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1.
Acta Biomater ; 102: 384-393, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794872

RESUMO

Surface modification to obtain high dispersion stability and biocompatibility is a key factor for bio-application of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). A systematic study of UCNPs modified with four hydrophilic molecules separately, comparing their dispersion stability in biological buffers and cellular biocompatibility is reported here. The results show that carboxyl-functionalized UCNPs (modified by 3,4-dihydrocinnamic acid (DHCA) or poly(monoacryloxyethyl phosphate (MAEP)) with negative surface charge have superior even-distribution in biological buffers compared to amino-functionalized UCNPs (modified by (aminomethyl)phosphonic (AMPA) or (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES)) with positive surface charge. Subsequent investigation of cellular interactions revealed high levels of non-targeted cellular uptake of the particles modified with either of the three small molecules (AMPA, APTES, DHCA) and high levels of cytotoxicity when used at high concentrations. The particles were seen to be trapped as particle-aggregates within the cellular cytoplasm, leading to reduced cell viability and cell proliferation, along with dysregulation of the cell cycle as assessed by DNA content measurements. The dramatically reduced proportion of cells in G1 phase and the slightly increased proportion in G2 phase indicates inhibition of M phase, and the appearance of sub-G1 phase reflects cell necrosis. In contrast, MAEP-modified UCNPs are bio-friendly with increased dispersion stability in biological buffers, are non-cytotoxic, with negligible levels of non-specific cellular uptake and no effect on the cell cycle at both low and high concentrations. MAEP-modified UCNPs were further functionalized with streptavidin for intracellular microtubule imaging, and showed clear cytoskeletal structures via their upconversion luminescence. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) are an exciting potential nanomaterial for bio-applications. Their anti-Stokes luminescence makes them especially attractive to be used as imaging probes and thermal therapeutic reagents. Surface modification is the key to achieving stable and compatible hydrophilic-UCNPs. However, the lack of criteria to assess molecular ligands used for ligand exchange of nanoparticles has hampered the development of surface modification, and further limits UCNP's bio-application. Herein, we report a systematic comparative study of modified-UCNPs with four distinct hydrophilic molecules, assessing each particles' colloidal stability in biological buffers and their cellular biocompatibility. The protocol established here can serve as a potential guide for the surface modification of UCNPs in bio-applications.

2.
Transl Neurodegener ; 8: 30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592131

RESUMO

Background: A great body of evidence suggests that there are retinal functional and structural changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether such changes are primary or secondary remains to be elucidated. We studied a range of retinal functional and structural parameters in association with AD- specific pathophysiological markers in the double transgenic APP/PS1 and control mice across age. Methods: Electroretinogram (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in APP/PS1 and wild type (WT) control mice every 3 months from 3 to 12 months of age. For functional assessment, the a- and b-wave of the ERG, amplitude of oscillatory potentials (OP) and the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR) were quantified at each time point. For structural assessment, the inner and outer retinal thickness was segmented and measured from OCT scans. Episodic memory was evaluated at 6, 9 and 12 months of age using the novel object recognition test. Amyloid beta (Aß) distribution in the hippocampus and the retina were visualised at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. Inter- and intra- group analysis was performed to study rate of change for each parameter between the two groups. Results: Inter-group analysis revealed a significant difference in b-wave and OPs of APP/PS1 compared to WT controls starting from 3 months (p < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the amplitude of pSTR between the two groups starting from 6 months (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference in the inner retinal thickness, between the two groups, was observed starting from 9 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions: We observed an age-related decline in retinal functional and structural parameters in both APP/PS1 and WT controls, however, inter-group analysis revealed that inner retinal functional and structural decline is exacerbated in APP/PS1 mice, and that retinal functional changes precede structural changes in this strain. Further studies are required to confirm whether such phenomenon occurs in humans and if studying retinal functional changes can aid-in early assessment of AD.

3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 9(7): 1616-1624, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708326

