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N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875


BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE number, NCT01494038.).

Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Dent J (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374831


The Action for Dental Health Act of 2017 bill is intended to prevent dental disease and divert dental emergencies from high-cost centers (like hospital emergency rooms) to dental offices. Lines 15-17 of the bill include grant funding to support portable or mobile dental equipment, and this should lead to an expansion of opportunities to deliver and receive care through the use of portable dental equipment and mobile dental vans, i.e., portable and mobile dentistry (PMD). Historically, PMD has been valuable to bridge the access gap for those for whom transport can be a challenge, like children and the elderly. However, PMD could be valuable to large employers, allowing the employees to receive dental care with minimal disruption to their workday. Oral pain is known to affect work and school attendance, and improving access to dental care could benefit individuals, families, organizations, and communities.

Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 36(1): 53-60, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749649


BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. No studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of statins in this population. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 10 to <24 years of age on stable ART with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL for ≥6 months initiated atorvastatin 10 mg once daily. Atorvastatin was increased to 20 mg if LDL-C efficacy criteria (LDL-C < 110 mg/dL or decreased ≥30% from baseline) were not met at week 4. Primary outcomes were safety and efficacy. RESULTS: Twenty-eight youth initiated atorvastatin; 7 were 10-15 years and 21 were 15-24 years. Mean baseline LDL-C was 161 mg/dL (standard deviation 19 mg/dL). Efficacy criteria were met at week 4 by 17 of 27 (63%) participants. Atorvastatin was increased to 20 mg in 10 participants. Mean LDL-C decreased from baseline by 30% (90% confidence interval: 26%, 35%) at week 4, 28% (90% confidence interval: 23%, 33%) at week 24 and 26% (90% confidence interval: 20%, 33%) at week 48. LDL-C was less than 110 mg/dL in 44% at week 4, 42% at week 12 and 46% at weeks 24 and 48. Total cholesterol, non high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C and apolipoprotein B decreased significantly, but IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not. Two participants in the younger age group discontinued study for toxicities possibly related to atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin lowered total cholesterol, LDL-C, non HDL-C and apolipoprotein B in HIV-infected youth with ART-associated hyperlipidemia. Atorvastatin could be considered for HIV-infected children with hyperlipidemia, but safety monitoring is important particularly in younger children.

Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 68(5): 554-61, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564105


BACKGROUND: Injection opioid use plays a significant role in the transmission of HIV infection in many communities and several regions of the world. Access to evidence-based treatments for opioid use disorders is extremely limited. METHODS: HIV Prevention Trials Network 058 (HPTN 058) was a randomized controlled trial designed to compare the impact of 2 medication-assisted treatment (MAT) strategies on HIV incidence or death among opioid-dependent people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV-negative opioid-dependent PWID were recruited from 4 communities in Thailand and China with historically high prevalence of HIV among PWID. A total of 1251 participants were randomly assigned to either (1) a 1-year intervention consisting of 2 opportunities for a 15-day detoxification with buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) combined with up to 21 sessions of behavioral drug and risk counseling [short-term medication-assisted treatment (ST-MAT)] or (2) thrice-weekly dosing for 48 weeks with BUP/NX and up to 21 counseling sessions [long-term medication-assisted treatment (LT-MAT)] followed by dose tapering. All participants were followed for 52 weeks after treatment completion to assess durability of impact. RESULTS: Although the study was stopped early due to lower than expected occurrence of the primary end points, sufficient data were available to assess the impact of the interventions on drug use and injection-related risk behavior. At week 26, 22% of ST-MAT participants had negative urinalyses for opioids compared with 57% in the LT-MAT (P < 0.001). Differences disappeared in the year after treatment: at week 78, 35% in ST-MAT and 32% in the LT-MAT had negative urinalyses. Injection-related risk behaviors were significantly reduced in both groups after randomization. CONCLUSIONS: Participants receiving BUP/NX 3 times weekly were more likely to reduce opioid injection while on active treatment. Both treatment strategies were considered safe and associated with reductions in injection-related risk behavior. These data support the use of thrice-weekly BUP/NX as a way to reduce exposure to HIV risk. Continued access to BUP/NX may be required to sustain reductions in opioid use.

Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/terapia , Adulto , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/efeitos adversos , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento