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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1470, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001760

RESUMO

Diabetes is expected to accelerate age-related ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) loss, but there is limited information on the rate of reduction in GC-IPL thicknesses. We aimed to evaluate the reduction rate of GC-IPL thickness in diabetic patients, and to compare the rates between patients without and with diabetic retinopathy (DR). We included 112 eyes of 112 patients with diabetes [49 eyes without DR (no-DR group) and 63 eyes with mild to moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR group)] and 63 eyes of 63 normal controls (control group) in this study. Macular GC-IPL thickness in all participants was measured for 3 years at 1-year intervals. The reduction rates of GC-IPL thickness were determined by linear mixed models and compared among the three groups. The estimated reduction rates of the average GC-IPL thickness in the no-DR (-0.627 µm/year) and NPDR (-0.987 µm/year) groups were 2.26-fold (p = 0.010) and 3.56-fold (p = 0.001) faster, respectively, than the control group (-0.277 µm/year). Age, duration of diabetes, and baseline average GC-IPL thickness were associated with longitudinal changes in average GC-IPL thickness. The GC-IPL reduction rate was significantly faster in diabetic patients, with and without DR. Physicians should therefore be aware that GC-IPL damage continues even if there is no DR.

2.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 189: 110839, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036333

RESUMO

From senescence and frailty that may result from various biological, mechanical, nutritional, and metabolic processes, the human body has its own antioxidant defense enzymes to remove by-products of oxygen metabolism, and if unregulated, can cause several types of cell damage. Herein, an antioxidant, artificial nanoscale enzyme, called nanozyme (NZs), is introduced that is composed of Au nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized with a mixture of two representative phytochemicals, namely, gallic acid (GA) and isoflavone (IF), referred to as GI-Au NZs. Their unique antioxidant and anti-aging effects are monitored using Cell Counting Kit-8 and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase assays on neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs). Furthermore, alterations in epidermal thickness and SOD activity are measured under ultraviolet light to investigate the effects of the topical application of NZs on the histological structure and antioxidant activity in hairless mice skin. Then, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in the hairless mice are monitored. It is concluded that the NZs can effectively prevent serial passage-induced senescence in nHDFs, as well as oxidative stress in mice skin, suggesting a range of strategies to further develop novel therapeutics for acute frailty.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis technique is described, and the results of a 6-year follow-up clinical study using this technique are presented. METHODS: 30 patients with International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Grade III/IVa symptomatic chondral defects of the knee treated with enhanced microdrilling using atelocollagen were prospectively examined in this clinical series. The median age of the patients was 39.0 years (range 19-61 years). Patients were followed up to 72 months. Clinical evaluation was performed using functional knee scores and radiologically. Both quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed. RESULTS: Statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement was observed in 2 years and was sustained for the 6 years of the study observation. At 6 years, the mean Lysholm score was 79.7 (SD 6.8) compared to 52.6 (SD 10.7) pre-operatively (p < 0.05). The symptomatic Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) improved from 68.3 (SD 11.4) to 90.2 (SD 4.3) (p < 0.05). The subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) also showed improvement from 39.1 (SD 4.1) to 81.6 (SD 7.8) (p < 0.05). The calculated T2* relaxation times were 26.0 (SD 4.2) seconds and 30.3 (SD 6.2) seconds for the repair tissue and native cartilage, respectively. The average magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was 78.5 (SD 9.6) for all lesions. CONCLUSION: The enhanced microdrilling using atelocollagen is an enhancement of the traditional microfracture method using an off-the-shelf product. When used to treat moderate to severe chondral lesions, this enhancement produces hyaline-like cartilage with a corresponding improvement in symptoms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

4.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 17, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is among the most lethal human malignancies. Previous studies have identified molecular aberrations that constitute dynamic biological networks and genomic complexities of gastric tumors. However, the clinical translation of molecular-guided targeted therapy is hampered by challenges. Notably, solid tumors often harbor multiple genetic alterations, complicating the development of effective treatments. METHODS: To address such challenges, we established a comprehensive dataset of molecularly annotated patient derivatives coupled with pharmacological profiles for 60 targeted agents to explore dynamic pharmacogenomic interactions in gastric cancers. RESULTS: We identified lineage-specific drug sensitivities based on histopathological and molecular subclassification, including substantial sensitivities toward VEGFR and EGFR inhibition therapies in diffuse- and signet ring-type gastric tumors, respectively. We identified potential therapeutic opportunities for WNT pathway inhibitors in ALK-mutant tumors, a significant association between PIK3CA-E542K mutation and AZD5363 response, and transcriptome expression of RNF11 as a potential predictor of response to gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate the feasibility of drug screening combined with tumor molecular characterization to facilitate personalized therapeutic regimens for gastric tumors.