RESUMO

Ethanol is a principle ingredient of alcoholic beverages with potential neurotoxicity and genotoxicity, and the ethanol-associated oxidative DNA damage in the central nervous system is well documented. Natural source compounds may offer new options to protect the brain against ethanol-induced genotoxicity. Veratrum maackii Regel is a toxic rangeland plant linked to teratogenicity which is also used in traditional Chinese medicine as "Lilu" and is reported to contain a family of compounds called stilbenes that can have positive biological activity. In this study, nine stilbenes were isolated from the aerial parts of V. maackii Regel, and their structures were identified as cis-mulberroside A (1), resveratrol-4,3'- O-ß-d-diglucopyranoside (2), mulberroside A (3), gentifolin K (4), resveratrol-3,5- O-ß-d-diglucopyranoside (5), oxyresveratrol- 4'- O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (6), oxyresveratrol-3- O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (7), oxyresveratrol (8), and resveratrol (9) using ESI-MS and NMR techniques. The total concentration of extracted compounds 2-9 was 2.04 mg/g, suggesting that V. maackii Regel is a novel viable source of these compounds. In an in vivo comet assay, compounds 1-9 were observed to decrease DNA damage in mouse cerebellum and cerebral cortex caused by acute ethanol administration. Histological observation also revealed decreased brain injury in mice administered with compounds 1-9 after acute ethanol administration. The protective effects of compound 6 were associated with increasing T-SOD and GSH-PX activities and a decrease in NO and MDA concentrations. These findings suggest that these compounds are potent inhibitors of ethanol-induced brain injury possibly via the inhibition of oxidative stress and may be valuable leads for future therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Veratrum , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/patologia , Animais , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fototerapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(31): 3851-3854, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594291

RESUMO

An efficient surface modification for upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is reported via supramolecular host-guest self-assembly. Cucurbit[7]uril (CB) can provide a hydrophilic surface and cavities for most biomolecules. High biological efficiency, activity and versatility of the approach enable UCNPs to be significantly applied in bio-imaging, early disease detection, and bio-sensing.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Imidazóis/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/toxicidade , Caderinas/química , Európio/química , Fluoretos/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Imunoglobulina G/química , Ligantes , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Itérbio/química , Ítrio/química
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(47): 5379-5390, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598582

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a screening test for celiac disease based on the coating of gold nanoparticles with a peptide sequence derived from gliadin, the protein that triggers celiac disease. METHODS: 20 nm gold nanoparticles were first coated with NeutrAvidin. A long chain Polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker containing Maleimide at the Ω-end and Biotin group at the α-end was used to ensure peptide coating to the gold nanoparticles. The maleimide group with the thiol (-SH) side chain reacted with the cysteine amino acid in the peptide sequence and the biotinylated and PEGylated peptide was added to the NeutrAvidin coated gold nanoparticles. The peptide coated gold nanoparticles were then converted into a serological assay. We used the peptide functionalised gold nanoparticle-based assay on thirty patient serum samples in a blinded assessment and compared our results with the previously run serological and pathological tests on these patients. RESULTS: A stable colloidal suspension of peptide coated gold nanoparticles was obtained without any aggregation. An absorbance peak shift as well as color change was caused by the aggregation of gold nanoparticles following the addition of anti-gliadin antibody to peptide coated nanoparticles at levels associated with celiac disease. The developed assay has been shown to detect anti-gliadin antibody not only in quantitatively spiked samples but also in a small-scale study on real non-hemolytic celiac disease patient's samples. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the potential of gold nanoparticle-peptide based approach to be adapted for developing a screening assay for celiac disease diagnosis. The assay could be a part of an exclusion based diagnostic strategy and prove particularly useful for testing high celiac disease risk populations.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/análise , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Gliadina/química , Gliadina/imunologia , Ouro/química , Humanos , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
7.
Anal Chem ; 90(1): 663-668, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239600

RESUMO

Sensitivity is the key in optical detection of low-abundant analytes, such as circulating RNA or DNA. The enzyme Exonuclease III (Exo III) is a useful tool in this regard; its ability to recycle target DNA molecules results in markedly improved detection sensitivity. Lower limits of detection may be further achieved if the detection background of autofluorescence can be removed. Here we report an ultrasensitive and specific method to quantify trace amounts of DNA analytes in a wash-free suspension assay. In the presence of target DNA, the Exo III recycles the target DNA by selectively digesting the dye-tagged sequence-matched probe DNA strand only, so that the amount of free dye removed from the probe DNA is proportional to the number of target DNAs. Remaining intact probe DNAs are then bound onto upconversion nanoparticles (energy donor), which allows for upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) that can be used to quantify the difference between the free dye and tagged dye (energy acceptor). This scheme simply avoids both autofluorescence under infrared excitation and many tedious washing steps, as the free dye molecules are physically located away from the nanoparticle surface, and as such they remain "dark" in suspension. Compared to alternative approaches requiring enzyme-assisted amplification on the nanoparticle surface, introduction of probe DNAs onto nanoparticles only after DNA hybridization and signal amplification steps effectively avoids steric hindrance. Via this approach, we have achieved a detection limit of 15 pM in LRET assays of human immunodeficiency viral DNA.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , DNA Viral/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/efeitos da radiação , HIV/genética , Luz , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos da radiação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Rodaminas/química , Rodaminas/efeitos da radiação
8.
J Gastroenterol ; 52(9): 1001-1012, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631048

