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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 40(4): 312-316, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067430

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Bone marrow (BM) microvessel density (MVD) is a useful marker of angiogenesis and an increase in MVD can be used as a marker of poor prognosis in MM patients. We developed an automated image analyzer to assess MVD from images of BM biopsies stained with anti-CD34 antibodies using two color models. MVD was calculated by merging images from the red and hue channels after eliminating non-microvessels. The analyzer results were compared with those obtained by two experienced hematopathologists in a blinded manner using the 84 BM samples of MM patients. Manual assessment of the MVD by two hematopathologists yielded mean±SD values of 19.4±11.8 and 20.0±11.8. The analyzer generated a mean±SD of 19.5±11.2. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot of the MVD results demonstrated very good agreement between the automated image analyzer and both hematopathologists (ICC=0.893 [0.840-0.929] and ICC=0.906 [0.859-0.938]). This automated analyzer can provide time- and labor-saving benefits with more objective results in hematology laboratories.

2.
Trials ; 20(1): 778, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common symptom and continuous or recurrent pain results in chronic low back pain (CLBP). While many patients with CLBP have tried various treatments, complementary and alternative medicine including acupuncture and herbal medicine is one of the commonly used treatments. Palmijihwang-hwan is a herbal medicine used frequently in clinical practice but there has been no report of the efficacy, safety, or cost-effectiveness analysis of Palmijihwang-hwan for CLBP. METHODS: This study is a randomized, assessor-blinded, multicenter, clinical trial with two parallel groups. Four Korean medicine hospitals will recruit 84 participants and randomly allocate them into the control or treatment group in a 1:1 ratio. The control group will receive acupuncture treatment at 11 local and 4 distal acupuncture points for 20 min twice a week for 6 weeks. The treatment group will receive the same acupuncture treatment as the control group and also take Palmijihwang-hwan for 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be the change in visual analog scale (VAS) score between baseline (visit 1) and completion of the intervention (visit 12), and secondary outcomes will be pain-related clinical relevance (minimal clinical important difference or the proportion of the participants who decrease more than 30, or 50% on VAS), disability (Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire), quality of life (EuroQol-5D), global assessment (Patient Global Impression of Change), and economic analysis (cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis). Additionally, safety will be assessed. DISCUSSION: The results of our study will provide the clinical evidence about the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness analysis of Palmijihwang-hwan for CLBP. There will be a chance to provide multiple subdivided influence of this treatment with various outcome measures, but lack of placebo is our limitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service, KCT0002998. Registered on 12 July 2018.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17764, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689836

RESUMO

While stress is known to cause many diseases, there is no established method to determine individuals vulnerable to stress. Sasang typology categorizes humans into four Sasang types (So-Eum, Tae-Eum, So-Yang, and Tae-Yang), which have unique pathophysiologies because of their differential susceptibilities to specific stimuli, including stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if Sasang typology can be used identify individuals who are vulnerable to stress by evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV).This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 399 healthy men and women aged 30 to 49 years were recruited. Physical examinations for stress included HRV measurement and blood tests. The subjects also completed questionnaires about psychological stress, self-awareness, and lifestyle. HRV was analyzed using frequency-domain analysis. Subjects were divided into So-Eum (SE) and non-So-Eum (non-SE) groups according to their diagnosis.The weight and body mass index in the SE group were significantly lower than those in the non-SE group (both, P = .000). There were no significant between-group differences in any other demographic variables. In HRV analysis, the normalized high frequency (nHF) was higher (P = .008) while the normalized low frequency (nLF; P = .008) and LF:HF ratio (LF/HF; P = .002) were lower in the SE group than in the non-SE group.Although there was no difference in variables affecting HRV, HRV values were significantly different between groups. The LF/HF value for the SE group was at the lower limit of the normal range, although there were no associated clinical problems. These findings suggest that individuals with the SE type are more susceptible to stress than those with the other types. Thus, middle-aged individuals who are vulnerable to stress can be identified using Sasang typology.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Somatotipos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17260, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study is a prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial to explore the effectiveness of 12-week adjuvant moxibustion therapy for arthralgia in menopausal females at stage I to III breast cancer on aromatase inhibitor (AI) administration, compared with those receiving usual care. METHODS/DESIGN: Forty-six menopausal female patients with breast cancer who completed cancer therapy will be randomly allocated to either adjuvant moxibustion or usual care groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention group will undergo 24 sessions of adjuvant moxibustion therapy with usual care for 12 weeks, whereas the control group will receive only usual care during the same period. The usual care consists of acetaminophen administration on demand and self-directed exercise education to manage AI-related joint pain. The primary outcome is the mean change of the worst pain level according to the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form between the initial visit and the endpoint. The mean changes in depression, fatigue, and quality of life will also be compared between groups. Safety and pharmacoeconomic evaluations will also be included. DISCUSSION: Continuous variables will be compared by an independent t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test between the adjuvant moxibustion and usual care groups. Adverse events will be analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher exact test. The statistical analysis will be performed by a 2-tailed test at a significance level of .05.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Moxibustão , Idoso , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/economia , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxibustão/efeitos adversos , Moxibustão/economia , Projetos Piloto , Pós-Menopausa , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Trials ; 20(1): 434, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by continuous impairment in communication and social interaction and by limited and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Behavioral, educational, and pharmaceutical interventions have been shown to reduce behavioral disabilities, improve verbal/non-verbal communication, and help patients acquire self-reliance skills. However, there has been a lack of systematic verification and consensus regarding the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD because of its unclear etiology. Ukgansangajinpibanha (UGSJB), a legitimately prescribed herbal medicine for nervousness, insomnia, night crying, and malnutrition in South Korea and Japan, has been used for angry, sensitive, nervous, and unsettled children with ASD. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. The 4- to 6-year-old children with ASD will be randomly assigned to following groups: 1. A UGSJB granule with acupuncture, twice daily (n = 120) 2. A placebo group with acupuncture, twice daily (n = 120). The following outcome measures will be used: behavior by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Autism Behavior Checklist, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist; social maturity by the Social Maturity Scale; quality of life by the Child Health Questionnaire and EuroQoL Five-dimension Five-level Youth; and parental stress by the Parenting Stress Index at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after the beginning of treatment. In addition, to evaluate safety, we will investigate the adverse reactions that may be caused by UGSJB granule. Finally, we will make an economic evaluation of UGSJB for the treatment of ASD. DISCUSSION: We prepared a well-designed clinical trial to investigate the safety and effectiveness of UGSJB on ASD symptoms compared with placebo treatment. The results from this study will provide clinical evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and economic value of UGSJB combined with acupuncture in children with ASD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service: KCT0003007 (registered on April 5, 2018).

