Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 20, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058563

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between dietary fat intake and the presence of AMD. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study with cohorts prospectively recruited from the United States and Portugal. AMD was diagnosed based on color fundus photographs with the AREDS classification. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the percent energy intake of trans fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for quintile of amount of FA were calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the OR. Results: We included 483 participants, 386 patients with AMD and 97 controls. Higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 2.3-fold higher odds of presence of AMD (P for trend = 0.0156), whereas a higher intake of PUFA (OR, 0.25; P for trend = 0.006) and MUFA (OR, 0.24; P for trend < 0.0001) presented an inverse association. Subgroup analysis showed that higher quintile of trans fat was associated with increased odds of having intermediate AMD (OR, 2.26; P for trend = 0.02); and higher quintile of PUFA and MUFA were inversely associated with intermediate AMD (OR, 0.2 [P for trend = 0.0013]; OR, 0.17 [P for trend < 0.0001]) and advanced AMD (OR, 0.13 [P for trend = 0.02]; OR, 0.26 [P for trend = 0.004]). Additionally, a statistically significant effect modification by country was noted with inverse association between MUFA and AMD being significant (OR, 0.04; P for trend < 0.0001) for the Portugal population only. Conclusions: Our study shows that higher dietary intake of trans fat is associated with the presence of AMD, and a higher intake of PUFA and MUFA is inversely associated with AMD.

2.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405253

RESUMO

Solution-based direct patterning on an elastomer substrate with meniscus-dragging deposition (MDD) enables fabrication of very thin carbon nanotube (CNT) layers in the nanometer scale (80-330 nm). To fabricate the CNT pattern with CNT solution, contact angle, electrical variation, mechanical stress, and surface cracks of elastomer substrate were analyzed to identify the optimal conditions of O2 treatment (treatment for 30 s with RF power of 50 W in O2 atmosphere of 50 sccm) and mixture ratio between Ecoflex and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) (Ecoflex:PDMS = 5:1). The type of mask for patterning of the CNT layer was determined through quantitative analysis for sharpness and uniformity of the fabricated CNT pattern. Through these optimization processes, the CNT pattern was produced on the elastomer substrate with selected mask (30 µm thick oriented polypropylene). The thickness of CNT pattern was also controlled to have hundreds nanometer and 500 µm wide rectangular and circular shapes were demonstrated. Furthermore, the change in the current and resistance of the CNT layer according to the applied strain on the elastomer substrate was analyzed. Our results demonstrated the potential of the MDD method for direct CNT patterning with high uniformity and the possibility to fabricate a stretchable sensor.

4.
BMJ ; 366: l4009, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of dietary fatty acids with cardiovascular disease mortality and total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 11 264 participants with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). EXPOSURES: Dietary fat intake assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every two to four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease mortality during follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2502 deaths including 646 deaths due to cardiovascular disease were documented. After multivariate adjustment, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with a lower cardiovascular disease mortality, compared with total carbohydrates: hazard ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quarter were 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.99; P for trend=0.03) for total PUFAs, 0.69 (0.52 to 0.90; P=0.007) for marine n-3 PUFAs, 1.13 (0.85 to 1.51) for α-linolenic acid, and 0.75 (0.56 to 1.01) for linoleic acid. Inverse associations with total mortality were also observed for intakes of total PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and linoleic acid, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of animal, but not plant, origin were associated with a higher total mortality. In models that examined the theoretical effects of substituting PUFAs for other fats, isocalorically replacing 2% of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs or linoleic acid was associated with 13% (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.77 to 0.99) or 15% (0.85, 0.73 to 0.99) lower cardiovascular disease mortality, respectively. A 2% replacement of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs was associated with 12% (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.83 to 0.94) lower total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher intake of PUFAs, in comparison with carbohydrates or saturated fatty acids, is associated with lower total mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. These findings highlight the important role of quality of dietary fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and total mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Correlação de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 103(12): 1769-1776, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microperimetry is a technique that is increasingly used to assess visual function in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between retinal sensitivity measured with macular integrity assessment (MAIA) microperimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based macular morphology in AMD. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional study. All participants were imaged with colour fundus photographs used for AMD staging (Age-Related Eye Disease Study scale), spectral-domain OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany) and swept-source OCT (Topcon, Japan). Threshold retinal sensitivity of the central 10° diameter circle was assessed with the full-threshold, 37-point protocol of the MAIA microperimetry device (Centervue, Italy). Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effect linear regression models were used for analysis. RESULTS: We included 102 eyes with AMD and 46 control eyes. Multivariable analysis revealed that older age (p<0.0001), advanced AMD stage (p<0.0001) and reduced retinal thickness (p<0.0001) were associated with decreased mean retinal sensitivity. No associations were found between choroidal thickness and retinal sensitivity within the macula. Within the 10° diameter circle of the macula, the presence of ellipsoid disruption, subretinal fluid, atrophy and fibrosis, and outer retinal tubulation on OCT images was also associated with decreased retinal sensitivity (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between TRS as determined by MAIA microperimetry and several OCT structural parameters across various stages of AMD. This study highlights the relevance of microperimetry as a functional outcome measure for AMD.