5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 35, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084264

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare postvitrectomy retinal and choroidal vessel density (VD) and retinal layer thickness between eyes with macula-off and macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to identify OCTA factors associated with visual outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 31 eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy for primary RRD. Eyes with macula-off and macula-on RRD were compared with healthy fellow eyes. Both OCT and OCTA were performed 6 months after surgery, and the macula-off RRD group was divided into two subgroups according to the presence of an outer retinal defect. The correlations between postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 months and SS-OCT and OCTA measurements were analyzed. Results: Twenty eyes with macula-off RRD and 11 eyes with macula-on RRD were included. In the macula-off RRD group, the central retinal thickness was significantly decreased 6 months postoperatively compared with the fellow eyes (228.9 ± 29.7 µm and 253.6 ± 27.7 µm, P = 0.009). In the outer retinal defect group, the choriocapillaris plexus (CCP) VD was significantly decreased compared with the fellow eyes (56.4% ± 4.8% and 60.2% ± 4.0%, P = 0.026). In the macula-off RRD group, the postoperative BCVA at 6 months correlated significantly with the ratio of the center CCP VD of the detached eyes to that of the fellow eyes (R2 = 0.207, P = 0.025). Conclusions: The CCP VD could be related to the anatomical restoration of the outer retinal layer in macula-off RRD. The CCP VD as determined by OCTA could be an indicator of the visual outcome after surgery in macula-off RRD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087970

RESUMO

The RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have multiple roles in human cancer. However, their molecular target and function have not been clearly identified. Our genomic analysis derived from patients reveals that NONO is a potential oncogenic gene in lung cancer. NONO is highly expressed in lung cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, and its expression has been correlated with the prognosis of lung cancer patients. We found that NONO significantly influences cancer cell proliferation in lung cancer. Gene expression profiles with NONO-depleted cells revealed that the sirtuin signaling pathway is highly correlated with NONO. Thus, NONO-silenced cells caused reduction of the TCA cycle and glycolysis metabolism. We identified that NONO regulated NAMPT, which is a well-known gene involved in sirtuin signaling, and NONO has a significant correlation with NAMPT in lung cancer patients. We propose that NONO modulates energy metabolism by direct interaction with NAMPT and suggest that a functional relationship between NONO and NAMPT contributes to lung cancer cell survival. Targeting the axis can be a promising approach for patient treatment in lung cancer.