RESUMO

Celiac disease has advanced from a medical rarity to a highly prevalent disorder. Patients with the disease show varying degrees of chronic inflammation within the small intestine due to an aberrant immune response to the digestion of gliadin found in wheat. As a result, cytokines and antibodies are produced in celiac patients that can be used as specific biomarkers for developing diagnostic tests. This review paper describes celiac disease in terms of its etiological cause, pathological effects, current diagnostic tests based on mucosal biopsy, and the genetic basis for the disease. In addition, it discusses the use of gliadin-induced cytokines, antibodies and autoantibodies as a diagnostic tool for celiac disease. Despite good initial results in terms of sensitivity and specificity, when these immunological tests were used on a large scale, even in combination with genetic testing, the results showed lower predictive value. This review addresses that issue and ends with an outlook on future work required to develop diagnostic tests with greater accuracy in predicting celiac disease in the general public, thus avoiding the need for endoscopy and mucosal biopsy.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Gliadina/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia/métodos , Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Nanoscale ; 8(42): 18032-18037, 2016 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27735962

RESUMO

Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.

10.
J Mol Neurosci ; 60(3): 405-409, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27660216

RESUMO

Nanotechnology applications in neuroscience promises to deliver significant scientific and technological breakthroughs, providing answers to unresolved questions regarding the processes occurring in the brain. In this perspective, we provide a short background on two distinct fluorescent nanoparticles and summarize several studies focussed on achieving delivery of these into the brain and their interaction with brain tissue. Furthermore, we discuss challenges and opportunities for further development of nanoparticle-based therapies for targeting delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Proteínas Luminescentes/farmacocinética , Nanodiamantes , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos
11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(11): 7590-4, 2016 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26937848

RESUMO

Diamond nanocrystals that host room temperature narrowband single photon emitters are highly sought after for applications in nanophotonics and bioimaging. However, current understanding of the origin of these emitters is extremely limited. In this work, we demonstrate that the narrowband emitters are point defects localized at extended morphological defects in individual nanodiamonds. In particular, we show that nanocrystals with defects such as twin boundaries and secondary nucleation sites exhibit narrowband emission that is absent from pristine individual nanocrystals grown under the same conditions. Critically, we prove that the narrowband emission lines vanish when extended defects are removed deterministically using highly localized electron beam induced etching. Our results enhance the current understanding of single photon emitters in diamond and are directly relevant to fabrication of novel quantum optics devices and sensors.

12.
Adv Mater ; 27(27): 4048-53, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26036242

RESUMO

A facile and cost-effective self-assembly route to engineering of vital quantum plasmonic circuit components is reported. By modifying the surface energy of silver nanowires, the position and density of attached nanodiamonds can be maneuvered leading to silver nanowire/nanodiamond(s) hybrid nanostructures. These structures exhibit strong plasmonic coupling effects and thus hold promise to serve as quantum plasmonic components.

13.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6563, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25800494

RESUMO

Fast and reliable DNA sequencing is a long-standing target in biomedical research. Recent advances in graphene-based electrical sensors have demonstrated their unprecedented sensitivity to adsorbed molecules, which holds great promise for label-free DNA sequencing technology. To date, the proposed sequencing approaches rely on the ability of graphene electric devices to probe molecular-specific interactions with a graphene surface. Here we experimentally demonstrate the use of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) as probes of the presence of a layer of individual DNA nucleobases adsorbed on the graphene surface. We show that GFETs are able to measure distinct coverage-dependent conductance signatures upon adsorption of the four different DNA nucleobases; a result that can be attributed to the formation of an interface dipole field. Comparison between experimental GFET results and synchrotron-based material analysis allowed prediction of the ultimate device sensitivity, and assessment of the feasibility of single nucleobase sensing with graphene.


Assuntos
Adenina/metabolismo , Citosina/metabolismo , Sondas de DNA , DNA , Grafite/metabolismo , Guanina/metabolismo , Timina/metabolismo , Transistores Eletrônicos , Adsorção , Sequência de Bases , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Nanoscale ; 7(11): 4869-74, 2015 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25655482

RESUMO

Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and bio-labeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to achieve an encapsulation of individual nanodiamonds with phenol-ionic complexes that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation reduces the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications.

