loop DNA was not significantly congruent with those of bat adenovirus (m2XY = 0.07, p = 0.08), and bat alphacoronavirus (m2XY = 0.48, p = 0.20). We estimate that the first divergence time of bats carrying bat adenovirus in five caves studied (designated as K1, K2, JJ, N2, and F3) occurred approximately 3.17 million years ago. In contrast, the first divergence time of bat adenovirus among bats in the 5 caves was estimated to be approximately 224.32 years ago. The first divergence time of bats in caves CH, JJ, WY, N2, F1, F2, and F3 harboring bat alphacoronavirus was estimated to be 1.59 million years ago. The first divergence time of bat alphacoronavirus among the 7 caves was estimated to be approximately 2,596.92 years ago. The origin of bat adenovirus remains unclear, whereas our findings suggest that bat alphacoronavirus originated in Japan. Surprisingly, bat adenovirus and bat alphacoronavirus appeared to diverge substantially over the last 100 years, even though our gene-flow data indicate that the eastern bent-winged bat serves as an important natural reservoir of both viruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cavernas , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Extremo Oriente , Fezes/virologia , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Método de Monte Carlo , Filogenia
18.
J Food Biochem ; 45(1): e13583, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340139

RESUMO

Moriche palm is consumed as both a fresh fruit and processed food in Peru and Brazil. Although its fruit contains phytoestrogens, the active compounds have not yet been identified. Therefore, we purified moriche palm extract (MPE) and identified compounds exhibiting estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. Estrogenic activity was assessed by the estrogen-dependent growth of MCF-7 cells and increases in uterine weights in mice. Antiandrogenic activity was evaluated by 5α-reductase inhibitory activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in LNCaP cells. In vivo antiestrogenic activity was also assessed based on testosterone-induced prostate growth in castrated mice. Four methoxyflavans were isolated from MPE and all, except for 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavan, promoted MCF-7 cell growth, indicating estrogenic activity. Uterine and ovary weights increased in mice orally administered MPE (400 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Regarding antiandrogenic activity, among the four methoxyflavans isolated, 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavan (1 µg/ml) suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of PSA in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, prostate growth was suppressed in mice orally administered MPE (200 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. All methoxyflavans inhibited 5α-reductase activity with IC50 less than 10 µg/ml. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that orally administered MPE exhibited estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. Methoxyflavans, particularly 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavan, appear to be the active compounds for these activities. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The fruit of Mauritia flexuosa (moriche palm) has been used for beverages and processed foods. Although it is said to contain phytoestrogens, the active compounds have not yet been identified. In this study, we isolated and identified methoxyflavans exhibiting estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. Among them, 6,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyflavan appeared to be the most effective compounds for these activities.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Frutas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Testosterona
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 73: 101570, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129175

RESUMO

We examined Bartonella prevalence in 281 bat flies collected from 114 eastern bent-wing bats (Miniopterus fuliginosus) in Japan and phylogenetically analyzed with other bat fly and bat strains. The bat flies were identified as Penicilidia jenynsii (PJ; n = 45), Nycteribia allotopa (NA; n = 157), and novel Nycteribia species (NS; n = 79). Bartonella DNAs were detected in 31.7 % (89/281) of bat flies by PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA among the bat flies was 47.1 % (74/157) in NA, 15.2 % (12/79) in NS, and 6.7 % (3/45) in PJ. Bartonella bacteria were also isolated from two NA and one NS. A phylogenetic analysis of the gltA sequences revealed that bat fly-associated strains were classified into three lineages and the same lineages of Bartonella were commonly detected from both Nycteribia bat flies and Miniopterus bats. These results suggest that Nycteribia bat flies are potential vectors for transmitting Bartonella among Miniopterus bats.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Quirópteros/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/enzimologia , Dípteros/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/enzimologia , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(9): 1287-1294, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655094

RESUMO

Increasing game meat consumption in Japan requires the dissemination of safety information regarding the presence of human pathogens in game animals. Health information regarding the suitability of these animals as a meat source is not widely available. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of game meat and detect potential human pathogens in wild deer (Cervus nippon) and boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan. Fecal samples from 305 wild deer and 248 boars of Yamaguchi, Kagoshima, and Tochigi prefectures collected monthly for 2 years were examined for the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter spp. STEC was isolated from 51 deer consistently throughout the year and from three boars; O-antigen genotype O146, the expression of stx2b, and eaeA absence (n=33) were the major characteristics of our STEC isolates. Other serotypes included the medically important O157, stx2b or stx2c, and eaeA-positive (n=4) and O26, stx1a, and eaeA-positive strains (n=1). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 17 deer and 31 boars. Campylobacter hyointestinalis was the most common species isolated from 17 deer and 25 boars, whereas Campylobacter lanienae and Campylobacter coli were isolated from three and two boars, respectively. Seasonal trends for the isolation of these bacteria were not significant. This study demonstrates that wild game animals carry human pathogens; therefore, detailed knowledge of the safe handling of game meat is needed to prevent foodborne infections.

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