6.
Biomed Opt Express ; 9(6): 2699-2715, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258684

RESUMO

We present a new fiber-bundle-based endomicroscopy system to measure the fast cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in blood vessels located between the surface and the deep brain of living animals. The CBF velocity is obtained by measuring the displacement of the partially overlapped red blood cell images directly, using double-pulse 532-nm laser illumination. The proposed method could measure CBF in blood vessels with diameters ranging from 4 µm to 42 µm and could measure CBF velocities up to 3.2 µm/ms for different vessel diameters at a depth of 2.1 mm from the brain surface in a living mouse.

7.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2018: 8461380, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116650

RESUMO

Dielectrophoresis- (DEP-) based separation method between a protein, amyloid beta 42, and polystyrene (PS) beads in different microholes was demonstrated for enhancement of performance for bead-based fluorescent sensor. An intensity of ∇|E|2 was relative to a diameter of a microhole, and the diameters of two microholes for separation between the protein and PS beads were simulated to 3 µm and 15 µm, respectively. The microholes were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The separation between the protein and the PS beads was demonstrated by comparing the average intensity of fluorescence (AIF) by each molecule. Relative AIF was measured in various applying voltage and time conditions, and the conditions for allocating the PS beads into 15 µm hole were optimized at 80 mV and 15 min, respectively. In the optimized condition, the relative AIF was observed approximately 4.908 ± 0.299. Finally, in 3 µm and 15 µm hole, the AIFs were approximately 3.143 and -1.346 by 2 nm of protein and about -2.515 and 4.211 by 30 nm of the PS beads, respectively. The results showed that 2 nm of the protein and 30 nm of PS beads were separated by DEP force in each microhole effectively, and that our method is applicable as a new method to verify an efficiency of the labeling for bead-based fluorescent sensor ∇|E|2.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(25): 2867-2876, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the impact of healthy lifestyle practices on the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of an overall healthy lifestyle, defined by eating a high-quality diet (top two-fifths of Alternative Healthy Eating Index), nonsmoking, engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (≥150 min/week), and drinking alcohol in moderation (5 to 15 g/day for women and 5 to 30 g/day for men), with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This prospective analysis included 11,527 participants with T2D diagnosed during follow-up (8,970 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 2,557 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study), who were free of CVD and cancer at the time of diabetes diagnosis. Diet and lifestyle factors before and after T2D diagnosis were repeatedly assessed every 2 to 4 years. RESULTS: There were 2,311 incident CVD cases and 858 CVD deaths during an average of 13.3 years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment of covariates, the low-risk lifestyle factors after diabetes diagnosis were each associated with a lower risk of CVD incidence and CVD mortality. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for participants with 3 or more low-risk lifestyle factors compared with 0 were 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40 to 0.59) for total CVD incidence, 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.66) for incidence of coronary heart disease, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.51) for stroke incidence, and 0.32 (95% CI: 0.22 to 0.47) for CVD mortality (all p trend <0.001). The population-attributable risk for poor adherence to the overall healthy lifestyle (<3 low-risk factors) was 40.9% (95% CI: 28.5% to 52.0%) for CVD mortality. In addition, greater improvements in healthy lifestyle factors from pre-diabetes to post-diabetes diagnosis were also significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD incidence and CVD mortality. For each number increment in low-risk lifestyle factors there was a 14% lower risk of incident total CVD, a 12% lower risk of coronary heart disease, a 21% lower risk of stroke, and a 27% lower risk of CVD mortality (all p < 0.001). Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by diabetes duration, sex/cohort, body mass index at diabetes diagnosis, smoking status, and lifestyle factors before diabetes diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to an overall healthy lifestyle is associated with a substantially lower risk of CVD incidence and CVD mortality among adults with T2D. These findings further support the tremendous benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle in reducing the subsequent burden of cardiovascular complications in patients with T2D.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 3): 878-884, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714200