15.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 43: 135-44, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25175198

RESUMO

The development of smooth, featureless surfaces for biomedical microelectronics is a challenging feat. Other than the traditional electronic materials like silicon, few microelectronic circuits can be produced with conductive features without compromising the surface topography and/or biocompatibility. Diamond is fast becoming a highly sought after biomaterial for electrical stimulation, however, its inherent surface roughness introduced by the growth process limits its applications in electronic circuitry. In this study, we introduce a fabrication method for developing conductive features in an insulating diamond substrate whilst maintaining a planar topography. Using a combination of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, secondary diamond growth and silicon wet-etching, we have produced a patterned substrate in which the surface roughness at the interface between the conducting and insulating diamond is approximately 3 nm. We also show that the patterned smooth topography is capable of neuronal cell adhesion and growth whilst restricting bacterial adhesion.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Diamante , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Análise Espectral/métodos , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(11): 8894-902, 2014 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24878519

RESUMO

We demonstrate a robust templated approach to pattern thin films of chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline diamond grown from monodispersed nanodiamond (mdND) seeds. The method works on a range of substrates, and we herein demonstrate the method using silicon, aluminum nitride (AlN), and sapphire substrates. Patterns are defined using photo- and e-beam lithography, which are seeded with mdND colloids and subsequently introduced into microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor to grow patterned nanocrystalline diamond films. In this study, we investigate various factors that affect the selective seeding of different substrates to create high quality diamond thin films, including mdND surface termination, zeta potential, surface treatment, and plasma cleaning. Although the electrostatic interaction between mdND colloids and substrates is the main process driving adherence, we found that chemical reaction (esterification) or hydrogen bonding can potentially dominate the seeding process. Leveraging the knowledge on these different interactions, we optimize fabrication protocols to eliminate unwanted diamond nucleation outside the patterned areas. Furthermore, we have achieved the deposition of patterned diamond films and arrays over a range of feature sizes. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mdND-substrate interaction that will enable the fabrication of integrated nanocrystalline diamond thin films for microelectronics, sensors, and tissue culturing applications.


Assuntos
Diamante , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Micro-Ondas , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Small ; 9(21): 3573-83, 2013 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23606518

RESUMO

The design of compartmentalized carriers for advanced drug delivery systems or artificial cells and organelles is of interest for biomedical applications. Herein, a polymer carrier microreactor that contains two different classes of subcompartments, multilayered polymer capsules and liposomes, is presented. 50 nm-diameter liposomes and 300 nm-diameter polymer capsules are encapsulated into a larger polymer carrier capsule, demonstrating control over the spatial positioning of the subcompartments, which are either 'membrane-associated' or 'free-floating' in the aqueous interior. Selective and spatially dependent degradation of the 300 nm-diameter subcompartments (without destroying the structural integrity of the enzyme-loaded liposomes) is also shown, by performing an encapsulated enzymatic reaction using the liposomal subcompartments. These findings cover several important aspects toward the development of engineered compartmentalized carrier vessels for the creation of artificial cell mimics or advanced therapeutic delivery systems.

18.
ACS Nano ; 7(1): 522-30, 2013 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23234433

RESUMO

Particle shape is emerging as a key design parameter for tailoring the interactions between particles and cells. Herein, we report the preparation of rod-shaped layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled polymer hydrogel capsules with tunable aspect ratios (ARs). By templating spherical and rodlike silica particles, disulfide-stabilized poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel capsules (PMA HCs) with different ARs (from 1 to 4) are generated. The influence of capsule AR on cellular internalization and intracellular fate was quantitatively investigated by flow cytometry, imaging flow cytometry, and fluorescence deconvolution microscopy. These experiments reveal that the cellular internalization kinetics of PMA HCs are dependent on the AR, with spherical capsules being internalized more rapidly and to a greater extent compared with rod-shaped capsules. In contrast, the capsules with different ARs are colocalized with the lysosomal marker LAMP1, suggesting that the lysosomal compartmentalization is independent of shape for these soft polymer capsules.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Eletrólitos/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Nanocápsulas/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
19.
ACS Nano ; 6(2): 1463-72, 2012 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22260171

RESUMO

We present a generic and versatile method for functionalization of disulfide-stabilized PMA hydrogel capsules (HCs) with macromolecules, including a number of specific antibodies to cancer cells. Functionalization was achieved by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVPON), which introduced biorelevant heterotelechelic end groups (thiol and amine) to the polymer chain. The PVPON with heterotelechelic end groups was conjugated to the outermost layer of PMA HCs through the thiol groups and reacted with biotin via the amine groups to generate PMA/PVPON(biotin) HCs. On the basis of the high specific interaction and high affinity between biotin and avidin, and its derivates, such as NeutrAvidin (NAv), we functionalized the PMA HCs with biotinylated antibodies. We demonstrate significantly enhanced cellular binding and internalization of the antibody (Ab)-functionalized capsules compared with control human immunoglobulin (IgG)-functionalized capsules, suggesting these capsules can specifically interact with cells through antibody/antigen recognition. We anticipate that the versatility of the functionalization approach reported in this study will assist in targeted therapeutic delivery applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Dissulfetos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Hidrogéis/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Povidona/química , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Avidina/metabolismo , Biotina/metabolismo , Cápsulas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Polimerização
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