*Nano Lett ; 23(16): 7675-7682, 2023 Aug 23.*

##### RESUMO

The interplay of spin-orbit coupling and crystal symmetry can generate spin-polarized bands in materials only a few atomic layers thick, potentially leading to unprecedented physical properties. In the case of bilayer materials with global inversion symmetry, locally broken inversion symmetry can generate degenerate spin-polarized bands, in which the spins in each layer are oppositely polarized. Here, we demonstrate that the hidden spins in a Tl bilayer crystal are revealed by growing it on Ag(111) of sizable lattice mismatch, together with the appearance of a remarkable phenomenon unique to centrosymmetric hidden-spin bilayer crystals: a novel band splitting in both spin and space. The key to success in observing this novel splitting is that the interaction at the interface has just the right strength: it does not destroy the original wave functions of the Tl bilayer but is strong enough to induce an energy separation.

*Nat Commun ; 14(1): 4064, 2023 Jul 14.*

##### RESUMO

The currently established electronic phase diagram of cuprates is based on a study of single- and double-layered compounds. These CuO2 planes, however, are directly contacted with dopant layers, thus inevitably disordered with an inhomogeneous electronic state. Here, we solve this issue by investigating a 6-layered Ba2Ca5Cu6O12(F,O)2 with inner CuO2 layers, which are clean with the extremely low disorder, by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and quantum oscillation measurements. We find a tiny Fermi pocket with a doping level less than 1% to exhibit well-defined quasiparticle peaks which surprisingly lack the polaronic feature. This provides the first evidence that the slightest amount of carriers is enough to turn a Mott insulating state into a metallic state with long-lived quasiparticles. By tuning hole carriers, we also find an unexpected phase transition from the superconducting to metallic states at 4%. Our results are distinct from the nodal liquid state with polaronic features proposed as an anomaly of the heavily underdoped cuprates.

##### Assuntos

Cobre , Supercondutividade , Eletrônica , Transição de Fase*Nature ; 617(7961): 488-492, 2023 May.*

##### RESUMO

The newly discovered kagome superconductors represent a promising platform for investigating the interplay between band topology, electronic order and lattice geometry1-9. Despite extensive research efforts on this system, the nature of the superconducting ground state remains elusive10-17. In particular, consensus on the electron pairing symmetry has not been achieved so far18-20, in part owing to the lack of a momentum-resolved measurement of the superconducting gap structure. Here we report the direct observation of a nodeless, nearly isotropic and orbital-independent superconducting gap in the momentum space of two exemplary CsV3Sb5-derived kagome superconductors-Cs(V0.93Nb0.07)3Sb5 and Cs(V0.86Ta0.14)3Sb5-using ultrahigh-resolution and low-temperature angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Remarkably, such a gap structure is robust to the appearance or absence of charge order in the normal state, tuned by isovalent Nb/Ta substitutions of V. Our comprehensive characterizations of the superconducting gap provide indispensable information on the electron pairing symmetry of kagome superconductors, and advance our understanding of the superconductivity and intertwined electronic orders in quantum materials.

*Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1945, 2023 Apr 07.*

##### RESUMO

In crystalline materials, electron-phonon coupling (EPC) is a ubiquitous many-body interaction that drives conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductivity. Recently, in a new kagome metal CsV3Sb5, superconductivity that possibly intertwines with time-reversal and spatial symmetry-breaking orders is observed. Density functional theory calculations predicted weak EPC strength, λ, supporting an unconventional pairing mechanism in CsV3Sb5. However, experimental determination of λ is still missing, hindering a microscopic understanding of the intertwined ground state of CsV3Sb5. Here, using 7-eV laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and Eliashberg function analysis, we determine an intermediate λ=0.45-0.6 at T = 6 K for both Sb 5p and V 3d electronic bands, which can support a conventional superconducting transition temperature on the same magnitude of experimental value in CsV3Sb5. Remarkably, the EPC on the V 3d-band enhances to λ~0.75 as the superconducting transition temperature elevated to 4.4 K in Cs(V0.93Nb0.07)3Sb5. Our results provide an important clue to understand the pairing mechanism in the kagome superconductor CsV3Sb5.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 130(4): 046402, 2023 Jan 27.*