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(21): e15704, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mibyeongbogam (MBBG) is a mobile application developed for subhealth status self-management in the Republic of Korea. It aims to assess a user's subhealth status, and then to recommend relevant traditional Korean medicine (TKM)-based health-promoting strategies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of MBBG's employment for the subhealth management of general healthy adults. METHODS: This is a prospective, open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial that will seek to enroll 150 healthy adults, aged 30 to 49 years old, from 2 hospitals in the Republic of Korea. The eligible participants will then be randomly allocated to either the MBBG or control group, at a 1:1 allocation ratio. The MBBG group will use the application for 12 weeks, while the control group will undergo no intervention. The awareness of subhealth status will be primarily assessed. Health promoting behaviors, quality of life, TKM-based health questionnaires, and physical examination results will be assessed as secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: The primary endpoint will be tested with a 2-sample t test, or a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Any other continuous variables will be tested via an analysis of covariance, while categorical variables will be tested by a Chi-squared or Fisher exact test. Repeated measure analysis of variance will be performed to explore any in-group differences. The results will be addressed with a 95% confidence interval. We expect that MBBG will be the 1st TKM-based mobile application to be feasible for primary care in subhealth management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRIS (Clinical Research Information Service), KCT0003488, February 11, 2019.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Aplicativos Móveis , Autocuidado/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(15): e15174, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This is a prospective, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant application of Jaungo (JUG) for radiation-induced dermatitis (RD) in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, in comparison with general supportive care (GSC). METHODS/DESIGN: Eighty female patients, who have been diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, will be allocated to either the JUG or GSC group with an allocation ratio of 1:1 after breast conservation surgery, in the Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Both the groups will be subjected to GSC, but only the JUG group participants will apply adjuvant JUG ointment on the irradiated skin for 6 weeks, twice a day. The primary outcome of this study is the assessment of incidence rate of RD using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for toxicity gradation of 2 or more. Maximum pain level, quality of life, adverse reactions, and pharmacoeconomic evaluations will also be included. DISCUSSION: The primary outcome will be statistically compared using the logrank test after estimating the survival curve using the Kaplan-Meier method. Continuous variables will be tested using independent t test or Mann-Whitney U test. The adverse events will be evaluated with Chi-square or Fisher exact test. All the data will be analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 (two-sided) with R software (The R Foundation). TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRIS (Clinical Research Information Service), KCT0003506, 14 February 2019.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Radiodermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Protocolos Clínicos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/economia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pomadas/efeitos adversos , Pomadas/economia , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Seleção de Pacientes , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia/economia , Protetores contra Radiação/efeitos adversos , Protetores contra Radiação/economia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine have suggested that acupuncture could alleviate poststroke shoulder pain, based on the clinical evidence. This study protocol is aimed at showing the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture therapy for stroke survivors with shoulder pain. METHODS: After assessing their eligibility, 60 stroke survivors with shoulder pain will be enrolled from two traditional Korean medicine hospitals and randomly divided into either the verum or the sham electroacupuncture (EA) group with a 1:1 ratio. The participants will receive 9 sessions of EA procedures for 3 weeks. The verum EA consists of needling on 6 unilateral acupoints (LI4, LI15, TE14, SI9, SI11, and GB21) with electronic stimulation. A non-penetrating Park sham device and fake electronic stimulation will be used in the sham group on the same acupoints. Patients and outcome assessors will be blinded throughout the entire study. A visual analog scale will be used primarily for the evaluation, and pain rating scale, Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity, modified Ashworth scale, manual muscle test, passive range of motion test, Korean version of a modified Barthel index, and Korean version of the Beck depression inventory will be also be measured. A blinding index will be assessed. For safety, adverse events will be recorded. Data will be statistically analyzed by two-sample t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test for efficacy and a chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test for safety, at 5% of significance level. DISCUSSION: We expect this double-center, randomized, sham-controlled, patient- and assessor-blinded parallel trial to explore the effectiveness and safety of EA therapy, compared with sham EA, for poststroke shoulder pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03086863.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Dor de Ombro/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Eletroacupuntura/efeitos adversos , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Humanos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967645

RESUMO

Cervicogenic dizziness is dizziness triggered by movement or positioning of the cervical spine and is often accompanied by neck pain or stiffness. This is a prospective, pragmatic, assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial aimed at testing the efficacy and safety of adjuvant Chuna Manual Therapy (CMT) in patients with cervicogenic dizziness under usual care treatments. Fifty patients with cervicogenic dizziness will be randomly allocated to CMT or usual care (UC) groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Extensive screening procedures, including examinations for central nervous system problems and nystagmus, will be applied to exclude other dizziness-inducing disorders. The eligible participants will receive 12 sessions of CMT plus UC or only UC over 6 weeks. CMT includes mandatory and discretionary techniques, whereas UC includes electrotherapy, thermotherapy, and patient education. The efficacy will be evaluated primarily as Dizziness Handicap Inventory score. The severity and frequency of dizziness, the level of neck pain or stiffness, and the cervical range of motion will also be evaluated. Safety will be assessed by adverse events. The data will be statistically analyzed at p < 0.05. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) in Korea, KCT0002565, on 29 November 2017, https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01_kren.jsp?seq=9610<ype=&rtype=.

10.
Microfluid Nanofluidics ; 22(11): 126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930706

RESUMO

The three-dimensional two-phase flow dynamics inside a microfluidic device of complex geometry is simulated using a parallel, hybrid front-tracking/level-set solver. The numerical framework employed circumvents numerous meshing issues normally associated with constructing complex geometries within typical computational fluid dynamics packages. The device considered in the present work is constructed via a module that defines solid objects by means of a static distance function. The construction combines primitive objects, such as a cylinder, a plane, and a torus, for instance, using simple geometrical operations. The numerical solutions predicted encompass dripping and jetting, and transitions in flow patterns are observed featuring the formation of drops, 'pancakes', plugs, and jets, over a wide range of flow rate ratios. We demonstrate the fact that vortex formation accompanies the development of certain flow patterns, and elucidate its role in their underlying mechanisms. Experimental visualisation with a high-speed imaging are also carried out. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a negative relationship between sleep deprivation and health. However, no study has investigated the effect of sleep deprivation on individuals with different body composition. The aim of this study was to determine the differential effect of sleep deprivation in individuals with different body compositions (fluid) according to Soyang type (SY) and Taeeum type (TE). METHODS: Sixty-two cognitively normal, middle-aged people with normal sleep patterns were recruited from the local population. The duration of participants' sleep was restricted to 4 h/day during the intervention phase. To examine the physiological changes brought on by sleep deprivation and recovery, 10 ml of venous blood was obtained. RESULTS: Total Body Water (TBW) and Extracellular Water (ECW) were significantly different between the groups in the intervention phase. Physiological parameters also varied from the beginning of the resting phase to the end of the experiment. Potassium levels changed more in SY than TE individuals. CONCLUSION: Participants responded differently to the same amount of sleep deprivation depending on their Sasang constitution types. This study indicated that SY individuals were more sensitive to sleep deprivation and were slower to recover from the effects of sleep deprivation than TE individuals.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387128