7.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(3): 316-324, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with metachronous hepatic metastases arising from pancreatic adenocarcinoma who had previously received curative surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2017, percutaneous RFA was performed on 94 metachronous hepatic metastases (median diameter, 1.5 cm) arising from pancreatic cancer in 60 patients (mean age, 60.5 years). Patients were included if they had fewer than five metastases, a maximum tumor diameter of ≤ 5 cm, and disease confined to the liver or stable extrahepatic disease. For comparisons during the same period, we included 66 patients who received chemotherapy only and met the same eligibility criteria described. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in all hepatic metastasis without any procedure-related mortality. During follow-up, local tumor progression of treated lesions was observed in 38.3% of the tumors. Overall median survival and 3-year survival rates were 12 months and 0%, respectively from initial RFA, and 14.7 months and 2.1%, respectively from the first diagnosis of liver metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that a large tumor diameter of > 1.5 cm, a late TNM stage (≥ IIB) before curative surgery, a time from surgery to recurrence of < 1 year, and the presence of extrahepatic metastasis, were all prognostic of reduced overall survival after RFA. Median overall (12 months vs. 9.1 months, p = 0.094) and progression-free survival (5 months vs. 3.3 months, p = 0.068) were higher in the RFA group than in the chemotherapy group with borderline statistical difference. CONCLUSION: RFA is safe and may offer successful local tumor control in patients with metachronous hepatic metastases arising from pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with a small diameter tumor, early TNM stage before curative surgery, late hepatic recurrence, and liver-only metastasis benefit most from RFA treatment. RFA provided better survival outcomes than chemotherapy for this specific group with borderline statistical difference.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the strength of association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of each ancillary feature (AF) in LI-RADS version 2018, and to develop an appropriate strategy for applying AFs to improve the diagnosis of HCC ≤ 3 cm on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. METHODS: A total of 385 nodules (283 HCCs, 18 non-HCC malignancies, 84 benign nodules) of ≤ 3 cm in 266 patients at risk for HCC who underwent gadoxetate-enhanced MRI in 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence/absence of AFs, and assigned a LI-RADS category to each nodule. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of each AF was assessed. To improve the diagnostic performance for HCC, various criteria were developed based on the number of AFs favoring malignancy in general or HCC in particular. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare the diagnostic performance of each criterion with that of the major features (MFs) only. RESULT: All AFs favoring HCC in particular and malignancy in general were more common in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group. Of these AFs, hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity had the strongest association with HCC (DOR, 21.82; 95% confidence interval, 5.59-85.20). When we applied AFs in addition to MFs, the new criterion (with a number of AFs ≥ 4) had significantly higher sensitivity (80.6% vs. 70.0%; p < 0.001) than MFs only, without significant lower specificity (85.3% vs. 90.2%; p = 0.060). CONCLUSIONS: The AFs varied in the strengths of association with HCC. More strict application of AFs (AFs ≥ 4) in LR-3 may improve the diagnostic performance for probable HCC ≤ 3 cm. KEY POINTS: • The ancillary features (AFs) in the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2018 showed variable frequencies of occurrence and strengths of association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Of the various AFs, hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity had the highest frequency and strongest association with HCC on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI. • When applying AFs in addition to major features, a criterion of four or more AFs significantly increased the sensitivity for diagnosing HCC, without a significantly decreased specificity, especially in LR-3 observations.

9.
Ann Coloproctol ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054243

RESUMO

Purpose: Since insertion of foreign body (FB) into the anus is considered as taboo practice, the patients may impose therapeutic dilemma on attending surgeon. Herein, we performed present study to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patient with retained rectal FB in Koreans, and to suggest management guideline for such cases. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 14 patients between January 2006 and December 2018. We assessed demographic features, mechanism of FB insertion, clinical course between diagnosis and management, and outcomes. Results: All patients were male (mean age, 43) presenting with low abdominal pain (n=2), anal bleeding (n=2), and concerning about retained rectal FB without symptom (n=10). FB insertion was most commonly associated with sexual gratification or anal eroticism (n=11, 78.6%). All patients underwent general anesthesia for anal sphincter relaxation except 2 patients who underwent FB removal in the emergency department. FBs were retrieved transanally using clamp (n=2), myoma screw (n=1), clamp application following abdominal wall compression (n=2), and laparotomy followed by rectosigmoid colon milking (n=2). Colotomy and primary repair were performed in 4 patients and Hartmann.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013378

RESUMO

Graphene is one of the most promising materials for photodetectors due to its ability to convert photons into hot carriers within approximately 50 fs and generate long-lived thermalized states with lifetimes longer than 1 ps. In this study, we demonstrate a wide range of vertical photodetectors having a graphene/h-BN/Au heterostructure in which an hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) insulating layer is inserted between an Au electrode and graphene photoabsorber. The photocarriers effectively tunnel through the small hole barrier (1.93 eV) at the Au/h-BN junction while the dark carriers are highly suppressed by a large electron barrier (2.27 eV) at the graphene/h-BN junction. Thus, an extremely low dark current of ∼10-13 A is achieved, which is 8 orders of magnitude lower than that of graphene lateral photodetector devices (∼10-5 A). Also, our device displays an asymmetric photoresponse behavior due to photothermionic emission at the graphene/h-BN and Au/h-BN junctions. The asymmetric behavior generates additional thermal carriers (hot carriers) to enable our device to generate photocurrents that can overcome the Schottky barrier. Furthermore, our device shows the highest value of the Iph/Idark ratio of ∼225 at 7 nm thick h-BN insulating layer, which is 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the previously reported graphene lateral photodetectors without any active materials. In addition, we achieve a fast response speed of 12 µs of rise time and 5 µs of fall time, which are about 100 times faster than those of other graphene integrated photodetectors.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1024, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974422