##### RESUMO

The interplay of nontrivial topology and superconductivity in condensed matter physics gives rise to exotic phenomena. However, materials are extremely rare where it is possible to explore the full details of the superconducting pairing. Here, we investigate the momentum dependence of the superconducting gap distribution in a novel Dirac material PdTe. Using high resolution, low temperature photoemission spectroscopy, we establish it as a spin-orbit coupled Dirac semimetal with the topological Fermi arc crossing the Fermi level on the (010) surface. This spin-textured surface state exhibits a fully gapped superconducting Cooper pairing structure below T_{c}â¼4.5 K. Moreover, we find a node in the bulk near the Brillouin zone boundary, away from the topological Fermi arc. These observations not only demonstrate the band resolved electronic correlation between topological Fermi arc states and the way it induces Cooper pairing in PdTe, but also provide a rare case where surface and bulk states host a coexistence of nodeless and nodal gap structures enforced by spin-orbit coupling.

*Nano Lett ; 22(22): 8827-8834, 2022 Nov 23.*

##### RESUMO

The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect has attracted extensive research interest because of the potential applications in spintronics and quantum computing, which is attributable to two conducting edge channels with opposite spin polarization and the quantized electronic conductance of 2e2/h. Recently, 2M-WS2, a new stable phase of transition metal dichalcogenides with a 2M structure showing a layer configuration identical to that of the monolayer 1T' TMDs, was suggested to be a QSH insulator as well as a superconductor with a critical transition temperature of around 8 K. Here, high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and spin-resolved ARPES are applied to investigate the electronic and spin structure of the topological surface states (TSS) in the superconducting 2M-WS2. The TSS exhibit characteristic spin-momentum-locking behavior, suggesting the existence of long-sought nontrivial Z2 topological states therein. We expect that 2M-WS2 with coexisting superconductivity and TSS might host the promising Majorana bound states.

*J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 5): 1631-1638, 2021 Sep 01.*

##### RESUMO

An endstation dedicated to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) using a soft X-ray microbeam has been developed at the beamline BL25SU of SPring-8. To obtain a high photoemission intensity, this endstation is optimized for measurements under the condition of grazing beam incidence to a sample surface, where the glancing angle is 5° or smaller. A Wolter mirror is used for focusing the soft X-rays. Even at the glancing angle of 5°, the smallest beam spot still having a sufficient photon flux for ARPES is almost round on the sample surface and the FWHM diameter is â¼5â µm. There is no need to change the sample orientation for performing kx - ky mapping by virtue of the electron lens with a deflector of the photoelectron analyzer, which makes it possible to keep the irradiation area unchanged. A partially cleaved surface area as small as â¼20â µm was made on an Si(111) wafer and ARPES measurements were performed. The results are presented.

*Nat Mater ; 20(8): 1093-1099, 2021 Aug.*

##### RESUMO

Control of the phase transition from topological to normal insulators can allow for an on/off switching of spin current. While topological phase transitions have been realized by elemental substitution in semiconducting alloys, such an approach requires preparation of materials with various compositions. Thus it is quite far from a feasible device application, which demands a reversible operation. Here we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to visualize the strain-driven band-structure evolution of the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor TaSe3. We demonstrate that it undergoes reversible strain-induced topological phase transitions from a strong topological insulator phase with spin-polarized, quasi-one-dimensional topological surface states, to topologically trivial semimetal and band insulating phases. The quasi-one-dimensional superconductor TaSe3 provides a suitable platform for engineering the topological spintronics, for example as an on/off switch for a spin current that is robust against impurity scattering.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1462, 2021 03 05.*

##### RESUMO

Spin-momentum locking is essential to the spin-split Fermi surfaces of inversion-symmetry broken materials, which are caused by either Rashba-type or Zeeman-type spin-orbit coupling (SOC). While the effect of Zeeman-type SOC on superconductivity has experimentally been shown recently, that of Rashba-type SOC remains elusive. Here we report on convincing evidence for the critical role of the spin-momentum locking on crystalline atomic-layer superconductors on surfaces, for which the presence of the Rashba-type SOC is demonstrated. In-situ electron transport measurements reveal that in-plane upper critical magnetic field is anomalously enhanced, reaching approximately three times the Pauli limit at T = 0. Our quantitative analysis clarifies that dynamic spin-momentum locking, a mechanism where spin is forced to flip at every elastic electron scattering, suppresses the Cooper pair-breaking parameter by orders of magnitude and thereby protects superconductivity. The present result provides a new insight into how superconductivity can survive the detrimental effects of strong magnetic fields and exchange interactions.

*Nat Mater ; 20(4): 473-479, 2021 Apr.*

##### RESUMO

Low-dimensional van der Waals materials have been extensively studied as a platform with which to generate quantum effects. Advancing this research, topological quantum materials with van der Waals structures are currently receiving a great deal of attention. Here, we use the concept of designing topological materials by the van der Waals stacking of quantum spin Hall insulators. Most interestingly, we find that a slight shift of inversion centre in the unit cell caused by a modification of stacking induces a transition from a trivial insulator to a higher-order topological insulator. Based on this, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results showing that the real three-dimensional material Bi4Br4 is a higher-order topological insulator. Our demonstration that various topological states can be selected by stacking chains differently, combined with the advantages of van der Waals materials, offers a playground for engineering topologically non-trivial edge states towards future spintronics applications.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 406, 2021 Jan 18.*

##### RESUMO

A quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator hosts topological states at the one-dimensional (1D) edge, along which backscattering by nonmagnetic impurities is strictly prohibited. Its 3D analogue, a weak topological insulator (WTI), possesses similar quasi-1D topological states confined at side surfaces. The enhanced confinement could provide a route for dissipationless current and better advantages for applications relative to strong topological insulators (STIs). However, the topological side surface is usually not cleavable and is thus hard to observe. Here, we visualize the topological states of the WTI candidate ZrTe5 by spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES): a quasi-1D band with spin-momentum locking was revealed on the side surface. We further demonstrate that the bulk band gap is controlled by external strain, realizing a more stable WTI state or an ideal Dirac semimetal (DS) state. The highly directional spin-current and the tunable band gap in ZrTe5 will provide an excellent platform for applications.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 176401, 2020 Oct 23.*

##### RESUMO

The electrons in 2D systems with broken inversion symmetry are spin-polarized due to spin-orbit coupling and provide perfect targets for observing exotic spin-related fundamental phenomena. We observe a Fermi surface with a novel spin texture in the 2D metallic system formed by indium double layers on Si(111) and find that the primary origin of the spin-polarized electronic states of this system is the orbital angular momentum and not the so-called Rashba effect. The present results deepen the understanding of the physics arising from spin-orbit coupling in atomic-layered materials with consequences for spintronic devices and the physics of the superconducting state.

*Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5688, 2020 Nov 10.*

##### RESUMO

Iron-chalcogenide superconductors have emerged as a promising Majorana platform for topological quantum computation. By combining topological band and superconductivity in a single material, they provide significant advantage to realize isolated Majorana zero modes. However, iron-chalcogenide superconductors, especially Fe(Te,Se), suffer from strong inhomogeneity which may hamper their practical application. In addition, some iron-pnictide superconductors have been demonstrated to have topological surface states, yet no Majorana zero mode has been observed inside their vortices, raising a question of universality about this new Majorana platform. In this work, through angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurement, we identify Dirac surface states and Majorana zero modes, respectively, for the first time in an iron-pnictide superconductor, CaKFe4As4. More strikingly, the multiple vortex bound states with integer-quantization sequences can be accurately reproduced by our model calculation, firmly establishing Majorana nature of the zero mode.

*Sci Adv ; 6(45)2020 Nov.*

##### RESUMO

The crossover from the superconductivity of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime holds a key to understanding the nature of pairing and condensation of fermions. It has been mainly studied in ultracold atoms, but in solid systems, fundamentally previously unknown insights may be obtained because multiple energy bands and coexisting electronic orders strongly affect spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Here, we provide evidence for the BCS-BEC crossover in iron-based superconductors FeSe1 - x S x from laser-excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The system enters the BEC regime with x = 0.21, where the nematic state that breaks the orbital degeneracy is fully suppressed. The substitution dependence is opposite to the expectation for single-band superconductors, which calls for a new mechanism of BCS-BEC crossover in this system.

