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1.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101916, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491833

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a recessive disorder characterized by disruption in the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). Prior research indicates that individuals with PKU have substantial white matter (WM) compromise. Much less is known about gray matter (GM) in PKU, but a small body of research suggests volumetric differences compared to controls. To date, developmental trajectories of GM structure in individuals with PKU have not been examined, nor have trajectories of WM and GM been examined within a single study. To address this gap in the literature, we compared longitudinal brain development over a three-year period in individuals with PKU (n = 35; 18 male) and typically-developing controls (n = 71; 35 male) aged 7-21 years. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we observed whole-brain and regional WM differences between individuals with PKU and controls, which were often exacerbated with increasing age. In marked contrast with trajectories of WM development, trajectories of GM development did not differ between individuals with PKU and controls, indicating that neuropathology in PKU is more prominent in WM than GM. Within individuals with PKU, mediation analyses revealed that whole-brain mean diffusivity (MD) and regional MD in the corpus callosum and centrum semiovale mediated the relationship between dietary treatment compliance (i.e., Phe control) and executive abilities, suggesting a plausible neurobiological mechanism by which Phe control may influence cognitive outcomes. Our findings clarify the specificity, timing, and cognitive consequences of whole-brain and regional WM pathology, with implications for treatment and research in PKU.

2.
Top Magn Reson Imaging ; 28(4): 189-196, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385898

RESUMO

Functional MRI (fMRI) is currently used for pre-surgical planning, but is often limited to information on the motor and language systems. Resting state fMRI can provide more information on multiple other networks to the neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist; however, currently, these networks are not well known among clinicians. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an introduction to these networks for the clinician and to discuss how they could be used in the future for precise and individualized surgical planning. We provide a short introduction to resting state fMRI and discuss multiple currently accepted resting state networks with a review of the literature. We review the characteristics and function of multiple somatosensory, association, and other networks. We discuss the concept of critical nodes in the brain and how the neurosurgeon can use this information to individually customize patient care. Although further research is necessary, future application of pre-surgical planning will require consideration of networks other than just motor and language in order to minimize post-surgical morbidity and customize patient care.

3.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traditionally, diffusion MRI (dMRI) has been performed in parallel with high-resolution conventional MRI, which requires long scan times and may require sedation or general anesthesia in infants and young children. Conversely, fast brain MRI permits image acquisition without the need for sedation, although its short pulse sequences, susceptibility to motion artifact, and contrast resolution have limited its use to assessing ventricular size or major structural variations. Here, the authors demonstrate the feasibility of leveraging a 3-direction fast brain MRI protocol to obtain reliable dMRI measures. METHODS: Fast brain MRI with 3-direction dMRI was performed in infants and children before and after hydrocephalus treatment. Regions of interest in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules (PLICs) and the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) were drawn on diffusion-weighted images, and mean diffusivity (MD) data were extracted. Ventricular size was determined by the frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR). Differences between and within groups pre- and posttreatment, and FOHR-MD correlations were assessed. RESULTS: Of 40 patients who met inclusion criteria (median age 27.5 months), 15 (37.5%), 17 (42.5%), and 8 (20.0%) had posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), congenital hydrocephalus (CH), or no intracranial abnormality (controls), respectively. A hydrocephalus group included both PHH and CH patients. Prior to treatment, the FOHR (p < 0.001) and PLIC MD (p = 0.027) were greater in the hydrocephalus group than in the controls. While the mean gCC MD in the hydrocephalus group (1.10 × 10-3 mm2/sec) was higher than that of the control group (0.98), the difference was not significant (p = 0.135). Following a median follow-up duration of 14 months, decreases in FOHR, PLIC MD, and gCC MD were observed in the hydrocephalus group and were similar to those in the control group (p = 0.107, p = 0.702, and p = 0.169, respectively). There were no correlations identified between FOHR and MDs at either time point. CONCLUSIONS: The utility of fast brain MRI can be extended beyond anatomical assessments to obtain dMRI measures. A reduction in PLIC and gCC MD to levels similar to those of controls was observed within 14 months following shunt surgery for hydrocephalus in PHH and CH infants. Further studies are required to assess the role of fast brain dMRI for assessing clinical outcomes in pediatric hydrocephalus patients.