RESUMO

A scanning transmission X-ray microscope is operational at the 10A beamline at the Pohang Light Source. The 10A beamline provides soft X-rays in the photon energy range 100-2000 eV using an elliptically polarized undulator. The practically usable photon energy range of the scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) setup is from ∼150 to ∼1600 eV. With a zone plate of 25 nm outermost zone width, the diffraction-limited space resolution, ∼30 nm, is achieved in the photon energy range up to ∼850 eV. In transmission mode for thin samples, STXM provides the element, chemical state and magnetic moment specific distributions, based on absorption spectroscopy. A soft X-ray fluorescence measurement setup has been implemented in order to provide the elemental distribution of thicker samples as well as chemical state information with a space resolution of ∼50 nm. A ptychography setup has been implemented in order to improve the space resolution down to 10 nm. Hardware setups and application activities of the STXM are presented.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196481, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (ß = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and ß = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (ß = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and ß = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (ß = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and ß = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
11.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 2(5): 475-480, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the rate of progression to advanced stage in the fellow eye of patients with typical age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a South Korean cohort. DESIGN: This is an observational, consecutive retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with unilateral advanced stage AMD (n = 288; 180 typical AMD patients and 108 PCV patients). METHODS: Clinical assessment included detailed eye examination, including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five-year progression rate to advanced stage in the fellow eye based on initial Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) score and the correlation between the initial AREDS score and progression to advanced disease in the fellow eye according to types of AMD. RESULTS: Five-year progression to advanced disease in the fellow eye was similar between typical AMD and PCV cases (11.1% vs. 14.8 %, respectively; P = 0.466, log-rank test). Among patients with initial AREDS score of 2 (normal macula or small drusen on the fellow eye), a higher proportion of patients progressed to advanced disease in the PCV group compared with typical AMD patients (10.4% vs. 2.4 %, respectively; P = 0.0042, log-rank test). Initial AREDS score correlated significantly with progression of the fellow eye to advanced stage in the typical AMD group, after adjusting for age, gender, and other comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.80-32.12; P = 0.0003). However in the PCV group, initial AREDS score did not correlate with progression to advanced stage in the fellow eye (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 0.83-4.05; P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike typical AMD, PCV progresses without typical features such as drusen or pigmentary abnormality. Baseline AREDS score was less likely to predict progression of the fellow eye to advanced-stage disease in PCV compared with typical AMD. Therefore, the globally recognized risk-scoring AREDS system may not be applicable in Asia, where PCV is a prevalent subtype of AMD.

12.
Nanoscale ; 10(1): 150-157, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115327

RESUMO

On-the-spot visualization of biochemical responses of intact live cells is vital for a clear understanding of cell biology. The main obstacles for instant visualization of biochemical responses of living cells arise from the lack of a sophisticated detecting technique which can simultaneously provide chemical analysis tools and the biocompatible wet conditions. Here we introduce scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combined with a liquid-enclosing graphene system (LGS), offering biocompatible conditions and improved X-ray absorption spectra to probe the chemical responses of live cells under wet conditions. This set-up enables us to probe a subtle change in absorption spectra depending on the oxidation state of a miniscule amount of oxygen in the functional groups present in each cell and its surroundings containing a minimal amount of liquid water. As an example of in situ biochemical responses of wet cells, chemical responses of a single Colo 205 cell are visualized and analyzed using X-ray absorption near the oxygen K-edge. This spectromicroscopic method using LGS can be applied to diverse biological samples under wet conditions for the analysis of their biochemical responses.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Microscopia/métodos , Análise Espectral/métodos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Água , Raios X
13.
Biomed Opt Express ; 8(6): 2781-2795, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663906

RESUMO

We report a fiber optics-based intravital fluorescence imaging platform that includes epi-fluorescence microscopy and laser patterned-light stimulation system. The platform can perform real-time fluorescence imaging with a lateral resolution of ~4.9 µm while directly inserted into the intact mouse brain, optically stimulate vasoconstriction during real-time imaging, and avoid vessel damage in the penetration path of imaging probe. Using 473-nm patterned-light stimulation, we successfully modulated the vasoconstriction of a single targeted 37-µm-diameter blood vessel located more than 4.7 mm below the brain surface of a live SM22-ChR2 mouse. This platform may permit the hemodynamic studies associated with deeper brain neurovascular disorders.

14.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 30(2): 139-142, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405060

RESUMO

We propose a novel Myocardial Injury Summary Score (MISS) integrating the 4 biomarkers suggested by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for management of heart failure. In this case series, we examined 4 heart failure patients who received treatment guided by the biomarker results and 4 patients who received routine clinical management with no information about the biomarkers. Most of the patients receiving biomarker-guided management had medications adjusted based on the biomarker values, while no changes were recommended for patients in the biomarker-blinded category. This case series suggests that biomarker-guided therapy with serial biomarker values leads to timely therapeutic adjustment and that biomarker values as a composite score can be used effectively to measure the severity of heart failure.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(1): 57-64, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247849

RESUMO

Galectin-3 is an emerging biomarker of myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and immune response. We sought to examine the relation of plasma galectin-3 with cardiovascular (CVD) mortality, all-cause mortality, and incident heart failure (HF). We performed a literature search for all relevant publications using Ovid MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and other databases up to January 2016. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We extracted hazard ratios (HRs) from regression models that adjusted for age, gender, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, natriuretic peptides, and renal function, when available. A total of 18 studies with 32,350 participants (323,090 person-years of follow-up) met criteria for analysis. The mean age was 57.3 years and 47.2% of participants were women, with a follow-up duration median of 5 years, interquartile range: 2.9 to 10 years. Of the 18 studies, 13 (72%) adjusted for N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide and renal function in the multivariable adjusted models. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, we found an HR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.14) for all-cause mortality, 1.22 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.39) for CVD mortality, and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.21) for HF risk for each 1 SD increase in galectin-3 level. In a subgroup analysis of CVD mortality, the HR was 1.44 (1.09 to 1.79) for patients with HF and 1.09 (0.91 to 1.27) for the general population. In conclusion, our results suggest that elevated plasma galectin-3 is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and HF. It may add prognostic value beyond that provided by traditional CVD risk factors.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(9): 6397-6405, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197617

RESUMO

Correlations among the B-O6 octahedra distortions, existing polymorphous phases, band structures and electronic conductivities of ABO3 perovskites are matters for debate and require a deep understanding of their local atomic/electronic structures and diverse assets. In this study, to illustrate the distortion in V-O6 octahedra and its implication on the band structure and electronic properties, spectroscopic investigations on the RF-sputtering grown insulating SrVO3 thin films were employed using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). V K-edge and V L3,2-edge XANES, along with atomic multiplet calculations, have confirmed the 4+ oxidation state of V ions in the pristine and annealed SrVO3 thin films. Lower t2g/eg peak intensity ratio and smaller energy separation between t2g and eg peaks in the O K-edge XANES spectra, compared to the VO2 reference sample, have confirmed a larger V-O6 distortion in the orthorhombic SrVO3 thin films. Moreover, from the EXAFS data analysis, the local orthorhombic structure has been identified in the pristine and annealed SrVO3 thin films, compelling significant distortion in the V-O6 octahedra. Dimerization in the vanadium chains and V-V twisting, caused by V-O6 octahedra distortion, manifests a miscellaneous ligand field interaction between O 2p and V 3d orbitals and facilitates (i) a larger separation between the bonding and antibonding d‖ orbitals and (ii) an upward shift of the π* band in the band structure, leading to larger band gaps in the insulating SrVO3 thin films. Our spectroscopy results may open up new avenues for the mechanism of insulating/conducting character in other complicated perovskite materials using XANES-EXAFS.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40872, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28098199