*Science ; 369(6505): 833-838, 2020 08 14.*

##### RESUMO

In cuprate superconductors with high critical transition temperature (T c), light hole-doping to the parent compound, which is an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator, has been predicted to lead to the formation of small Fermi pockets. These pockets, however, have not been observed. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of the five-layered Ba2Ca4Cu5O10(F,O)2, which has inner copper oxide (CuO2) planes with extremely low disorder, and find small Fermi pockets centered at (π/2, π/2) of the Brillouin zone by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and quantum oscillation measurements. The d-wave superconducting gap opens along the pocket, revealing the coexistence between superconductivity and antiferromagnetic ordering in the same CuO2 sheet. These data further indicate that superconductivity can occur without contribution from the antinodal region around (π, 0), which is shared by other competing excitations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(23): 236402, 2020 Jun 12.*

##### RESUMO

Interfacing bulk conducting topological Bi_{2}Se_{3} films with s-wave superconductors initiates strong superconducting order in the nontrivial surface states. However, bulk insulating topological (Bi_{1-x}Sb_{x})_{2}Te_{3} films on bulk Nb instead exhibit a giant attenuation of surface superconductivity, even for films only two layers thick. This massive suppression of proximity pairing is evidenced by ultrahigh-resolution band mappings and by contrasting quantified superconducting gaps with those of heavily n-doped topological Bi_{2}Se_{3}/Nb. The results underscore the limitations of using superconducting proximity effects to realize topological superconductivity in nearly intrinsic systems.

*ACS Nano ; 14(7): 9059-9065, 2020 Jul 28.*

##### RESUMO

Chalcogenide phase-change materials show strikingly contrasting optical and electrical properties, which has led to their extensive implementation in various memory devices. By performing spin-, time-, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with the first-principles calculation, we report the experimental results that the crystalline phase of GeSb2Te4 is topologically nontrivial in the vicinity of the Dirac semimetal phase. The resulting linearly dispersive bulk Dirac-like bands that cross the Fermi level and are thus responsible for conductivity in the stable crystalline phase of GeSb2Te4 can be viewed as a 3D analogue of graphene. Our finding provides us with the possibility of realizing inertia-free Dirac currents in phase-change materials.

*ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11981-11987, 2019 Oct 22.*

##### RESUMO

Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a graphene system are very important in terms of optoelectronic devices. Recently, a twisted bilayer graphene has been discovered that possesses interesting electronic properties owing to strong modifications in interlayer couplings. Thus, a better understanding of ultrafast carrier dynamics in a twisted bilayer graphene is highly desired. Here, we reveal the unbalanced electron distributions in a quasicrystalline 30° twisted bilayer graphene (QCTBG), using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the femtosecond time scale. We distinguish time-dependent electronic behavior between the upper- and lower-layer Dirac cones and gain insight into the dynamical properties of replica bands, which show characteristic signatures due to Umklapp scatterings. The experimental results are reproduced by solving a set of rate equations among the graphene layers and substrate. We find that the substrate buffer layer plays a key role in initial carrier injections to the upper and lower layers. Our results demonstrate that QCTBG can be a promising element for future devices.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(12): 126403, 2019 Mar 29.*

##### RESUMO

The symmetry of a surface or interface plays an important role in determining the spin splitting and texture of a two-dimensional band. Spin-polarized bands of a triangular lattice atomic layer (TLAL) consisting of Sn on a SiC(0001) substrate is investigated by spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Surprisingly, both Zeeman- and Rashba-type spin-split bands, without and with spin degeneracy, respectively, coexist at a K point of the Sn TLAL. The K point has a threefold symmetry without inversion symmetry according to the crystal structure including the SiC periodicity, meaning that the Zeeman-type is consistent with the symmetry of the lattice while the Rashba-type is inconsistent. Our density functional calculations reveal that the charge density distribution of the Rashba-type (Zeeman-type) band shows (no) inversion symmetry at the K point. Therefore, the symmetry of the charge density distribution agrees with both types of the spin splitting.