4.
Pediatr Res ; 86(3): 365-374, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines relationships between neonatal white and gray matter microstructure and neurodevelopment in very preterm (VPT) infants (≤30 weeks gestation) with high-grade brain injury (BI). METHODS: Term-equivalent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained in 32 VPT infants with high-grade BI spanning grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (BI group); 69 VPT infants without high-grade injury (VPT group); and 55 term-born infants. The Bayley-III assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years. RESULTS: BI infants had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), cingulum, and corpus callosum, and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the optic radiations and cingulum than VPT infants. PHH was associated with higher MD in the optic radiations and left PLIC, and higher FA in the right caudate. For BI infants, higher MD in the right optic radiation and lower FA in the right cingulum, PLIC, and corpus callosum were related to motor impairments. CONCLUSIONS: BI infants demonstrated altered white and gray matter microstructure in regions affected by injury in a manner dependent upon injury type. PHH infants demonstrated the greatest impairments. Aberrant white matter microstructure was related to motor impairment in BI infants.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101850, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077983

RESUMO

Localizing neurologic function within the brain remains a significant challenge in clinical neurosurgery. Invasive mapping with direct electrocortical stimulation currently is the clinical gold standard but is impractical in young or cognitively delayed patients who are unable to reliably perform tasks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging non-invasively identifies resting state networks without the need for task performance, hence, is well suited to pediatric patients. We compared sensorimotor network localization by resting state fMRI to cortical stimulation sensory and motor mapping in 16 pediatric patients aged 3.1 to 18.6 years. All had medically refractory epilepsy that required invasive electrographic monitoring and stimulation mapping. The resting state fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained machine learning classifier that has previously been evaluated in adults. We report comparable functional localization by resting state fMRI compared to stimulation mapping. These results provide strong evidence for the utility of resting state functional imaging in the localization of sensorimotor cortex across a wide range of pediatric patients.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6010, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979932

RESUMO

Wolfram syndrome is a rare disease caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene leading to symptoms in early to mid-childhood. Brain structural abnormalities are present even in young children, but it is not known when these abnormalities arise. Such information is critical in determining optimal outcome measures for clinical trials and in understanding the aberrant neurobiological processes in Wolfram syndrome. Using voxel-wise and regional longitudinal analyses, we compared brain volumes in Wolfram patients (n = 29; ages 5-25 at baseline; mean follow-up = 3.6 years), to age and sex-equivalent controls (n = 52; ages 6-26 at baseline; mean follow-up = 2.0 years). Between groups, white and gray matter volumes were affected differentially during development. Controls had uniformly increasing volume in white matter, whereas the Wolfram group had stable (optic radiations) or decreasing (brainstem, ventral pons) white matter volumes. In gray matter, controls had stable (thalamus, cerebellar cortex) or decreasing volumes (cortex), whereas the Wolfram group had decreased volume in thalamus and cerebellar cortex. These patterns suggest that there may be early, stalled white matter development in Wolfram syndrome, with additional degenerative processes in both white and gray matter. Ideally, animal models could be used to identify the underlying mechanisms and develop specific interventions.

7.
Blood ; 133(22): 2436-2444, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858231

RESUMO

Chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) prevents stroke in selected patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). We have shown that CTT mitigates signatures of cerebral metabolic stress, reflected by elevated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), which likely drives stroke risk reduction. The region of highest OEF falls within the border zone, where cerebral blood flow (CBF) nadirs; OEF in this region was reduced after CTT. The neuroprotective efficacy of hydroxyurea (HU) remains unclear. To test our hypothesis that patients receiving HU therapy have lower cerebral metabolic stress compared with patients not receiving disease-modifying therapy, we prospectively obtained brain magnetic resonance imaging scans with voxel-wise measurements of CBF and OEF in 84 participants with SCA who were grouped by therapy: no disease-modifying therapy, HU, or CTT. There was no difference in whole-brain CBF among the 3 cohorts (P = .148). However, whole-brain OEF was significantly different (P < .001): participants without disease-modifying therapy had the highest OEF (median 42.9% [interquartile range (IQR) 39.1%-49.1%]), followed by HU treatment (median 40.7% [IQR 34.9%-43.6%]), whereas CTT treatment had the lowest values (median 35.3% [IQR 32.2%-38.9%]). Moreover, the percentage of white matter at highest risk for ischemia, defined by OEF greater than 40% and 42.5%, was lower in the HU cohort compared with the untreated cohort (P = .025 and P = .034 respectively), but higher compared with the CTT cohort (P = .018 and P = .029 respectively). We conclude that HU may offer neuroprotection by mitigating cerebral metabolic stress in patients with SCA, but not to the same degree as CTT.