RESUMO

This study protocol aims to explore the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of a herbal medication, Gongjindan (GJD), in patients with chronic dizziness. This will be a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with Meniere's disease, psychogenic dizziness, or dizziness of unknown cause will be randomized and allocated to either a GJD or a placebo group in a 1 : 1 ratio. Participants will be orally given 3.75 g GJD or placebo in pill form once a day for 56 days. The primary outcome measure will be the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score. Secondary outcome measures will be as follows: severity (mean vertigo scale and visual analogue scale) and frequency of dizziness, balance function (Berg Balance Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale) and deficiency pattern/syndrome (qi blood yin yang-deficiency questionnaire) levels, and depression (Korean version of Beck's Depression Inventory) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) levels. To assess safety, adverse events, including laboratory test results, will be monitored. Further, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated based on quality-adjusted life years (from the EuroQoL five dimensions' questionnaire) and medical expenses. Data will be statistically analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 (two-sided). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03219515, in July 2017.

15.
Phys Rev E ; 93(6): 063114, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27415365

RESUMO

We report on the numerical and theoretical study of the subcritical bifurcation of parametrically amplified waves appearing at the interface between two immiscible incompressible fluids when the layer of the lower fluid is very shallow. As a critical control parameter is surpassed, small amplitude surface waves bifurcate subcritically toward highly nonlinear ones with twice their amplitude. We relate this hysteresis with the change of shear stress using a simple stress balance, in agreement with numerical results.

16.
J Vet Sci ; 17(4): 531-538, 2016 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456779

RESUMO

Microorganisms found in bioaerosols from animal confinement buildings not only foster the risk of spreading diseases among livestock buildings, but also pose health hazards to farm workers and nearby residents. This study identified the various microorganisms present in the air of swine, chicken, and cattle farms with different kinds of ventilation conditions in Korea. Microbial air samples were collected onto Petri dishes with bacterial or fungal growth media using a cascade impactor. Endotoxin levels in total dust were determined by the limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic QCL method. Prevalent Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) lentus, S. chromogenes, Bacillus (B.) cereus, B. licheniformis, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the dominant fungi and Gram-negative bacteria were Candida albicans and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, respectively. Considering no significant relationship between the indoor dust endotoxin levels and the isolation of Gram-negative bacteria from the indoor air, monitoring the indoor airborne endotoxin level was found to be also critical for risk assessment on health for animals or workers. The present study confirms the importance of microbiological monitoring and control on animal husbandry indoor air to ensure animal and worker welfare.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Poeira/análise , Endotoxinas/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Abrigo para Animais , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Sus scrofa
17.
Trials ; 17: 197, 2016 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27072880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study protocol evaluates the effectiveness of adjuvant electroacupuncture (EA) for urinary retention in poststroke patients undergoing conventional treatments, in comparison with that of a sham control. METHODS/DESIGN: A multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in three hospitals in the Republic of Korea. We are recruiting 54 stroke survivors (aged >19 years), who were diagnosed with urinary retention based on the results of two consecutive post-void residual (PVR) tests, and dividing them randomly into two arms: the EA and Park-sham control groups. They will receive ten sessions of EA or sham treatment for 2 weeks. The participants will be blinded with non-penetrating needles and fake sounds of EA stimulators. The daily PVR ratio will be primarily measured at baseline and at the end of the study to statistically test the effectiveness of EA for poststroke urinary retention. Then, the Korean version of the Qualiveen Questionnaire, the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Score, and the blinding index will be assessed. After each EA session or sham EA, adverse events will be reported to evaluate the safety of EA. Results will be analyzed by using the independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, based on both intention-to-treat and per-protocol principles. DISCUSSION: The findings will provide clinical evidence for the effectiveness of EA treatment to improve urinary retention in stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02472288) on 10 June 2015.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Retenção Urinária/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , República da Coreia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Retenção Urinária/diagnóstico , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/fisiopatologia , Micção , Urodinâmica
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22752, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26948248