RESUMO

The localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at the surface of metal nanostructures can induce a highly intense electromagnetic (EM) field, which is confined to the edges with big curvature or at narrow gaps between nanostructures. Therefore, the localisation of target molecules at these sites is crucial to achieve high sensitivity in LSPR-based biosensors. To this end, we fabricated a 40 nm high gold nano-truncated cone (GNTC) array using thermal nanoimprint lithography. As the EM field is most intense at the side surface and relatively weak at the top surface of GNTC, we improved the detection sensitivity by blocking the top surface with oxides to limit adsorption of antibodies and antigens to the top surface. We observed the difference in sensitivity by detecting α-fetoprotein (AFP) on the oxide-capped and uncapped GNTC arrays through sandwich immunoassay and enzymatic precipitation. The capped GNTC array exhibited higher detection sensitivity than the uncapped one. Particularly, six-fold enhancement of sensitivity was achieved in the serum sample. We used atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy to validate that the deposition of the oxides on the top surface of GNTC effectively blocked the adsorption of the biomolecules and the target molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the side surfaces.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 443, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949259

RESUMO

Herein, we describe the synthesis of highly water-dispersible and biocompatible 3D adsorbents via a rapid two-step strategy employing a mesoporous magnetic nanomulberry-shaped Fe3O4 (MNM) on diatomaceous earth (DE) and cucurbituril (CB; MNM-DE-CB). Coating of CB on the surface of MNM-DE via hydrogen bonds not only enhanced the dispersibility of CB, but also improved the stability of MNM-DE. The ability of the adsorbent to remove dyes from water was investigated as a function of metal ions, solution pH, temperature, and concentration to determine optimum reaction conditions. Unlike MNM-DE, MNM-DE-CB exhibited highly efficient, rapid dye removal and recyclability in aqueous solution, and low cytotoxicity toward cancer cells in drug delivery tests. MNM-DE-CB is a promising green adsorbent with potential for diverse applications including water remediation, interface catalysis, bio-sample preparation, and drug delivery.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1867-1877, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934752

RESUMO

This study reports distillation-based salt removal by Ohmic heating in a hybrid process, in which electrochemical oxidation (EO) and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) are performed sequentially. In addition to anodically destructing the organics, the hybrid process also separated the sulfate-based electrolytes from treated water through distillation, without consuming external energy, owing to the temperature of the aqueous sulfate solution being elevated to 70 °C via resistive heating. The hybrid process treated organic compounds in a nonselective fashion, whereas DCMD alone did not completely reject (semi)volatile organics. Integrating EO with DCMD made the hybrid process resistant toward the wetting phenomenon; the process exhibited a steady distillate flux and salt rejection as the initial loading of amphiphilic sodium dodecyl sulfate was increased to 0.3 mM. Anodic persulfate formation from the sulfate and Ohmic heating caused an in situ yield of the sulfate radical in the feed solution; this eliminated membrane fouling, according to the observation that the water flux, which was drastically reduced upon adding alginate, was recovered immediately after an electric current was applied. The hybrid process concurrently decomposed spiked organics and removed naturally present inorganic ions in actual flue gas desulfurization wastewater, without an external supply of electrolyte and heat energy.

14.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941411

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have investigated the predictors for home discharge without considering stroke severity.Objectives: To develop a practical assessment tool that predicts home discharge for moderate stroke patients after subacute rehabilitation therapy in the tertiary hospitals.Methods: Stroke patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of 6 to 13 were included in this prospective cohort study. Various demographic, clinical, and functional factors were analyzed as potential predictive factors. A weighted scoring model was developed through the following three-step process: 1) selection of the factors by logistic regression analyses, 2) development of a weighted scoring model, and 3) validation of the generalizability of the model.Results: The home discharge rate was 51% (n = 372), and the overall mean length of stay of hospitalization was 32.5 days. 1) The Cognitive Functional Independence Measure, 2) the Functional Ambulation Categories, 3) the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, and 4) marital status were independent predictors of home discharge. The coefficient value for marital status was adjusted to 1 in the scoring system, and the values of the other parameters were proportionally converted to the nearest integer. Possible total scores ranged from 0 to 13 in the model, with a higher score indicating a higher probability of home discharge. With a cutoff point of 7, this model showed 87.0% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity (area under the curve = 0.90).Conclusions: This novel assessment tool can be useful in predicting home discharge after subacute rehabilitation of moderate stroke patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternal attachment to promote role development in mothers of preterm infants is critical for babies' optimal growth and development. However, few models specify how neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and their environments work to foster postpartum attachment (PPA) after preterm birth. We investigated relationships of quality of family-centered care and NICU environmental stressors with maternal PPA, to determine whether these are mediated by mothers' psycho-emotional response and whether pathways to PPA are moderated by developmental immaturity (gestation, birthweight). METHODS: A cross-sectional study using structural equation modeling was conducted on 294 mothers of premature infants with experience in NICUs in over 49 tertiary hospitals in 12 cities or provinces of South Korea. Data were collected using Korean versions of instruments including the Quality of Family-centered Care, Parental Stressor Scale: NICU, and Maternal Postpartum Attachment Scale. RESULTS: Maternal self-representation was a key predictor of PPA (ß = .68), accounting for 42.2% of variance. Multi-group analysis indicated that NICU environmental stressor sensitivity (ß = .26) and maternal self-representation (ß = .67) were predictive of PPA in mothers of moderately preterm and low birthweight (32-36 weeks' gestation, 1500-2499 g birthweight) infants. Quality of family-centered developmental care (ß = .11) and NICU environmental stressor sensitivity (ß = - .16) had significant indirect effects on PPA through psycho-emotional responses. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Healthcare professionals should be aware of the importance of family-centered interventions focusing on psychosocial support and family participation in baby care, based on their environmental role in promoting PPA.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995563

RESUMO

Assessment of functional independence and residual disability is very important for measuring treatment outcome after stroke. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the modified Barthel Index (MBI) are commonly used scales to measure disability or dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) of stroke survivors. Lack of consensus regarding MBI score categories has caused confusion in interpreting stroke outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal corresponding MBI and modified Rankin scale (mRS) grades for categorization of MBI. The Korean versions of the MBI (K-MBI) and mRS were collected from 5,759 stroke patients at 3 months after onset of stroke. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated at K-MBI score cutoffs for each mRS grade to obtain optimally corresponding K-MBI scores and mRS grades. We also plotted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of sensitivity and specificity and determined the area under the curve (AUC). The K-MBI cutoff points with the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity were 100 (sensitivity 0.940; specificity 0.612), 98 (sensitivity 0.904; specificity 0.838), 94 (sensitivity 0.885; specificity 0.937), 78 (sensitivity 0.946; specificity, 0.973), and 55 (sensitivity 937; specificity 0.986) for mRS grades 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. From this result, the K-MBI cutoff score range for each mRS grade can be obtained. For mRS grade 0, the K-MBI cutoff score is 100, indicating no associated score range. For mRS grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, the K-MBI score ranges is from 99 to 98, 97 to 94, 93 to 78, 77 to 55, and under 54, respectively.The AUC for the ROC curve was 0.791 for mRS grade 0, 0.919 for mRS grade 1, 0.970 for mRS grade 2, 0.0 for mRS grade 3, and 0.991 for mRS grade 4. The K-MBI cutoff score ranges for representing mRS grades were variable; mRS grades 0, 1, and 2 had narrow K-MBI score ranges, while mRS grades 3, 4, and 5 exhibited broad K-MBI score ranges. mRS grade seemed to sensitively differentiate mild residual disability of stroke survivors, whereas K-MBI provided more specific information of the functional status of stroke survivors with moderate to severe residual impairment.

17.
J Clin Densitom ; 23(1): 53-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the performance of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in evaluating bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and scoliosis. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-nine participants (mean age 19.72 ± 6.13 years) underwent whole spine radiography, DXA before and after traction, and QCT alone without traction. Scoliosis and vertebral rotation angles obtained before and after traction were compared, and BMD values from DXA were compared to those obtained via QCT. The scoliosis angle, presented as Cobb's angle of L1-L4, was measured. RESULTS: Cobb's angle significantly decreased from 30.38° ± 24.83° before traction to 22.78° ± 20.41° after traction (p < 0.0001) and the Z-score decreased from -1.88 ± 1.59 to -2.86 ± 2.16 (p < 0.0001). Changes in rotation angle, BMD, and bone mineral content were not significant. Post-traction BMD values and Z-scores showed a higher correlation with QCT measurements than pretraction. Moreover, pre and post-traction Z-scores (≤-1.1 and -1.36, respectively) were more accurate in identifying patients with osteoporosis according to QCT scans compared with the preexisting Z-score of -2 or less. CONCLUSION: Lumbar BMD measured via DXA and scoliosis allowed a more accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis when traction was applied.

18.
Stroke ; 51(1): 99-107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822247

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The theory of cognitive reserve (CR) was introduced to account for individual differences in the clinical manifestation of neuropathology. This study investigated whether CR has a modulating effect on cognitive impairment and recovery after stroke. Methods- This study is an interim analysis of the Korean Stroke Cohort for Functioning and Rehabilitation. A total of 7459 patients with first-ever stroke were included for analysis. Education, occupation, and composite CR scores derived from those 2 variables were used as CR proxies. Scores from the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination analyzed for 30 months after stroke onset were analyzed. Results- Lower CR increased the risk of cognitive impairment after stroke. The odds ratio was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.64-2.19) in patients with secondary education and 2.42 (95% CI, 2.03-2.90) in patients with primary education compared with patients with higher education. The odds ratio was 1.48 (95% CI, 1.23-1.98) in patients with a skilled manual occupation and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.42-2.83) in patients with a nonskilled manual occupation compared with patients with a managerial or professional occupation. In the multilevel model analysis, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination total score increased during the first 3 months (1.93 points per month) and then plateaued (0.02 point per month). The slopes were moderated by the level of education, occupation, and composite CR score: the higher the level of education, occupation, or CR score, the faster the recovery. In the older adult group, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed a long-term decline that was moderated by education level. Conclusions- Education and occupation can buffer an individual against cognitive impairment caused by stroke and promote rapid cognitive recovery early after stroke. In addition, higher education minimizes long-term cognitive decline after stroke, especially in older patients. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03402451.

19.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823600

RESUMO

In this study, we describe a simple and rapid antibacterial susceptibility testing (AST) method for Staphylococcus aureus called S. aureus specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe-based AST (SF-AST), which is based on an S. aureus specific FRET probe (SF probe) that detects micrococcal nuclease (MNase) activity secreted from S. aureus. The SF-AST was tested with an S. aureus quality control (QC) strain against six relevant antibiotics, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained with the broth microdilution (BMD) method were compared, as a gold standard AST. Results were obtained with high accuracy in 4-6 h. The MIC for the methicillin resistance using 20 clinical S. aureus isolates of SF-AST showed 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, as compared to BMD. Thus, the SF-AST method is a simple, rapid, and useful antibiotic resistance test for S. aureus, and it provides a basis for clinical treatment in a short time.

20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 150: 111885, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759762

RESUMO

Solid-phase, single-step biosensors are crucial for the development of portable, reusable, and convenient biosensors, otherwise known as point-of-care (POC) testing. Although high-performance single-step biosensors based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) functionalized with aptamers have been suggested as easy-to-use platforms, they lack portability and reusability when used for solution-phase biosensing. In this study, we describe a solid-phase, single-step aptasensor that showed higher performance than those of solution-phase aptasensors, as well as promising reusability. The solid-phase, single-step aptasensor was developed based on Au nanocap-supported UCNPs (Au/UCNPs), which were partially embedded in a solid substrate (e.g. polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS). The Au nanocaps allowed the UCNPs to emit upconverted light only from the restricted areas of the UCNPs, i.e., where they were not covered by the nanocaps and PDMS. Functionalization of an aptamer labeled with a quencher on the restricted area enabled the effective quenching of upconverted light from Au/UCNP via FRET after target (ochratoxin A, OTA) detection. The solid-phase, single-step aptasensor showed a linear range of 0.1-1000 ng mL-1 and limit of detection of 0.022 ng mL-1 within 30 min toward OTA. Furthermore, reusability of the solid-phase aptasensor was evaluated for three cycles of detection and regeneration, establishing its apparent reusability via heat treatment. Hence, such solid-phase, single-step aptasensors pave the path to the development of a portable and reusable biosensor platform for POC testing.

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