8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101767, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901713

RESUMO

Interest in understanding the roles of white matter (WM) inflammation and damage in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been growing significantly in recent years. However, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for imaging inflammation are still lacking. An advanced diffusion-based MRI method, neuro-inflammation imaging (NII), has been developed to clinically image and quantify WM inflammation and damage in AD. Here, we employed NII measures in conjunction with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker classification (for ß-amyloid (Aß) and neurodegeneration) to evaluate 200 participants in an ongoing study of memory and aging. Elevated NII-derived cellular diffusivity was observed in both preclinical and early symptomatic phases of AD, while disruption of WM integrity, as detected by decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), was only observed in the symptomatic phase of AD. This may suggest that WM inflammation occurs earlier than WM damage following abnormal Aß accumulation in AD. The negative correlation between NII-derived cellular diffusivity and CSF Aß42 level (a marker of amyloidosis) may indicate that WM inflammation is associated with increasing Aß burden. NII-derived FA also negatively correlated with CSF t-tau level (a marker of neurodegeneration), suggesting that disruption of WM integrity is associated with increasing neurodegeneration. Our findings demonstrated the capability of NII to simultaneously image and quantify WM cellularity changes and damage in preclinical and early symptomatic AD. NII may serve as a clinically feasible imaging tool to study the individual and composite roles of WM inflammation and damage in AD.

9.
Neuroimage Clin ; 21: 101649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion imaging abnormalities have been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), indicating impaired structural connectivity. Newer methods permit the automated reconstruction of major white matter tracts from diffusion-weighted MR images in each individual's native space. Using high-definition diffusion data from SZ and BP subjects, we investigated brain white matter integrity using both an automated tract-based and voxel-based methods. METHODS: Using a protocol matched to the NIH (Young-Adult) Human Connectome Project (and collected on the same customized 'Connectom' scanner), diffusion scans were acquired from 87 total participants (aged 18-30), grouped as SZ (n = 24), BD (n = 33) and healthy controls (n = 30). Fractional anisotropy (FA) of eighteen white matter tracks were analyzed using the TRACULA software. Voxel-wise statistical analyses of diffusion data was carried out using the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) software. TRACULA group effects and clinical correlations were investigated using analyses of variance and multiple regression. RESULTS: TRACULA analysis identified a trend towards lower tract FA in SZ patients, most significantly in the left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR; p = .04). TBSS results showed significantly lower FA voxels bilaterally within the cerebellum and unilaterally within the left ATR, posterior thalamic radiation, corticospinal tract, and superior longitudinal fasciculus in SZ patients compared to controls (FDR corrected p < .05). FA in BD patients did not significantly differ from controls using either TRACULA or TBSS. Multiple regression showed FA of the ATR as predicting chronic mania (p = .0005) and the cingulum-angular bundle as predicting recent mania (p = .02) in patients. TBSS showed chronic mania correlating with FA voxels within the left ATR and corpus callosum. CONCLUSIONS: White matter abnormality in SZ varies in severity across different white matter tract regions. Our results indicate that voxel-based analysis of diffusion data is more sensitive than tract-based analysis in identifying such abnormalities. Absence of white matter abnormality in BD may be related to medication effects and age.

10.
Neuron ; 100(4): 977-993.e7, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473014

RESUMO

The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the human brain and is unique for its uniform cytoarchitecture, absence of aerobic glycolysis, and role in adaptive plasticity. Despite anatomical and physiological differences between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, group-average functional connectivity studies have identified networks related to specific functions in both structures. Recently, precision functional mapping of individuals revealed that functional networks in the cerebral cortex exhibit measurable individual specificity. Using the highly sampled Midnight Scan Club (MSC) dataset, we found the cerebellum contains reliable, individual-specific network organization that is significantly more variable than the cerebral cortex. The frontoparietal network, thought to support adaptive control, was the only network overrepresented in the cerebellum compared to the cerebral cortex (2.3-fold). Temporally, all cerebellar resting state signals lagged behind the cerebral cortex (125-380 ms), supporting the hypothesis that the cerebellum engages in a domain-general function in the adaptive control of all cortical processes.

11.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X18803948, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334672

RESUMO

Glioma growth can cause pervasive changes in the functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks, which has been associated with re-organization of brain functions and development of functional deficits in patients. Mechanisms underlying functional re-organization in brain networks are not understood and efforts to utilize functional imaging for surgical planning, or as a biomarker of functional outcomes are confounded by the heterogeneity in available human data. Here we apply multiple imaging modalities in a well-controlled murine model of glioma with extensive validation using human data to explore mechanisms of FC disruption due to glioma growth. We find gliomas cause both local and distal changes in FC. FC changes in networks proximal to the tumor occur secondary to hemodynamic alterations but surprisingly, remote FC changes are independent of hemodynamic mechanisms. Our data strongly implicate hemodynamic alterations as the main driver of local changes in measurements of FC in patients with glioma.

12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 20: 913-922, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308377

RESUMO

Altered brain development is a common feature of the neurological sequelae of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). These alterations include abnormalities in brain size and growth that begin prenatally and persist postnatally. However, the longitudinal trajectory of changes in brain volume from the prenatal to postnatal environment have not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the trajectory of brain growth in a cohort of patients with complex CHD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 15) to test the hypothesis that patients with complex CHD would have smaller total brain volume (TBV) prenatally, which would become increasingly prominent by three months of age. Participants underwent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at a mean of 32 weeks gestation, a preoperative/neonatal MRI shortly after birth, a postoperative MRI (CHD only), and a 3-month MRI to evaluate the trajectory of brain growth. Three-dimensional volumetric analysis was applied to the MRI data to measure TBV, as well as tissue-specific volumes of the cortical gray matter (CGM), white matter (WM), subcortical (deep nuclear) gray matter (SCGM), cerebellum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A random coefficients model was used to investigate longitudinal changes in TBV and demonstrated an altered trajectory of brain growth in the CHD population. The estimated slope for TBV from fetal to 3-month MRI was 11.5 cm3 per week for CHD infants compared to 16.7 cm3 per week for controls (p = 0.0002). Brain growth followed a similar trajectory for the CGM (p < 0.0001), SCGM (p = 0.002), and cerebellum (p = 0.005). There was no difference in growth of the WM (p = 0.30) or CSF (p = 0.085). Brain injury was associated with reduced TBV at 3-month MRI (p = 0.02). After removing infants with brain injury from the model, an altered trajectory of brain growth persisted in CHD infants (p = 0.006). These findings extend the existing literature by demonstrating longitudinal impairments in brain development in the CHD population and emphasize the global nature of disrupted brain growth from the prenatal environment through early infancy.

13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 76-87, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248454

RESUMO

The Neuroimaging and Sensory Testing (NIST) Study of the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN) is a cross-sectional, case-control study designed to investigate whether disrupted brain connectivity and sensory processing are associated with abnormal lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). The NIST Study tests the hypotheses that patients with urinary urgency will demonstrate: (1) abnormal functional and structural connectivity of brain regions involved in urinary sensation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (2) hypersensitivity to painful (pressure) and non-painful (auditory) sensory stimuli on quantitative sensory testing (QST), compared to controls. Male and female adults (18 years or older) who present at one of the six participating LURN clinical centers for clinical care of their LUTS, with symptoms of urinary urgency with or without urgency urinary incontinence, are eligible to participate. The NIST Study is the largest MRI and QST study of its kind, yielding a neuroimaging and sensory testing dataset unprecedented in OAB research. Advanced multi-modal techniques are used to understand brain functional and structural connectivity, including gray matter volume, and sensory function. Unlike previous MRI studies which involved invasive catheterization and repeated cycles of non-physiologic bladder filling and emptying via a catheter, we use a water ingestion protocol to mimic more physiological bladder filling through natural diuresis. Furthermore, these data will be used in concert with other phenotyping data to improve our understanding of clinically meaningful subtypes of patients with LUTS in order to improve patient care and management outcomes.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0202201, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of diffusion MRI in the living brain requires validation against gold standard histological measures. We compared diffusion values of the nigrostriatal tract to PET and histological results in non-human primates (NHPs) with varying degrees of unilateral nigrostriatal injury induced by MPTP, a toxin selective for dopaminergic neurons. METHODS: Sixteen NHPs had MRI and PET scans of three different presynaptic radioligands and blinded video-based motor ratings before and after unilateral carotid artery infusion of variable doses of MPTP. Diffusion measures of connections between midbrain and striatum were calculated. Then animals were euthanized to quantify striatal dopamine concentration, stereologic measures of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostained fiber density and unbiased stereologic counts of TH stained nigral cells. RESULTS: Diffusion measures correlated with MPTP dose, nigral TH-positive cell bodies and striatal TH-positive fiber density but did not correlate with in vitro nigrostriatal terminal field measures or in vivo PET measures of striatal uptake of presynaptic markers. Once nigral TH cell count loss exceeded 50% the stereologic terminal field measures reached a near zero floor effect but the diffusion measures continued to correlate with nigral cell counts. CONCLUSION: Diffusion measures in the nigrostriatal tract correlate with nigral dopamine neurons and striatal fiber density, but have the same relationship to terminal field measures as a previous report of striatal PET measures of presynaptic neurons. These diffusion measures have the potential to act as non-invasive index of the severity of nigrostriatal injury. Diffusion imaging of the nigrostriatal tract could potentially have diagnostic value in humans with Parkinson disease or related disorders.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202504, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine longitudinal changes in structural and functional connectivity post-stroke in patients with motor impairment, and define their importance for recovery and outcome at 12 months. METHODS: First-time stroke patients (N = 31) were studied at 1-2 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months post-injury with a validated motor battery and resting-state fMRI to measure inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC). Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) was derived from diffusion tensor imaging as a measure of white matter organization. ANOVAs were used to test for changes in FC, FA, and motor performance scores over time, and regression analysis related motor outcome to clinical and neuroimaging variables. RESULTS: FA of the ipsilesional CST improved significantly from 3 to 12 months and was strongly correlated with motor performance. FA improved even in the absence of direct damage to the CST. Inter-hemispheric FC also improved over time, but did not correlate with motor performance at 12 months. Clinical variables (early motor score, education level, and age) predicted 80.4% of the variation of motor outcome, and FA increased the predictability to 84.6%. FC did not contribute to the prediction of motor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke causes changes to the CST microstructure that can account for behavioral variability even in the absence of demonstrable lesion. Ipsilesional CST undergoes remodeling post-stroke, even past the three-month window when most of the motor recovery happens. FA of the CST, but not inter-hemispheric FC, can improve to the prediction of motor outcome based on early motor scores.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1875-1884, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157302

RESUMO

SMAD2 is a downstream effector in the TGF-ß signaling pathway, which is important for pattern formation and tissue differentiation. Pathogenic variants in SMAD2 have been reported in association with arterial aneurysms and dissections and in large cohorts of subjects with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the molecular cause of CHD and other congenital anomalies in three probands and of an arterial aneurysm in an additional patient. Patients 1 and 2 presented with complex CHD, developmental delay, seizures, dysmorphic features, short stature, and poor weight gain. Patient 3 was a fetus with complex CHD and heterotaxy. The fourth patient is an adult female with aortic root aneurysm and physical features suggestive of a connective tissue disorder. WES identified pathogenic truncating variants, a splice variant, and a predicted deleterious missense variant in SMAD2. We compare the phenotypes and genotypes in our patients with previously reported cases. Our data suggest two distinct phenotypes associated with pathogenic variants in SMAD2: complex CHD with or without laterality defects and other congenital anomalies, and a late-onset vascular phenotype characterized by arterial aneurysms with connective tissue abnormalities.

17.
Pediatr Res ; 84(3): 435-441, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic deleterious variants in RTTN, which encodes rotatin, are associated with primary microcephaly, polymicrogyria, seizures, intellectual disability, and primordial dwarfism in human infants. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed exome sequencing of an infant with primary microcephaly, pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and intractable seizures and his healthy, unrelated parents. We cultured the infant's fibroblasts to determine primary ciliary phenotype. RESULTS: We identified biallelic variants in RTTN in the affected infant: a novel missense variant and a rare, intronic variant that results in aberrant transcript splicing. Cultured fibroblasts from the infant demonstrated reduced length and number of primary cilia. CONCLUSION: Biallelic variants in RTTN cause primary microcephaly in infants. Functional characterization of primary cilia length and number can be used to determine pathogenicity of RTTN variants.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198349, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933375

RESUMO

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool for pre-surgical evaluation of eloquent cortex. Classic task-based paradigms require patient participation and individual imaging sequence acquisitions for each functional domain that is being assessed. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), however, enables functional localization without patient participation and can evaluate numerous functional domains with a single imaging session. To date, post-processing of this resting state data has been resource intensive, which limits its widespread application for routine clinical use. Through a novel automated algorithm and advanced imaging IT structure, we report the clinical application and the large-scale integration of rs-fMRI into routine neurosurgical practice. One hundred and ninety one consecutive patients underwent a 3T rs-fMRI, 83 of whom also underwent both motor and language task-based fMRI. Data were processed using a novel, automated, multi-layer perceptron algorithm and integrated into stereotactic navigation using a streamlined IT imaging pipeline. One hundred eighty-five studies were performed for intracranial neoplasm, 14 for refractory epilepsy and 33 for vascular malformations or other neurological disorders. Failure rate of rs-fMRI of 13% was significantly better than that for task-based fMRI (38.5%,) (p <0.001). In conclusion, at Washington University in St. Louis, rs-fMRI has become an integral part of standard imaging for neurosurgical planning. Resting state fMRI can be used in all patients, and due to its lower failure rate than task-based fMRI, it is useful for patients who are unable to cooperate with task-based studies.

19.
Neurology ; 90(13): e1134-e1142, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine mechanisms underlying regional vulnerability to infarction in sickle cell disease (SCD) by measuring voxel-wise cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO2) in children with SCD. METHODS: Participants underwent brain MRIs to measure voxel-based CBF, OEF, and CMRO2. An infarct heat map was created from an independent pediatric SCD cohort with silent infarcts and compared to prospectively obtained OEF maps. RESULTS: Fifty-six participants, 36 children with SCD and 20 controls, completed the study evaluation. Whole-brain CBF (99.2 vs 66.3 mL/100 g/min, p < 0.001), OEF (42.7% vs 28.8%, p < 0.001), and CMRO2 (3.7 vs 2.5 mL/100 g/min, p < 0.001) were higher in the SCD cohort compared to controls. A region of peak OEF was identified in the deep white matter in the SCD cohort, delineated by a ratio map of average SCD to control OEF voxels. CMRO2 in this region, which encompassed the CBF nadir, was low relative to all white matter (p < 0.001). Furthermore, this peak OEF region colocalized with regions of greatest infarct density derived from an independent SCD cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated OEF in the deep white matter identifies a signature of metabolically stressed brain tissue at increased stroke risk in pediatric patients with SCD. We propose that border zone physiology, exacerbated by chronic anemic hypoxia, explains the high risk in this region.

20.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 34(5): 901-910, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects resting state brain networks in adults. This study aims to correlate resting state functional MRI (rsMRI) signal latency in pediatric TLE patients with their laterality. METHODS: From 2006 to 2016, 26 surgical TLE patients (12 left, 14 right) with a mean age of 10.7 years (range 0.9-18) were prospectively studied. Preoperative rsMRI was obtained in patients with concordant lateralizing structural MRI, EEG, and PET studies. Standard preprocessing techniques and seed-based rsMRI analyses were performed. Additionally, the latency in rsMRI signal between each 6 mm voxel sampled was examined, compared to the global mean signal, and projected onto standard atlas space for individuals and the cohort. RESULTS: All but one of the 26 patients improved seizure frequency postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 2.9 years (range 0-7.7), with 21 patients seizure-free. When grouped for epileptogenic laterality, the latency map qualitatively demonstrated that the right TLE patients had a relatively early signal pattern, whereas the left TLE patients had a relatively late signal pattern compared to the global mean signal in the right temporal lobe. Quantitatively, the two groups had significantly different signal latency clusters in the bilateral temporal lobes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There are functional MR signal latency changes in medical refractory pediatric TLE patients. Qualitatively, signal latency in the right temporal lobe precedes the mean signal in right TLE patients and is delayed in left TLE patients. With larger confirmatory studies, preoperative rsMRI latency analysis may offer an inexpensive, noninvasive adjunct modality to lateralize pediatric TLE.

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