RESUMO

This article presents a novel technique to estimate the mechanical properties of the aluminum composite layer on silicon solar cells by using a hybrid 3-dimensional laser scanning force measurement (3-D LSFM) system. The 3-D LSFM system measures the material properties of sub-layers constituting a solar cell. This measurement is critical for realizing high-efficient ultra-thin solar cells. The screen-printed aluminum layer, which significantly affects the bowing phenomenon, is separated from the complete solar cell by removing the silicon (Si) layer with deep reactive ion etching. An elastic modulus of ~15.1 GPa and a yield strength of ~35.0 MPa for the aluminum (Al) composite layer were obtained by the 3-D LSFM system. In experiments performed for 6-inch Si solar cells, the bowing distances decreased from 12.02 to 1.18 mm while the Si layer thicknesses increased from 90 to 190 µm. These results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions for ultra-thin Si thickness (90 µm) based on the obtained Al composite layer properties.

19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16: 46, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough, defined it lasts more than 8 weeks. The symptom is common, but highly troublesome, and it reduces quality of life. Despite much effort to develop a protocol for diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough, it remains problematic to determine its cause. As a result, treatment is often unsuccessful. Thus, there is much interest regarding the use of symptomatic drugs to control chronic cough. Maekmoondong-tang is widely used in East Asian countries to treat chronic dry cough. Several experimental studies have reported that the herbal medicine has immunomodulatory and antitussive effects. Clinical studies involving Maekmoondong-tang have also been carried out; however, these studies have involved treating various diseases as a whole rather than chronic cough itself. Thus, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Maekmoondong-tang in chronic dry cough patients with a randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is designed as an exploratory, single-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel group clinical trial. Patients with dry cough that has lasted more than 8 weeks will be recruited, after a 1-week run-in period, and randomly allocated to either the Maekmoondong-tang treatment group or the placebo group. The patients will receive Maekmoondong-tang or placebo granules 3 times daily for 4 weeks, with a 2-week follow-up. The primary outcome is a 10-point cough diary that will be recorded on a daily basis. The secondary outcomes comprise a cough visual analog scale, the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (Korean version), the Pattern Identification for Chronic Cough Questionnaire, biomarkers, safety testing, etc. Adverse events will also be reported. DISCUSSION: This trial will assess the efficacy and safety of Maekmoondong-tang in chronic dry cough. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Korean Clinical Trial Registry ( http://cris.nih.go.kr ; registration number: KCT0001646). Date of registration: October 5 2015.


Assuntos
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Protocolos Clínicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 178: 144-54, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666732

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT) is a traditional herbal medication widely used to improve cough in Korea, Japan, and China. It is composed of six herbs (Ophiopogonis Tuber, Pinelliae Tuber, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Zizyphi Fructus, Ginseng Radix, and Oryzae Semen). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is aimed to systematically review the relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effectiveness and safety of MMDT for cough. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic and hand-searching of 7 databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, OASIS, RISS, CNKI and CiNii) was systematically conducted up to February 2015 for RCTs testing MMDT in patients with cough. The primary outcome was cough symptom improvement using cough diary, visual analog scale, or response rate. Risk of bias of the included trials was evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The dichotomous data were pooled to obtain a risk ratio (RR) of cough persisting after treatment, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Nine RCTs involving 2453 participants were included. The methodological quality was largely poor for a majority of the studies. MMDT reduced the severity of cough by 74% compared with the conventional antitussive medications in various conditions (n=1145; RR of cough persisting after treatment=0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.34, I(2)=0%). The addition of MMDT to conventional medication in patients with postinfectious cough significantly alleviated symptoms up to day 5 but the effect was not maintained one week afterwards. For other diseases/conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer surgery, and asthma, the evidence is inconsistent for MMDT/mMMDT for cough. Adverse events appear to be rare but the reporting was poor. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence from our systematic review and meta-analysis on MMDT for cough is inconclusive and we propose that rigorously designed, placebo-controlled trials of MMDT should be conducted to establish its place in management of cough.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos/uso terapêutico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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