RESUMO

As current clinical approaches for lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction such as pharmacological and electrical stimulation treatments lack target specificity, thus resulting in suboptimal outcomes with various side effects, a better treatment modality with spatial and temporal target-specificity is necessary. In this study, we delivered optogenetic membrane proteins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), to bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of mice using either the Cre-loxp transgenic system or a viral transfection method. The results showed that depolarizing ChR2-SMCs with blue light induced bladder contraction, whereas hyperpolarizing NpHR-SMCs with yellow light suppressed PGE2-induced overactive contraction. We also confirmed that optogenetic contraction of bladder smooth muscles in this study is not neurogenic, but solely myogenic, and that optogenetic light stimulation can modulate the urination in vivo. This study thus demonstrated the utility of optogenetic modulation of smooth muscle as a means to actively control the urinary bladder contraction with spatial and temporal accuracy. These features would increase the efficacy of bladder control in LUT dysfunctions without the side effects of conventional clinical therapies.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/patologia , Optogenética , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Animais , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos da radiação , Halorrodopsinas/genética , Técnicas In Vitro , Luz , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/veterinária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Bexiga Urinária/citologia , Micção
18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 173: 549-555, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810768

RESUMO

We report detailed investigations on the local electronic/atomic structure and photoluminescence properties of chemically synthesized Eu:HfO2 powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed to analyze the crystal structure, local atomic/electronic structure and luminescence properties of the samples. No crystalline phases were detected with Cu Kα (λ=1.5418Å) based XRD; however, local monoclinic structure was confirmed by the Hf L-edge XANES and EXAFS. O K-edge XANES spectral features could be deconvoluted with doublets and triplets in eg and t2g orbitals, respectively, which ascribed to the local monoclinic structure for all of the samples. Eu M5,4-edge XANES confirmed the pre-dominancy of Eu3+ ions in the HfO2 samples with a fractional amount of Eu2+ ions. PL spectra revealed the electric dipole allowed (5D0-7F0,2,4) emission properties of Eu:HfO2 samples. The orange-red emission is ascribed to the Eu interstitial/surface segregation induced defects.

19.
ACS Nano ; 10(9): 8973-9, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563804

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have recently received increasing attention because of their potential applications in semiconducting and optoelectronic devices exhibiting large optical absorptions in the visible range. However, some studies have reported that the grain boundaries of TMDs can be easily degraded by the presence of oxygen in water and by UV irradiation, ozone, and heating under ambient conditions. We herein demonstrate the photodegradation of WSe2 and MoSe2 by laser exposure (532 nm) and the subsequent prevention of this photodegradation by encapsulation with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers. The photodegradation was monitored by variation in peak intensities in the Raman and photoluminescence spectra. The rapid photodegradation of WSe2 under air occurred at a laser power of ≥0.5 mW and was not observed to any extent at ≤0.1 mW. However, in the presence of a water droplet, the photodegradation of WSe2 was accelerated and took place even at 0.1 mW. We examined the encapsulation of WSe2 with h-BN and found that this prevented photodegradation. However, a single layer of h-BN was not sufficient to fully prevent this photodegradation, and so a triple layer of h-BN was employed. We also demonstrated that the photodegradation of MoSe2 was prevented by encapsulation with h-BN layers. On the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoemission microscopy data, we determined that this degradation was caused by the photoinduced oxidation of TMDs. These results can be used to develop a general strategy for improving the stability of 2D materials in practical applications.

20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 15(1): 122, 2016 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acid-base imbalance has been reported to increase incidence of hypertension and diabetes. However, the association between diet-induced acid load and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population has not been fully investigated. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospectively registered cross-sectional study using nationally representative samples of 11,601 subjects from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Individual CVD risk was evaluated using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk equations according to 2013 ACC/AHA guideline assessment in subjects aged 40-79 without prior CVD. Acid-base status was assessed with both the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the dietary acid load (DAL) scores derived from nutrient intake. RESULTS: Individuals in the highest PRAL tertile had a significant increase in 10 year ASCVD risks (9.6 vs. 8.5 %, P < 0.01) and tended to belong to the high-risk (10 year risk >10 %) group compared to those in the lowest PRAL tertile (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.35). The association between higher PRAL score and high CVD risk was stronger in the middle-aged group. Furthermore, a multiple logistic regression analysis also demonstrated this association (OR 1.20 95 % CI 1.01-1.43). Subgroup analysis stratified obesity or exercise status; individuals in unhealthy condition with lower PRAL scores had comparable ASCVD risk to people in the higher PRAL group that were in favorable physical condition. In addition, elevated PRAL scores were associated with high ASCVD risk independent of obesity, exercise, and insulin resistance, but not sarcopenia. Similar trends were observed with DAL scores. CONCLUSION: Diet-induced acid load was associated with increased risk of CVD, independent of obesity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/epidemiologia , Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA